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Full text of "Sessional Papers 14 to 16 B, 1892"

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aOCUMENTS OFFICES 

OOVERKMENT PUBLICATIONS 

^^^liversity of Ottawa 



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55 Victoria. 



Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers. 



A. 1892 



p 

Pontiac County (n.p.) 76 

Pork and Hog Products (n.p. ) 53 

Postmaster General, Annual Report 12 

Prince County, P.E.I (n.p.) 57 

Printing and Engraving (n.p. ) 69 

Prohibition Petitions . 58 

Property near Government Railways . . . . (n. p. ) 616 

Public Accounts, Annual Report ... 2 

Public Officers' Commissions 31 

Public Printing and Stationery IQd 

Public Works, Annual Report 8 

Public Works, Expenditure on 65 

Quebec, Boundaries of . , 71 

Quebec Superior Court Judges (n.p.) 87 

Quebec Tonnage Dues (n.p.) 60 

Quinn, Michael (n.p.) 61e 

R 

Railway Committee of Privy Council . . (n.p. ) 80, 80a 

Railways and Canals, Annual Report 9 

Railway Statistics 9b 

Receipts and Payments (n.p.) 26 to 26h 

Receipts in Unorganized Territories. . .(n.p.) 30 

Restigouche River, Fishing on (n.p.) 23a 

Rock-slide at Quebec (n.p.) 94 

Royal Commission, Civil Service 16c, 79 

Royal Commissions 84, 84a 

Sawdust in Rivers (n.p. ) 35 

Secretary of State, Annual Report 16 

Senate Hansard (n.p.) 85 

Shareholders in Banks 3 

Shipments from Canada (n.p. ) 54 



Sick Mariners' Dues (n-P-) 78 

Sorel Bridge (n.p. ) 63a 

Soulanges Canal . . . (n.p.) 47a, 476 

Speaker's Warrants (n.p. ) 25, 25a 

Spruce and White Pine (n.p.) 102 

Standard of Time . . (n.p. ) 90 

St. Cesaire Postmaster (n.p. ) 64 

Steamboat Inspection 10a 

Superannuations, Civil Service ...... . . 27 

Supplementary Estimates 2 

Supreme Court 56 

T 

Temperance Colonization Co , . . .(n.p.) 45, 95 

Time, Standard of (n.p. ) 90 

Trade and Navigation, Annual Report 5 

Treaties of Commerce. 24, 24a 

Trent Valley Canal 47 

Truro, Accident at (n.p. ) 61a 

Tunnel between P.E.I, and Mainland . . (n. p. ) 66 
Tunnel between P.E.I, and Mainland 66ia 

U 

Unforeseen Expenses 22 

United States Fishing Vessels. 23c 

W 

Waldron Ranche Co (n.p. ) 104 

Warrants, Governor General's 20 

Warrants, Governor General's (n.p.) 20a 

Warrants, Speal>:er's (n.p.) 25, 25a 

Washington Conference 37 

Weights, Measures and Gas 6a 

Welland Election (n.p.) 42 

White Pine and Spruce (n.p.) 102 

Wood, A. F (n.p.) 29 






If 



55 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1892 

See also Alphabetical Index, page 1. 

LIST OF SESSIONAL PAPERS 

Arranged in Numerical Order ^ loith their Titles at full length ; the Dates when 
Ordered and lohen Presented to both Houses of Parliament ; the Name of 
the Member who moved for each Sessional Paper, and lohether it is Ordered 
to be Printed or Not Printed, 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 1. 

1. Report of the Auditor General on Appropriation Accounts for the year ended 30th June, 1891. Pre- 
sented 15th March, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster— 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 2. 

3. Public Accounts of Canada for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 1891. Presented 1st March, 1892, by 
Hon. G. E. Foster. 2a. Estimates for the year ending 30th June, 1893 ; presented 14th March, 
1892. 2b. Supplementary Estimates for the year ending 30th June, 1892 ; presented 31st March, 
1892. 2c. Supplementary Estimates for the year ending 30th June, 1893 ; presented 27th June, 
1892 Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

3. List of Shareholders in the Chartered Banks of Canada as on the 31st December, 1891 ; presented 22nd 

March, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 3. 

3a. Report of dividends remaining unpaid and amounts, or balances, in respect to which no transactions 
' have taken place, or upon which no interest has been paid for five years or upwards, prior to 31st 

December, 1891, in chartered banks of Canada. Presented 12th May, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

4. Report of the Superintendent of Insurance for the year ending 31st December, 1891. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

4o. Preliminary abstract of the business of Canadian Life Insurance Companies for the year ending 31st 
December, 1891. Presented 1st March, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

46. Abstract of statements of Insurance Companies in Canada for the year ending 31st December, 1891. 
Presented 10th May, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

♦CONTENTS OF VOLUME 4. 

5. Tables of the Trade ail^^avigation of Canada for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 1891, compiled from 

official returns. Presented 1st March, 1892, by Hon. M. Bowell. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

6. Report, Returns and Statistics of the Inland Revenues of Canada, for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 

1891 ; Part I, Excise, etc. Presented 31st March, 1892, by Hon. J. Costigan. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

4 



55 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1892 



VOLUME A— Continued. 

<5a. Inspection of Weights, Measures and Gas, being a supplement to the Report of the Department of 
Inland Revenue, 1891 Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

^b. Report on Adulteration of Food, for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 1891. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

COl^TEFTS OF VOLUME 5. 

'V. ReiDort of the Minister of Agriculture of Canada, for the calendar year 1891. Presented 6th April, 
1892, by Hon. J. Carling. Appendices to the Report of the Minister of Agriculture of Canada, 
for the year 1891. Presented 20th June, 1892, by Hon. J. Carling. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

7a. Report on Canadian Archives, 1891. Presented 8th April, 1892, by Hon. J. Carling. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

7b. Report of the High Commissioner of Canada, with Reports from Agents in the United Kingdom, for 
the year 1891. Presented 6th April, 1892, by Hon. J. Carling. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

7b.^' Supplementary Report of the High Commissioner of Canada. Presented 29th March, 1892, by Hon. 
G. E, Foster . . .Printed for sessional papers only. 

7c. Report on the production and manufacture of Beet Sugar by William Saunders, Director Dominion 
Experimental Farms. Presented 4th March, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 6. 

7d. Mortuary Statistics of the principal cities and towns of Canada, for the year 1891. Presented 30th 
May, 1892, by Hon. J. Carling Printed for both distribution and sessioncd papers. 

7e. Criminal Statistics for the year 1891 Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

7f. Reports of the Director and Officers of the Experimental Farms for the year 1891. Presented 5th 

•July, 1892, by Hon. J. Carling Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

7g. Second Annual Report of the Dairy Commissioner of Canada, for 1891. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 7. 

8. Annual Report of the Department of Public Works of Canada, for the fiscal year 1890-91. Presented 
21st April, 1892, by Hon. J. A. Ouimet Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

O. Annual Report of the Minister of Raihvays and Canals, for the past fiscal year, from the 1st July, 

1890, to the 30th June, 1891. Presented 6th April, 1892, by Hon. J. Haggart. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 8. 

9a. Canal Statistics for Season of Navigation, 1891 Printed for both distribution and sessional paper 

96. Railway Statistics, and Capital, Traffic and Working Expenditure of the Railways of Canada, for 

1891. Presented 30th June, 1892, by Hon. J. Haggart. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

Oc. Annual Report of the Canals Revenue Branch for 1891. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

10. Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Department of Marine, for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 
1891. Presented 1st April, 189L', by Hon. C. H. Tupper. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

lOa. Report of the Chairman of the Board of Steamboat Inspection, etc., for calendar year ended 31st 
December, 1891 . Printed for both distribution and sessional papers 

5 



55 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1892 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 9. 

11. Annual Report of the Deimrtment of Fisheries, for the year 1891. Presented 2nd June, 1892, by 
Hon. C. H. Tupper. Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

11a. Fisheries Statements and Inspectors' Reports for the year 1891. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

158. Report of the Postmaster General of Canada, for the year ended 30th June, 1891. Presented 13th 
April, 1892, by Sir A. P. Caron Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

13. Annual Report of the Department of the Interior, for the year 1891. Presented 2nd June, 1892, by 

Hon. E. Dewdney Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

13a. Summary Report of the Geological Survey Department, for the year 1891. Presented 5th May, 1892, 
by Hon. E. Dewdney .... Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 10. 

14. Annual Report of the Department of Indian Affairs for the year ended 31st December, 1891. Pre- 

sented 9th March, 1892, by Hon. E. Dewdney . . . Printed for both distribution and sessional papers- 

15. Report of the Commissioner of the North- West Mounted Police, 1891. Presented 28th June, 1892, by 

Hon. E. Dewdney Printed for both distribution and sessional papers- 

IG. Rei^ort of the Secretary of State of Canada for the year ended 31st December, 1891. Presented 9th 
July, 1892, by Hon. J. C. Patterson Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

16a. The Civil Service List of Canada, 1891. Presented 9th July, 1892, by Hon. J. C. Patterson. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

166. Report of the Board of Civil Service Examiners for the year ended 31st December, 1891. Presented 
1st June, 1892, by Hon. J. C. Patterson Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 11. 

16c. Report of the Royal Commission appointed to investigate the working of the Civil Service Act, and 
other matters connected with the Civil Service generally. Presented 20th May, 1892, by Sir John. 
Thompson Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

16d. Annual Report of the Department of Public Printing and Stationery of Canada, for the year ending 
30th June, 1891. Presented 15th June, 1892, by Hon. J. C. Patterson. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

17. Report of the Joint Librarians of Parliament for the session of 1892, on the state of the Library of 

Parliament. Presented 25th February, 1892, by Hon. Mr. Speaker— 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME 12. 

18. Report of the Minister of Justice as to Penitentiaries in Canada for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

Presented 23rd March, 1892, by Sir John Thompson. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

19. Annual Report of the Department of Militia and Defence of Canada, 31st December, 1891. Pre- 

sented 7th April, 1892, by Hon. M. Bowell Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

"ZO. Statement of Governor General's Warrants issued since the closing of parliament and of the expen- 
diture made on them, in accordance with the Consolidated Revenue and Audit Act. Presented 
29th February, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster Printed for distribution only. 

aOa. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 8th 
March, 1892, for copies of all rei:)orts of ministers of the crown upon which any Governor General's 
warrants have been issued during the recent recess of parliament, and of the orders in coiincil 
authorizing such issue. Presented 7th April, 1892. — Mr. Mulock Not printed. 

ill. Report of the Commissioner, Dominion Police, for the year 1891, under Revised Statutes of Canada, 
chapter 184, section 5. Presented 29th February, 1892, by Sir John Thompson If ot printed. 

6 



55 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1892 



VOLUME \2— Continued. 

22. Statement of expenditure under vote for miscellaneous unforeseen expenses, from July, 1891, to date. 
Presented 1st March, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster Printed for distribution only. 

33, Statement in reference to fishing bounty payments for 1890-91, required by chapter 96 of the Revised 
Statutes of Canada. Presented 1st March, by Hon. C. H. Tupper. . Printed for sessional papers only. 

)i3«. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 3rd August, 1891, for a return of the names of 
proprietors to whom licenses have been granted for salmon net fishing on the Restigouche River, 
in the county of Bonaventure, for 1890 and 1891. Presented 3rd March, 1892 — Mr. Fauvd. 

Not printed. 

336. Draft of proposed regulations for the lobster fishery. Presented 17th March, 1892, by Hon. C. H. 
Tupper Printed for distribution only. 

33c. Copies of papers relating to the mutual recognition by Canada and Newfoundland of licenses issued 
to United States fishing vessels, under the modus vivendi, and the division of the fees collected by 
the same. Presented 18th March, 1892, by Hon. C H. Tupper.. .Printed for sessional papers only. 

33cZ. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 14th March, 1892, for a return showing the 
quantity, value and kinds of fish, fish oil and fish products imported into Canada from Newfound- 
land, each year, for past five years ; also amount of duty thereon which would have been paid if 
the duties levied upon similar imports from other countries had been levied. Presented 22nd 
March, 1892.— ilfr. White (Shelburne) Printed for sessional papers only. 

23e. Further papers respecting the fisheries on the Atlantic coast, including the separate arrangement 
proposed to be entered into by Newfoundland with the United States, and also the enforcement 
by the government of Newfoundland against Canadian vessels of the Newfoundland Bait Act. 
Presented 30th March, 1892, by Hon. C. H. Tupper Printed for sessional papers only. 

33/. Additional papers respecting the fisheries on the Atlantic coast, including the separate arrangement 
proposed to be entered into by Newfoundland with the United States, and also the enforcement 
by the government of Newfoundland against Canadian vessels of the Newfoundland Bait Act. 
Presented 7th April, 1892, by Hon. C. H. Tnpper. Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

33r/. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 6th April, 1892, for a copy of all correspond- 
ence between F. Charlebois, of Byng Inlet, North (Ontario), and the fisheries department concern- 
ing the payment of a claim for service performed by the said Charlebois for the said department. 
Presented 21st April, 1892— i)/r. Laurier Not printed. 

33/i,. Further papers respecting the enforcement against Canadian fishing vessels by the government of 
Newfoundland of the Newfoundland Act respecting the sale of bait to foreign fishing vessels. 
Presented 11th May, 1892, by Sir John Thompson Printed for sessional papers only. 

33 i. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 14th March, 1892, for a return showing the 
number of Newfoundland vessels and men therein, and number of fixed fishing establishments 
owned by Newfoundlanders, with number of employees engaged last year in fishing, in whole or 
in part, within the waters adjacent to Canadian Labrador and Magdalen Islands. Presented 12th 
May, 1892. — Mr. White (Shelburne J Printed for sessional papers only. 

33y. Further papers respecting the enforcement by the Newfoundland authorities against Canadian 
fishing vessels of the Newfoundland Act respecting the sale of bait to foreign vessels. Presented 
20th May, 1892, by Sir John Thompson Printed for sessional papers only. 

34. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 21st 
April, 1890, for copies of any and all communications that may have passed between the imperial and 
dominion governments with reference to the abrogation of such articles in the various treaties of 
commerce between her majesty's government and the government of foreign nations as preclude 
preferential fiscal treatment of goods of British and colonial production by the government of the 
dominion. Presented 7th March, 1892. — Mr. Laurie. 

PrirUed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

34a. Copy of a despatch from the right honourable the secretary of state for the colonies in reply to an 
address to her majesty praying that her majesty would take such steps as might be necessary to 
denounce and terminatethe provisions contained in the most-favoured nation clauses of the treaties 
with the German zollverein and the kingdom of Belgium. Presented 22nd April, 1892, by Hon. 
G. E. Foster Printed for sessional papers only. 

7 



65 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1892 



VOLUME 12— Continued. 

J85. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 3rd March, 1892, showing the date of the 
Speaker's warrant, the date of the writ, and the date of the appointment of a returning officer, in 
the case of election of members to the House of Commons, since the close of last session ; also a 
statement of the causes of delay in reference to any of these matters where delays have taken place. 
Presented 7th March, 1892.— Mr. 3ims (Bothxoell) Not printed. 

d5a. Supplementary return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 3rd March, 1892, for a return 
showing the date of the Speaker's warrant, the date of the writ, and the date of the appointment 
of a returning officer, in the case of election of members to the House of Commons, since the close 
of last session ; also a statement of the causes of delay in reference to any of these matters where 
.delays have taken place. Presented 3rd June, 1892. —Mr. Mills (Bothwell) Not printed. 

36. Ten days' statement of the receipts and payments of Canada, from the 11th to the 20th February, and 

from the 21st to the 29th February, 1892, and the corresponding periods of 1891. Presented 7th 
March, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster Not printed. 

36a. Ten days' statement of the receipts and payments of Canada, from the 1st to the 10th March instant, 
and the corresponding period of 1891. Presented 15th March, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster. 

Not printed. 

366, Ten days' statement of the receipts and payments of Canada, from the 11th to the 20th of March, 
instant, and the corresponding period of 1891. Presented 23rd March, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster. 

Not printed. 

36c. Ten days' statement of the receipts and payments of Canada, from the 11th to the 20th of April, 
instant, and the corresponding period of 1891. Presented 22nd April, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster. 

Not printed. 

36c?. Ten days' statement of the receipts and payments of Canada, from the 21st to the 30th of April, ultimo, 
and the correspondhig period of 1891. Presented 4th May, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster. 

Not printed. 

36g. Ten days' statement of the receipts and payments of Canada, from the 11th to the 20th May, mstant, 
and the corresponding period of 1891. Presented 30th May, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster. 

Not printed. 

36/. Ten days' statement of the receipts and payments of Canada, from the 21st to the 31st May last, and 
the corresponding period of 1891. Presented 3rd June, 1892, by Sir John Thompson. — 

Not printed. 

36{/. Ten days' statement of the receipts and payments of Canada, from the 1st to the 10th June, instant, 
and the corresponding period of 1891. Presented 27th June, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster.— 

Not printed. 

36/i. Ten days' statement of the receipts and payments of Canada, from the 21st to 31st June last, and the 
corresponding period of 1891. Presented 9th July, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster. Not printed. 

37. Statement of all superannuations and retiring allowances in the civil service, gi\ ing the name and 

rank of each person superannuated or retired, his salary, age and length of service, his allowance 
and cause of retirement, whether vacancy has been filled by promotion or new appointment, etc., 
for year ended 31st December, 1891. Presented 7th March, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster.- 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

38. Statement of the affairs of the British Canadian Loan and Investment Company, as on the 31st 

December, 1891. Presented 9th July, 1892, by Hon. Mr. Speaker Not printed. 

39. Return to an address of the Senate to his excellency the Governor General, dated 4th August, 1 891, for 

a statement in detail of the amount of money paid to A. F. Wood, Esq., for services, etc., as com- 
missioner for canals and railways in different places in 1890. Presented 4th March, 1892. — Hon. 
Mr. Flint Not printed . 

30. Return to an address of the Senate to his excellency the Governor General, dated 5th June, 1891, for 
a statement of all receipts in the unorganized territories of Keewatin and the Mackenzie River 
Basin on account of revenue under the Customs Act or otherwise, for the last three years, and of 
the expenditure for public purposes during the same period. Presented 4th March, 1892. — Hon\ 

Mr. Girard Not printed. 

8 



55 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1892 



VOLUME 12— Continued. 

31. List of public officers to whom commissions have issued under chapter 19 of the Revised Statutes of 
Canada, during the past year, 1891. Presented 10th INIarch, 1892, by Sir John Thompson.— 

Printed in No. 16. 

35$. Detailed statement of all bonds and securities registered in the department of the secretary of state of 
Canada, since last return, 1891, submitted to the parliament of Canada under section 23, chapter 
19, of the Revised Statutes of Canada. Presented 10th March, 1892, by Sir John Thompson. 

Not printed. 

33. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 1st July, 1891, for a return giving : 1. The num- 

ber of Chinese immigrants that have entered Canada since the date of the last return ordered by 
the House, specifying : (a). The ports at which said Chinese immigrants were entered ; (6). The 
amount of duty or head-money collected ; (c). The number that entered by virtue of return certi- 
ficates ; {d). The number of return certificates issued during the same period, and the number of 
Chinese that during the same period passed through Canada in bond to destinations out of Canada. 

2. The number that entered Canada as belonging to the diplomatic or consular service of China. 

3. The number of Chinese that entered Canada during the same period, either as tourists, men of 
science, students or merchants. 4. Copies of all correspondence, if any, between the imperial 
government and this government, or between this government and the government of China, if 
any, or between the government of British Columbia and this government, or with any labour 
organization, or with any company, corporation or person, having reference to the Chinese Restric- 
tion Act or suggesting amendments to the same. Presented 10th March, 1892. — Mr. Gordon. 

Not printed. 

34. Return under resolution of the 20th February, 1882, in so far as the same is furnished by the depart- 

ment of interior, respecting the Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Presen ted 11th March, 1892, 
by Hon. E. Dewdney Printed for sessional pa pers only 

34a. List of lands sold by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company from the 1st October, 1890, to the 1st 
October, 1891. Presented 6th April, 1892, by Hon. J. Haggart Not printed. 

35. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 13th July, 1891, for a return of all letters, cor- 

respondence, petitions and papers, not otherwise brought down, between all persons in the depart- 
ment of marine and fisheries relating to sawdust in the LaHave River, Lunenburg County, N.S., 
with the object of having the river relieved from the operation of the said act. Also a list of rivers 
and streams exempted from the operations of the act, and a return of all letters, correspondence, 
petitions and papers between all persons and the department of marine and fisheries relating to 
such exemi^bions. Presented 14bh March, 1892. — Mr. Kaulbach and Mr. Flint Not printed. 

36. Return of orders in council relating to the department of the interior, in accordance with sub-clause 

(o?) of section 38 of the Regulations for the Svirvey, Administration, Disposal and Management of 
Dominion Lands, within the 40 mile Railway Belt, in the province of British Columbia. Presented 
15th March, 1892, by Hon. E. Dewdney Printed for sessional papers only. 

36a. Return of orders in council relating to the department of the interior, in accordance with clause 91 
of the Dominion Lands Act, chapter 54, Revised Statutes of Canada. Presented 15th March, 
1892, by Hon. E. Dewdney Printed for sessional papers only. 

37. Copies of documents relating to the negotiations at the conference recently held at Washington, 

between the delegates from the Canadian government and the secretary of state of the United 
States, respecting the extension and development of trade between the United States and Canada, 
and other matters. Presented 16th March, 1892, by Sir John Thompson. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

38. Statements of the quantity of pig iron manufactured in Canada, upon which bounties are claimed, 

the names of claimants and the amount paid in each case. Presented 16th March, 1892, by Hon. 
M. Bowell Printed for sessional papers only. 

39. Return to an address of the Senate to his excellency the Governor General, dated 3rd March, 1892, 

praying that his excellency will cause to be laid befor this House, a copy of the resignation, by the 
Honourable John Carling, Minister of Agriculture, of the seat in the Senate occupied by him at 
close. of the last session of parliainent. Presented 17th March, 1892.— Hon. Mr. Power.- 

Not printed. 

9 



55 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1892 



VOLUME 12— Continued. 

40. Return to an order of >he House of Commons, dated 5th May, 1891, for copy of all correspondence 

between the g-oveijnment or the postmaster general's department with Mr. Andrew Allan or any 
other parties, for the conveyance of the mails between Canada and the United Kingdom. Pre- 
sented 18th March, 1892.— 3/r. Mills [Bothivell) , Not printed. 

41. Return (in part) to an order of the House of Commons, dated 14th Mar- h, 1892, for copies of all the 

original lists and papers, including' all declarations, notices of appeal, objections to preliminary 
lists, and relating to all other proceedings, now in the possession of the revising barrister or the 
clerk of the crown in chancery, in any way affecting the voters' lists for the electoral division of 
the county of Lennox as settled by the revision of 1891, together with a certified copy of the 
revised voters' list of 1891 furnished by the revising barrister to the returning officer. Presented 
21st March, 1892.— il/r. Wilson [Lennox) Not printed. 

41rt. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General of the 21st 
March, 1892, for : 1. Copies of the judgment given by the revising officer on objections taken to 
the names of Lewis Allin, S. F. Glass and James P. Moore and 226 others on the voters' list of 
the city of London, province of Ontario, and which 229 names were subsequently struck off the said 
voters' list, by the revising officer, on the hearing of the objections, but which were nevertheless 
printed on the said voters' list is the subject of an appeal, together with copies of the notices of 
objection to such names and copies of the evidence taken before and decision given by the revising 
officer on each such nanie. 2. Copies of all proceedings in appeal taken to the county court judge 
from the judginent of the revising officer on any or all of such cases, together with any judgment 
or decision given by such county court judge thereon. 3. Copies of the judgment of the Queen's 
bench division, high court of justice, Ontario, in the matter of an application to said court for a 
mandamus to said revising officer in respect of the said votes or any of them, together with copies 
of the judgment of the court of appeal (Ontario) in respect of the same matter. Presented 11th 
April, 1892.— iJ/r. Sutherland Not printed. 

416. Supplementary return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 14th March, 1892, for copies of 
all the original lists and pajjers, including all declarations, notices of appeal, objections to pre- 
liminary lists, and relating to all other proceedings, now in the possession of the revising barrister 
or the clerk of the crown in chancery, in any way affecting the voters' lists for the electoral divi- 
sion of the county of Lennox as settled by the revision of 1891, tf>gether with a certified copy of a 
the revised voters' list of 1891 furnished by the revising barrister to the returning officer. Pre- 
sented 21st April, 1892.— Mr. Wilson Not printed. 

41c. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 9th May, 1892, for a return showing the number 
of voters in the several electoral districts of the province of British Columbia, and the number of 
voters in each polling district of the electoral district. Presented 12th May, 1892. — Mr. Mara. 

Not printed . 

4'i. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 17th 
March, 1892, for a return of the proceedings had at the trial of the recent election petition relat- 
ing to the election of a member for the electoral district of the county of Welland, together with 
the findings of the judges who tried the said petition upon the same, and of all evidence taken 
thereat ; also a certified copy of the case and factums filed upon the appeal from such findmgs or 
any of them with the registrar of the Supreme Court of Canada. Also a copy of any report and 
comnumication made to Mr. Speaker by the said j\idges in reference to the said petition. Pre- 
sented 22nd March, 1892. —il/n Tisdale Not printed. 

43. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 7th March, 1892, for a return, in the form used 

in the statements usually published in the Gazette, of the exports and imports from the 1st day of 
July, 1891, to the 1st day of March, 1892, distinguishing the products of Canada from those of 
other countries ; and comparative statements from the 1st day of July, 1890, to the 1st day of 
March, 1891. Presented 22nd March, 1892.— il/r. Sutherland Not printed. 

44. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated the 9th March, 1892, for a return showing the 

total quantity of Canadian flour exported to Newfoundland in each of the years 1890 and 1891 ; 
the law and regulations of the Newfoundland Government relating to the importation into that 
colony of flour ; the total quantities of Canadian cattle, beef, pork, hogs and cheese exported to 
Newfoundland in each of the years 1890 and 1891. Presented 22nd March, 1892.— 3/r. Hughes. 

Not printed. 
10 



55 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1892 



VOLUME 12— Continued. 

45. Supplementarj' retain to an order of the House of Commons, dated 17th March, 1890, for a return of 

all correspondence, memorials and agreements between the government and the Temperance Col- 
onization Company, together with correspondence of settlers, employees and members of the com- 
pany, relative to the operations of the said company. Presented 23rd March, 18'J2. — Mr. 
Wallace , , . . Not printed. 

46. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 14th 

March, 1892, for a copj'^ of the judgment of the Sui:)reme Court in the appealed case of Barrett vs. 
the City of Winnipeg, commonly known as the " Manitoba School Case." Presented 23rd March, 
1892. — Mr. LaRivi'ere Printed for both distribution and. sessional paperx. 

47. Keport of the Commissioners appointed to consider the advisability of extending the Trent Valley 

Canal, and to what extent. Presented 24th March, 1892, by Hon. J. Haggart. 

Printed fo'' both distribution and sessional papers. 

470. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 10th 
March, 1892, for a return of all tenders received by the department of railways and canals for 
sections 11, 12 and 13 of the proposed Soulanges Canal. Such return to comprise : [a] The aggre- 
gate amount of each tender ; (6) The quantity of each class of work in the schedules of each sec- 
tion ; (c) The amount of each tender in detail as "moneyed out " by the product of the quantity 
and price of each item ; {d) Copies of all reports to, and orders in council relative to said tenders ; 
(e) Copies of all reports of engineers on each of said sections ; (/) Copies in detail of all estimates of 
engineers on each section, showing quantity, price and amount of each class of work in schedule ; 
{(j) Copies of all correspondence relative to said tenders. Presented 9th May, 1892. — Mr. Suther- 
land Not printed. 

4:7b. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 17th March, 1892, for copies of engineers' reports 
which led to the building of the Beauharnois Canal ; of engineers' reports in favour of the building 
of the Soulanges Canal, and of reports, letters, etc., from engineers, masters or pilots, objecting to 
the building of the canal at Soulanges. Presented 9th May, 1892. — Mr. Bergeron Not printed. 

48. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 17th June, 1891, for a return of all paynients and 

cost of construction of the New Carlisle wharf, including amount paid to the crown lands depart- 
ment and owners of timber limits in the county of Bona venture, for timber used on the said works. 
Presented 31st March, 1892. —3Ir. Fauvel Not printed. 

48o. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 20th July, 1891, for : 1. A detailed statement of 
work done on the wharves at Longueuil and Boucherville, in the county of Chambly, since the 
commencement of the said works in 1886. 2. A detailed statement of the several sums expended 
by the government in connection with the said works, showing the names of persons to whom 
such several sums were paid, and why and under what arrangement or contract such payments 
were made. 3. Copies of all reports of engineers on the said wharves, and of the estimates, and 
also of all letters addressed to the department of public works in relation to the said works. Pre- 
sented 13th April, 1892. — Mr. Beausoled Not printed. 

49. Copy of a report of a committee jf the privy council, appointed to investigate and report upon the 

cases of irregularity in the civil service as developed in the public accounts committee, etc. 
Presented 31st March, 1892, by Hon. G. E. Foster Printed for sessional papers only. 

50. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 23rd March, 1892, for a return showing the 

number of cows kept at the Central Experimental Farm between the first day of January, 1891, and 
the first day of January, 1892. The number of cows of each of the different breeds ; the quantity of 
milk given by each cow ; the quantity of milk to make a pound of butter ; the quantity of milk 
sold ; the quantity of butter sold ; where sold, and the prices obtained each month ; the kinds of 
food given and the value of the same. Presented 31st March, 1892— Mr. McMillan (Huron). 

Not printed. 

50a. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 30th March, 1892, for a statement showing : 1. 
The number and location of the several experimental farms. 2. The amount expended on each of 
them since the date of its establishment. 3. The name of each and evey employee of each farm, 
and a statement of the salary and of any other emoluments received from the government by each 
of them. Presented 2nd June, 1892.— ilfr. Fremont Not printed. 

11 



65 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A, 1892 



VOLUME 12— Continued. 

51. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 27th 

May, 1891, for copies of all papers, correspondence and documents, together ^vith reports of the 
minister of justice and order in council relating to the disallowance of an act passed by the local 
legislature of the province of Manitoba, on the 31st day of March, 1890, intituled : "An Act 
respecting the Diseases of Animals." Presented 31st March, 1892 — Mr. Watson . . . .Not printed. 

52. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 27th 

May, 1891, for copies of all papei's, correspondence and documents, together with the report of the 
minister of justice and order in council relative to the disallowing an act passed by the legislature 
of the province of Manitoba, on the 31st March, 1890, intituled : " An Act to authorize companies, 
institutions or corporations incorporated out of this province to transact business therein." Pre- 
sented 31st March, 1892. — 3Ir. Watson JVot printed. 

53. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 21st March, 1892, for a return showing the 

quantities of each of the following classes of pork and hog products imported into Canada from the 
United States, in each of the years 1888-89, 1889-90 and 1890-91 ; with the value thereof and 
amounts of duty and rates levied thereon : Bacon and hams, shoulders and sides ; lard, tried or 
rendered ; lard, untried ; pork ; pork barrelled in brine, made from the sides of heavy hogs, after 
the hams and shoulders are out off, and containing not more than sixteen pieces to the barrel of 
two hundred pounds weight ; pork, imported in the carcass for exportation. Presented 31st 
March, lS92.—3Ir. Hughes Not printed. 

5-4. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 21st March, 1892, for a return showing the 
quantity of the shipments in the following lines from Canada, from 30th June, 1891, to 31st 
December, 1891, and the country to which shipped : The number of horses of all kinds ; the 
number of sheep ; the quantity of eggs ; the number of bushels of barley ; the quantity of malt ; 
the number of tons of hay ; the number of bushels of potatoes ; giving the quantity shipped to 
each countr}^ and the total shipments in the several lines. Presented 31st Maich, 1892. — Mr. 
McMullen Not printed. 

55. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 21st March, 1892, for a return showing the quan- 

tities of beef salted in barrels ; dried or salted meats and meats preserved in any other way than salted 
or pickled ; other meats fresh or salted, n. e. s. ; butter, cheese and horses imported into Canada 
from the United States in each of the three years 1888-89, 1889-90 and 1890-91 ; with the values 
thereof and rates of duty thereon. Presented 31st March, 1892.— ilif r. Hughes Not printed. 

56. General Order No. 86 of the Supreme Court of Canada. Presented 1st April, 1892, by Sir John 

Thompson Printed for sessional papers only. 

57. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 17th March, 1892, for a statement showing the 

amount of money expended by the government of Canada in the years 1890- 91 on piers, break- 
waters, etc., in Prince County, Prince Edward Island ; the amount expended on each of these 
works, the work let by contract and to whom let ; also showing the total amount voted during 
said years and the amount not expended. Presented 5th April, 1892.— Mr. Ferry Not printed. 

58. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 7th March, 1892, for a statement showing the 

number of petitions for prohibition presented to the House of Commons during the session of 
1891 : 1. Total number of petitions presented. 2. Total number of signatures to these petitions. 
3. Number of (1) petitions ; (2) signatures : (a) presbyterian church ; (6) methodist church ; 
(c) baptist church (separate figures for free baptists) ; [d] episcopal church or church of England ; 
(e.) salvation army. 4. Number of (1) petitions; (2) signatures from each province and each 
territory ; name and figures for each province and each territory separately. 5. Number of separ- 
ate petitions from chui'ches, courts and temperance societies, or any other bodies signed by 
officials, giving name of church, court, temperance society, etc., sending such petitions, with num- 
ber of signatures. Presented 7th April, 1892. — Mr. Fraser Printed for sessional papers only. 

59. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 30th March, 1892, for a return showing : 1. The 

corjjs of the active militia of Canada that have been drilled (a) annually, (6) biennially, and (c) 
triennially, in the period 1889-1891, inclusive. 2. The number of qualified combatant officers in 
in each corps. 3. The number of provisionally appointed officers in each corps, specifying those 
whose period for qualification has expired. 4. The name, length of service and age of each com- 
manding officer upwards of sixty years of age. 5. The actual strength of, and number of enlist- 
ments in, during the year 1891, each of the permanent corps located in Ontario, Quebec and New 

Brunswick. Presented 7th April, 1892. — Mr. Hughes Not printed. 

12 



55 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1892 



VOLUME 12— Continued. 



\ 



60. Communication and petition from the Quebec Board of Trade concerning the abolition C)f all dues 

collected on tonnage in the port of Quebec, etc. Presented 11th April, 1892, by Hon. C. H. 
Tupper Not printed. 

60a. Copy of certain resolutions passed at a meeting of the Halifax Board of Trade relative to the hostile 
legislative enactments between the Governments of Newfoundland and Canada, the desirability of 
arranging, if possible, a modus vivendi, under the terms of which the hostile tariffs and enactments 
of both countries should be held in abeyance, until sufficient time be given to enable diplomatic 
conferences to adjust the whole difficulty, etc. Presented 21st April, 1892, by Hon. C. H. 
Tupper Not printed. 

61. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 29th February, 1892, for a detailed statement 

showing : 1. Traffic at Mulgrave Station for the six months ending 81st December, 1890 and 1891 ; 
also for the months of January, 1891 and 1892. The return to include sale of tickets, freight re- 
ceived and freight sent. 2. The number of staff employed during the said month, salaries paid 
and amount paid for extra labour, with the names of staff and extra labour employed. 3, Return 
of work done by shimting engine during said periods, and the number of men employed in shunt- 
ing, and the cost. 4. If there is a yard-master at said station, when he was a^Dpointed, whether 
he has an assistant, and, if so, when such assistant was appointed and what pay each receives. 5. 
The number of men emi3loyed in the scow at the said station, their names, and whether they are paid 
by the hour or by the day and at what rate. Presented 18th April, 1892. — Mr. Fraser. Not printed. 

61ci. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 4th April, 1892, for copies of all reports and 
correspondence between the department of railways and canals and the superintendents of the 
different services of the Intercolonial Railway, in reference to an accident to a train at Truro, in 
charge of Conductor H. D. Archibald, and his subsequent dismissal. Presented 11th May, 1892.— 
Mr. Patterson (Colchester ) Not printed. 

616. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 2nd May, 1892, for a return showing the amount 
of additional property purchased on or adjacent to government railways for increased accommodation 
or other purposes ; the quantity purchased or paid for within the period from the 1st of July, 1891, 
to the 1st of April, 1892 ; the party from whom purchased ; the price paid ; the purpose for which 
the property is used or is to be used. Presented 11th May, 1892. — Mr. McMullen Not printed. 

61c. Return to an Order of the House of Commons, dated 13th of April, 1892, for a return containing a 
statement of the expenditure out of income made for permanent improvements, extensions, addi- 
tions and betterments, exclusive of works of ordinaiy maintenance and renewals, on account of the 
Intercolonial Railway from 30th June, 1881, to 1st July, 1891. The return to show such expendi. 
ture in summary form for each branch of service as nearly as can be conveniently ascertained from 
the accounts. Presented 25th May, 1892. — Mr. McDougald [Pictou). 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

6l6?. Retvirn to an order of the House of Comm.ons, dated 9th May, 1892, for a return showing : 1. Tariffs 
in force on live stock on the Intercolonial Railway, and all changes in same during last five years. 
2. Number of cattle shipped from Sackville, Nappan, Aulac and Amherst stations each year, with 
destination, distinguishing between car load lots and less than car load lots. Presented 9th June, 
1892.— iJ/r. Wood ( Westmoreland) Not printed. 

61(?. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 28rd March, 1892, for copies of all evidence 
taken at an inquiry held at Levis, in the month of February, 1892, respecting the discharge of 
Michael Quinn, a permanent employee in the shops of the Intercolonial Railway at Hadlow, 
Levis ; and of all correspondence between Alfred Drake, Chief Mechanical Engineer for the said 
railway at Hadlow, and the railway officials at Moncton, in relation to the dismissal of the said 
Michael Quinn. Presented 5th July, 1892. — Mr. Guay Not printed. 

6?J. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 30th March, 1892, for copies of all petitions, 
correspondence, letters, telegrams and memoranda received since 1887, asking for or referring to 
the subsidizing of the Annapolis and Atlantic Railway Company or a line of railway from Liver- 
pool and Shelburne to Annapolis, passing through Caledonia. Presented 13th April, 1892. — 
Mr. Forbes Not printed. 

63. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dat^d 28th March, 1892, for a return of all petitions of 
boards of trade, railway companies, and documents generally, concerning the construction of a 
new bridge across the Lachine Canal at Montreal. Presented 13th April, 1892. — Mr. Curran. 

Not printed. 

13 



55 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1892 



VOLUME \2~-Continued. 

63a. Retivrii to an order of the House of Commons, dated 11th May, 1892, for copies of all documents, 
memorials and correspondeuce between the government and the corporation and board of trade of 
the town of Sorel and other persons, respecting the granting of a subsidy for the construction of a 
bridge on the Richelieu River to connect the town of Sorel with the Montreal and Sorel Railway. 
Presented 25th May, 1892.— ilfr. Bruneau Not printed. 

64. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 23rd March, 1892, for copies of correspondence 

exchanged between the government and the postmaster of St. Cesaire, county of Rouville, or any 
other person, with reference to deposits of money to be made by the said postmaster. Presented 
19th April, 1892.— J/r. Brodeur Not printed. 

65. Return to an order of the House of Coirmons, dated 18th June, 1891, for a return showing the 

amount of money expended, and the year of expenditure, in each electoral district since confedera- 
tion, under the following heads ; 1. Public buildings. 2, Harbours and rivers. 3. Roads and 
bridges. Presented 26th April, 1892. — Mr. Landerkin .Printed for sessional papers only. 

66. Return to an order of the House Commons, dated 1st July, 1891, for a return of all correspondence, 

telegrams, letters, reports, estimates and other documents relating to the surveys for, and 
construction and cost of a sub-marine tunnel between Prince Edward Island and the mainland. 

Presented 27 th April, 1892.— iHfr. Davies Not printed. 

66a. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 23rd March, 1892, for all corresijondence, 
reports, etc., which may have taken place between the government of Canada and Sir Douglas 
Eox, or any other engineer, since the 1st day of September, 1891, having reference to building a 
tunnel from Prince Edward Island to the mainland across the Straits of Northumberland. Pre- 
sented 3rd May, 1892. — Mr. Perry Printed for sessional papers only, 

67. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 9th March, 1892, that a map of the Dominion 

be laid upon the table showing the boundaries of townships, counties and electoral divisions in 
each province, and the number of votes polled in each township for each candidate at the gen- 
eral election in March, 1891. Presented 27th April, 1892.— Mr. Mills (Bothrvell) Not printed. 

68. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 14th 

March, 1882, for copies of all correspondeuce between the government of Canada or any member 
thereof, and the British government, or between the government of Canada and any person or 
persons, relating to the admission of live cattle from the United States. Also for copies of all 
orders in council relating to the same. Presented 29th April, 1892. — Mr. Sovierville. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

69. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 14th March, 1 892, for a return of copies of all 

tenders received for engraving and printing eince 1882, and of all contracts entered into for the 
same, including the contract beginning in this present year ; also all correspondence relating to 
the subject since 1882. Presented 3rd May, 1892. — Mr. Sovierville Not printed. 

70. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 30th 

March, 1892, for a return of all correspondence, telegrams or other documents between the gov- 
ernment of Canada and the imperial government or the government of Newfoundland, or between 
any member or representative of either of such governments respecting the admission of New- 
foundland into the dominion of Canada ; including all corresix)ndence or telegrams to and from 
the high commissioner on the subject ; and all reports to and minutes of council thereon. Also 
copies of any terms or offers which may have been submitted to the government of Newfound- 
land or any member thereof, with respect to the admission of that island into the dominion. 
Presented 4th May, 1892. — Mr. Davies Printed for sessional papers only. 

yi. Return to an address oi the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 
10th March, 1892, for copies of all correspondence, memorials, departmental orders, and orders 
in council respecting the north-western, northern and eastern boundaries of the province of Que- 
bec, received or passed during the last five years and not already laid before this House, together 
with all the reports of surveys or explorations ordered thereon by the government of Canada 
during the same period. Presented 5th May, 1892.— <Str H. Langevin. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

7ii. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 9th 
May, 1892, for a copy of the instructions appended to commission of the lieutenant governors 

of the provinces of Canada. Presented 9th May, 1892. — 3Ir. Laurier Not printed. 

14 



55 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1892 



VOLUME 12— Continued. 

73. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated Hth March, 1892, for a return of all correspon- 
dence, engineers' reports, petitions or other documents relating to the survey or deepening of 
the channel of the Galops Rapids, and for a statement of the work performed by tlie chain tug 
" Iroquois," owned by the government, and of the services performed by one John Stitt, in connec- 
tion with said tug. Presented 9th May, 1892.— ilfr. Somerville Ifot printed. 

73a. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 11th March, 1892, for a return of all surveys, 
plans, specifications, contracts, reports and papers connected with the new channel in the Galops 
Rapids, 2. All reports of engineers as to the striking of steamer " Traveller " in Galops Rapids, 
in October, 1889. 3. All reports from any steamboat captain who may have reported as to the 
state of said channel. 4. Statement of cost of investigation by engineers in 1891. 5. Reports 
from engineers sent to investigate said channel in 1891. G. Copies of evidence given as to the 
depth, quantities, etc. Presented 30th May, 1892. — Mr. Reid Not printed. 

74l. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 4th 
April, 1892, for copies of the original letters patent of incorporation of the Domii:iion Cotton Mills 
Company (Limited), and of the supplementary letters patent increasing the capital stock of the 
said comj^any from r1^100,000 to $5,000,000, and copies of all correspondence, petitions, statements 
and evidence submitted to the government in support of the issue of such supplementary letters 
patent. And also for copies of the original letters patent incorporating the Canadian Coloured Cotton 
Mills Com.pany (Limited), and of the supplementary letters patent increasing the capital stock of 
the said company from $100, 000 to $5, 000, 000, and copies of all correspondence, petitions, statements 
and evidence submitted to the government in support of the issue of said supplementary letters 
patent. Presented 9th May, 1892.— J/r. Edgar Not printed. 

ys. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 2nd May, 1892, for all correspondence concern- 
inpc the appointment of Mr. W. H. Ingram as Collector of Customs at St. Thomas, Ont. Pre- 
sented 10th May, 1892. —Mr. Gasey Not printed. 

76. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 2nd 

May, 1892, for copies of all correspondence, memorials and documents exchanged between the 
goveriunent, or any member thereof, and any persons, companies or corporations as to the pi'O- 
priety or advisability of relieving or recouping the county of Pontiac railway indebtedness. Pre- 
sented 11th May, 1892. -Mr. Murray Not printed. 

77. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 2nd May, 1892, for a detailed copy of the certi- 

ficate of acting chief engineer that $32,000 paid to Bancroft & Connolly was done in addition to all 
previous certificates on Kingston Graving Dock, as mentioned in Auditor General's Report, page 
C— 119. Presented 12th May, 1892.— ilfr. GiUon Not printed. 

yS. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 14th March, 1892, for : 1. Copy of the circular 
issued on the 10th June, 1891, by the department of marine, relative to sick mariners' dues in 
Canada. 2. A list of persons to whom such circulur was addressed. 3. Copy of all answers 
received. Presented 16th May, 1892. — Mr. Laurier Not printed. 

79. Report of the Royal Commission appointed to investigate the working of Civil Service Act, and other 

matters connected with the Civil Service generally. Presented 20th May, 1892, by Sir John 
Thompson See No. 16c. 

80. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 2nd 

May, 1892, for a return stating, for the last year (1891) : 1. The number of applications which were 
made to the railway committee of the privy council for an adjudication, order or direction respect- 
ing any of the matters or things which, under the provisions of the Railway Act, the railway 
committee had power or authority to deal with. 2. Showing in general terms the natvire of the 
application. 3. The names of the members of the honourable the privy council who (a) Heard 
each of the applications ; (6) Who were present at any one or more adjourned hearings thereof, 
and at the final adjudication thereof ; (c) In cases in which adjournments took place, the dates of 
hearing, and subsequent adjournment or adjournments of final adjudication. 4. Statement show- 
ing how each of said applications was disposed of, viz. : Granted or refused, or partially granted. 
Presented 25th May, 1892.— il/r. McCarthy Not printed. 

80a. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 2nd 
May, 1892 : 1. For a statement of all applications or complaints made to the railway committee of 
the privy council respecting the matters or things referred to in sub-sections (A:), {I), [m), {n) and 

15 



55 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1892 



VOLUME 12- Continued. 

(p) of clause eleven of the Railway Act. 2. By or against whom such complaints were made. 3. 
The manner in which the same were dealt with or disposed of. Presented 25th May, 1892. — Mr. 
McCarthy Not printed. 

81. — (1891.) Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, 
dated 8rd June, 1891, for copies of all correspondence between the imperial government and the 
government of Canada, on the subject of the copyright laws of Canada, and all other papers rela- 
ting thereto, not already brought down. P resented 24th August, 1891. — Mr. Edgar. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

81. Return (in part) to an order of the House of Commons, dated 23rd March, 1892, for a return showing 
which of the dominion buildings in Canada are lighted by electricity ; the respective system used 
in each such building, whether arc or incandescent ; the number of sixteen candle-power lamps or 
their equivalents used in each such building ; the cost per lamp of sixteen candle power or equiva- 
lent in each building ; and the average annual cost for lighting each such building. Also showing in 
what buildings the plants are owned and maintained by the government, and in cases where not so 
owned and maintained, from whom the current is obtained or supplied, and whether from central 
station or private parties ; also whether in cases of leased currents the renewal lamps are supplied 
at government expense, and if so, in what buildings and at what annual cost ; also the names of 
the parties contracting to light any of such buildings, with the names of the buildings, and the 
dates and duration of each such contract. Also showing which of the public buildings of the 
dominion are lighted with gas, and the annual cost of lighting each such building. Presented 25th 
May, 1892 ..Not printed. 

8^. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 2nd May, 1892, for a return giving all papers, 
letters, petitions, applications and every other document relating to the dismissal of the postmaster 
of Eugenia, and the appointment of his successor. Presented 30th May, 1892. — 3fr. Landerkin — 

Not printed. 

83. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 16th May, 1892, for a return showing the names 

of the mail conductors superannuated, their number of years of service, the salary given to each of 
them during the last year of service, and also the names of those who have had several years 
added to their period of service. Presented 30th May, 1892.— ilfr. Brodeur Not printed. 

84. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 1st March, 1892, for a return showing the number 

of royal commissions that have been issued in each and every year since confederation, and to 
whom issued, together with the subject inquired into, giving the cost of each and the total cost 
of all. Presented 1st June, 1892. — Mr. Landerkin Printed for sessional papers only. 

84a. Supplementary return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 1st March, 1892, for a return 
showing the number of royal comftiissions that have been issued in each and every year since con- 
federation, and to whom issued, together with the subject inquired into, giving the cost of each 
and the total cost of all. Presented 9th June, 1892. — Mr. Landerkin. — 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

85. Statement of number of hours of setting upon the daily Senate Hansard, and number of ems set, 

including corrections, up to 20th May. Presented 2nd June, 1892, by Hon. Sir J. C. Abbott. — 

Not printed. 

86. Return to an address of /the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 25th 

April, 1892, for a copy of the petition presented and filed in the supreme court of Nova Scotia, 
under the Dominion Controverted Elections Act, against the election and return of Joseph A. 
Gillies, for the county of Richmond, Nova Scotia, at the general election holden on the 5th March, 
1891 ; together with the dates of filing and service of such petition ; and also all papers and docu- 
ments in connection with the following proceedings in the supreme court of Nova Scotia : 1. 
Application to the honourable the chief justice extending the time for setting the petition down 
for trial. 2. Application to set the petition down for trial returnable before the Honourable Mr. 
Justice Weatherbe, and the Honourable Mr. Justice Graham, but heard by the Honourable 
Judge Weatherbe, sitting alone, on the 19th day of November, 1891. 3. The order made by the 
said Judge Weatherbe, sitting alone, for the trial of the said petition, fixing the 8th of December, 
1891, the date for said trial. 4. The notice of appeal, dated 28th November, 1891, from this 
decision of the Honourable Judge Weatherbe, to the supreme court of Nova Scotia, the grounds 
of appeal being as follows : (a) Because there was no jui-isdiction to make said order, or the portion 

16 



55 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1892 



VOLUME 12— Conrinued. 

thereof extending time; (b) Because six months had elapsed since the presentation of the petition ; 
(c) Because the time and place of trial were not iixed within six mcmths from the presentation of 
the petitio n ; (c?) Because the extension of time granted by said order was not made on application 
for that purpose, supported by affidavits, and it does not appear from such order, and it was not 
made to appear wlien the same was made, that the requirements of justice rendered such enlarge- 
ment necessary ; {e) Because the respondent had no notice of any application to extend the time 
for the commencement of the trial herein ; (/) Because one judge has no jurisdiction to fix the 
time and place of trial ; {g) Because the trial of the petition cannot be commenced during the 
term of the court at which the judges assigned to try the said petition are bound to sit. 5. The 
notice of motion on said appeal for the 3rd day of December, 1891. 6, The appointment by the 
Honourable Judge Weatherbe, then senior j udge, for a hearing before the supreme court on the 
said 3rd day of December, 1891. 7. The postponement of this hearing until a later day. 8. The 
judgment of the supreme court upon this case. 9. The rule of the supreme court, dated the 19th 
day of December, 1891, setting aside the order of the Honourable Judge Weatherbe fixing the date 
of the trial of said petition. 10. The date on which the Honourable Judge Weatherbe and the 
Honourable Judge Graham received a copy of the order of the supreme court setting aside the said 
order of Judge Weatherbe for trial. 11. The date on which the said judges reported to the 
Honourable the Speaker of the House of Commons that the said petition had been heard by them, 
and that they had declared the election of the said Joseph A. Gillies void, and his seat in parlia- 
ment vacant. 12. The date upon which application was made to the Honourable Judge Weatherbe 
to defer the decision in the petition pending the decision of the supreme court of Nova Scotia 
on the question of jurisdiction, and the refusal of this application. Also copies of the several 
petitions presented and filed in the supreme court of Nova Scotia under the Dominion Controverted 
Elections Act, against the election and return of Hon. Sir John Thompson, Hon. C. H. Tupper, 
Mr. C. E. Kaulbach, Mr. J. B. Mills, Mr. N. W. White and Mr. Hugh Cameron, for six of the 
several counties of the province of Nova Scotia, at the general election held on the 5th March, 1891. 
Also all papers and documents in connection with the various proceedings in the said cases in the 
supreme court of Nova Scotia. Presented 3rd June, 1892. — Air. (Tillies and Mr. Forbes. 

Not printed. 
87. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 30th 
March, 1892, for copies of all accounts, claims and certificates presented and transmitted (from 1st 
July, 1885, to this day) to the dominion government, by each of the judges of the superior court 
for the province of Quebec, in his capacity as such, for all travelling expenses and hotel exiDenses, 
in any place other than that in which such judge had orders to reside, or did in fact reside, either 
for sitting or for acting therein, or for holding therein (in such capacity) any court in civil, crimi- 
nal or other matters ; together with a detailed statement of the several sums paid in conformity 
with such accounts, claims and certificates. Presented 3rd June, 1892. — Mr. Flint. 

Not pr inted. 

SH. Further suppleme ntary retiirn to an address of the Senate, to his excellency the Governor General, 
dated 14th September, 1891, for all correspondence between his excellency the Governor General 
and the Lieutenant Governor of the province of Quebec, in connection with the Baie des Chaleurs 
Railway, and all other papers and correspondence in the possession of the government on that sub- 
ject. Presented 31st May, 1892.— ^07i. Mr. Miller Not printed. 

89. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 25th April, 1892, for a return of the amount of 

crude cotton-seed oil imported into Canada during the year 1891 ; also the amount of refined cotton- 
seed oil imported into Canada during the year 1891. Presented 7th June, 1892. — Mr. McKay. 

Not printed. 

90. Return to an address of the Senate to his excellency the Governor General, dated 5th May, 1892, for 

copies of all letters, communications and reports in the possession of the goverinnent, having rela- 
tion to the fixing of a standard of time, and which have been received subsequent to May, 1891. 
Presented 14th June, 1892. — Hon. Mr. Sullivan , Not printed. 

91. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 10th June, 1892, for a copy of the Reports of 

the British Farm Delegates, Messrs. McQueen and Davey, on the Maritime Provinces. Presented 

15th Jime, 1892. — Mr. McMillan [Huron) Not printed. 

914. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 15th June, 1892, for a copy of the minutes of 
the evidence taken at the trial, under the Dominion Controverted Elections Act, of the case of 
A. Sturton ct al, petitioners, vs. P. V. Savard, defendant, in relation to the election for the counties 
of Chicoutimi and Saguenay, in the year 1891. Presented 15th June, 1892. — Sir John Thompson. 

Not priyitcd. 

2 17 



55 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1892 



VOLUME 12— Continued. 

93. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 18tb June, 1891, for copies of all papers and cor. 
respondence in the department of marine and fisheries, relating to the saving of the lives of part 
of the crew of H.M.S. "Lily," wrecked on the coast of Labrador, in September, 1889. Presented 
17th June, 1892.— ilfr. Edgar Not printed. 

04. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 10th 
August, 1891, for copies of all orders in council, memorials, correspondence and documents respect- 
ing the rock-slide from the citadel at Quebec, on the 19th September, 1889. Presented 24th June, 
1892.— Mr. Fremont Not printed. 

95. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 4th April, 1892, for : 1. Return of all correspon- 

dence, papers, complaints or memoranda of any kind in relation to " The Temperance Colonization 
Society, " received since or not included in a return furnished the House in 1890. 2. List of all 
stockholders of the company, 1st May, 1885, with amounts paid on calls of the shares, whether in 
cash, land credits, or otherwise, each year to date, stating what shares were forfeited, when and 
why. 3. List of stockholders at date of return, showing when they became such, with dates and 
amoimt of shares purchased, with price per share, [a] Number of calls on all shares, with details, 
dates, etc. 4. Amount earned in fees by directors each year to date. 5. Amount of money in- 
vested each year, and in what, (a) Total amount received on account of scri]:) and land sales to 
date. 6. List of scrip holders, with post office address, who purchased from the company (scrip 
issued) prior to 1st June, 1882, and since that date, giving date of issue, amount of land purchased 
by each, price per acre, amount paid thereon to date ; showing if cancelled, when and on what 
conditions. 7. List of all other contracts for purchase of land issued, whether exchanged for scrip, 
amounts paid to date, whether contract is still in existence, why cancelled, and when. 8. Amount 
and details of land ; sales now current and for which land is to be supplied by the qpmpany , 9. 
List of all persons whose scrip was located on even-numbered sections in 1883, showing where 
located, hew location subsequently, if any, with form of contract of even-numbered location. 10. 
List of homestead settlers in 1885. List at date (actual residents). 11. When contract with the 
company and government expired, with conditions of extension, if any ; conditions of final settle- 
ment. 12. List of lands to be conveyed to the company under such settlement. The foregoing 
information to be furnished, if practicable, under affidavit of the president and accountant. Pre- 
sented 30th J une, 1892. — Mr. Sproide Not printed. 

96. Census of Canada. — Bulletin No. 11. Nationalities. Birth places of the people. Presented 30th 

June, 1892, by Hon. J. Carling ;. Not printed. 

97. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 2nd 

May, 1892, for a copy of location ticket granted to John Alexander McLellan, of Cockburn Island, 
for lot 15 in the 5th concession, Cockburn Islaiid ; copy of all affidavits or declarations, letters and 
other papers from any person or persons to tlie department, or any officer of the department, in 
any way relating to said lot or the cancellation of the said ticket ; and copy of any order made for 
the cancellation of said ticket. Also for a copy of the location ticket granted for lot 16 in the 4th 
concession, Cockburn Island, and any assignment or transfer thereof to Peter McLellan ; copy of 
affidavits or declarations, letters and other papers from any person or persons to the department in 
any way relating to said lot or the cancellation of the said ticket, and copy of any order made for 
the cancellation of said ticket. Presented 5th July, 1892. — Mr. Lister Not printed. 

98. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 28th March, 1892, for a return showing : 1. The 

number of Indian reserves in British Columbia. 2. The location of each and name of tribe to 
whom allotted. 3. The area in acreage of each. 4. The area cultivated on each reserve. 5. The 
population of each tribe when reserves were first established. 6. The present population of each 
tribe. 7. The area (estimated) of pastoral land on each reserve. 8. The number of horses, cattle 
and sheep owned by each tribe. 9. The estimated area of timber land on each reserve. Presented 
5th July, 1892. — Mr. Barnard Not printed. 

99. Copy of a report of a committee of the honourable the privy council, approved by his excellency the 

Governor General in council, on the 17th June, 1892, on the subject of a despatch dated 4th Nov- 
ember, 1891, from Lord Knutsford, inviting an expression of the views of the Canadian government 
upon the complaint of alleged discrimination on the part of the government of Canada against 
citizens of the United States in the matter of canal tolls. Presented 6th July, 1892, by Sir John 

Thompson , , . '. Printed for sessional papers only. 

18 



55 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1892 



VOLUME 12— Continued. 

100. Return to an address of the Senate to his excellency the Governor General, dated 10th June, 1892, 

for a return of subsidy paid the Albert Southern Railway Company, showing the dates when paid, 
and to whom paid ; also copies of all correspondence in reference to the payment of the said sub- 
sidjT-, and of all letters or telegrams asking for payment of same or relating thereto ; also copies of 
all returns or reports of government engineers or inspectors, who inspected or reported on said 
road. Presented Gth July, 1892. — Hon. Mr. Power Not printed. 

101. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 9th May, 1892, for a return showing: 1. The 

total number of acres of public la.nds granted in Manitoba and the Canadian North-West in aid 
of railway construction, ujd to 26th April, 1892. 2. The name of each railway company or line to 
which a land grant has been made ; the length of each line thus aided by land grant, and the 
number of acres granted to each company or line. 3. The total number of acres of land in Mani- 
toba and the Canadian North- West which have been earned up to 26th April, 1892, under pro- 
visions of grants through completion of lines or portions of lines to which land grants have been 
niade. 4. The name of each railway company or line which has earned the whole or a portion of 
its land grant, with the number of acres earned by each of such lines. Presented 9th July, 1892. — 
Mr. Charlton Not printed. 

103. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 21st March, 1892, for a map of Canada showing 
the areas of spruce and white pine timber, respectively, now standing. Presented 9th July, 1892. — 
Mr. Ives Not printed. 

103. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 25th 

April, 1892, for copies of all resolutions and memorials passed by the North- West Assembly at its 
last session and addressed to the government. Presented 9th July, 1892. — Mr. Davin.. Not printed. 

104. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 21st 

March, 1892, for copies of all letters, correspondence, petitions, etc., relating to the claims or 
settlement, or proposed settlement of claims of settlers on the Waldron Ranche Company's terri- 
tory ; copies of all complaints made regarding the treatment settlers have been subject to by the 
company. Presented 9th July, 1892. — Mr. McMuUen Not printed. 

105. Return to an order of the House of Connnons, dated 28th March, 1892, for a return showing the 

quantity of binding twine imported for consumption in the Dominion, from the 1st of July, 1891, 
up to the first day of January, 1892 ; the country from which the same was imported, and the 
amount of duty paid thereon. Presented 9th Julj^, 1892. —Mr. Campbell .Not printed. 



19 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



DOMiis^ioisr o:^' cj^nj^dj^ 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



DEPARTMENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS 



YEAR ENnED 81st DECEMBER 



1891 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF PARLIAMENT 




OTTAWA 

PRINTED BY S. E. DAWSON, PRINTER TO THE QUEEN'S MOST 

EXCELLENT MAJESTY. 

1892. 

[Ko 14—1891.] Frice 40 cents. 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



IN^DEX 



Report of the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs 
Special Appendix 



PART I. 
REPORTS OF SUPERINTENDENTS AND AGENTS. 



Page. 

ix 

xxxiv 



Ontario. 

Grand River Superintendency — E. D. Cameron, Superintendent 1 

Walpole Island Agency — Alex. McKelvey, Agent , 2 

Western Superintendency, 1st Division — A. English, Agent 3 

do do 2nd do Thos. Gordon do 3 

do do 3rd do John Beattie do 4 

ISorthern do 1st do Jas. C. Phipps, Visiting Superintendent 5 

do do 2nd do Thos. S. Walton. M.D. do 7 

do do 3rd do Wm. Van Abbott, Indian Lands Agent 9 

do do 4th do J. P. Donnelly, Agent 11 

Golden Lake Agency — Edmund Bennett, Agent 13 

Tyendinaga do Matthew Hill do 14 

Lake Simcoe do J. R. Stevenson do 14 

Cape Croker do J. R. Jermyn do 15 

Saugeen do James Allen do 15 

Alnwick do John Thackeray do 16 

Rice and Mud Lake do Edwin Harris do 16 

Rama do D. J. McPhee do , 17 

Penetanguishene do H. H. Thompson do 177 

Scugog do Geo. B. McDermot do 164 

New Credit do P. E. Jones, M.D. do 18 

Mount Elgin Industrial Institution, Report on — Rev. W, W. Shepherd, Principal 18 

Wikwemikong do do Rev. D. duRonquet do 1 9-20 

Shingwauk and Wawanosh Homes do Rev. E. F. Wilson do 21-23 

Mohawk Institute and Normal School do Rev. R. Ashton, Superintendent 24a-26 

Quebec. 

Caughnawaga Agency — A. Brosseau, Agent 27 

St. Regis do Geo. Long do 28 

Viger do N. LeBel do 28 

Maria do J. Gagne, Ptre. do 29 

Lake St. John and Chicoutimi Agency— L. E. Otis, Agent 29 

Restigouche do Simon Poirier do 30 

River Desert do James Martin do 30 

Lorette do A. 0. Bastien do 31 

North Temiscamingue do A. McBride do 32 

St. Francis do P. E. Robillard do 32 

Becancour do H. Desilets do 32 

North Shore River St. Lawrence Superintendency — L. F. Boucher, Superintendent 33 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



New Brunswick, 

Page. 

North Eastern Superintendency — Chas. Sargeant, Superintendent 166 

South Western District, 1st Division — ^ James Farrell, Agent 35 

Northern Division do do 37 

/ 
Nova Scotia. 

District No. la — Geo. Wells, sen., Agent 38 

do 16— F. McDormand do 38 

do Ic— Geo. R. Smith do /39 

do 2— Chas. E. Beckwith do 39 

do 3 and 4— Rev. Thos. J. Butler, Agent 40 

do 5 — Rev. A. P. Desmond do No Report — 

do 6a — James Gass do 40 

do 66~D. H. Muir, M.D. do 40 

do 7— F. A. Rand do 41' 

do 8— Rev. R. McDonald do 41 

do 9— W. C. Chisholm do 42 

do 10 — Rev. M. McKenzie do ' 165 

do 11 — Rev. D. Mclsaac do 43 

do 12 — Rev. R. Grant do No Report — 

do 13— Rev. A. Cameron, D.D. do 43 

do 15— E. T. Ferguson do 44 

Prince Edward Island. 

John 0. Arsenault, Superintendent 44 



Manitoba and the North-West Territories. 

Reports of the Indian Commissioner for Manitoha, Keewatin and the North- West Territories, the 
Inspectors of Indian Agencies and Reserves, the Inspectors of Schools and the Principals of 

Industrial Schools, <fcc. : 

Hayter Reed, Indian Commissioner, &c / 488 

Francis Ogletree, Agent — Treaty No. 1 45 

A. M. Muckle do do 1 46 

H. Martineau do do 2 48 

R. J. :^. Pither do do 3 49 

F. C. Cornish do do 3 49 

John Mclntyre do do 3 50 

Hilton Keith do Touchwood Hills Agency, Treaty No. 4 52 

J. B. Lash do Muscowpetung's do do 4 54 

J. A. Markle do Birtle do do 4 54 

JohnP. Wright, Actg. do File Hills do do 4 56 

W. S. Grant do Assiniboine do do 4 58 

W. E. Jones do Cote's Reserve do do 4 60 

Lt. Col. A. McDonald do Crooked Lakes do do 4 61 

J. J. Campbell do Moose Mountain do do 4 63 

Joseph Reader do Pas do do 5 65 

A. Mackay do Beren's River do do 5 68 

R. S. McKenzie do Duck Lake do do 6 69 

P. J. Williams do Battleford do do 6 71 

Geo. G. Mann, do Onion Lake do do 6 ,. . . 72 

John Ross, acting do Saddle Lake do do 6 ,. . . 73 

D.I. Clink do do Peace Hills do do 6 '. . . 76 

vi 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Chas. de Gazes, 


Agent, 


Edmonton 


Agency, 


Treaty No. 6 


J. Finlayson 


do 


Carlton 


do 


do 6 


S. B. Lucas 


do 


Sarcee 


do 


do 7 


Wm. Pocklington 


do 


Blood 


do 


do 7 


Magnus Begg 


do 


Blackfoot 


do 


do 7 


A. R. Springett 


do 


Piegan 


do 


do 7 



E. McCoU, Inspector of Indian Agencies and Reserves in Treaties 1, 2, 3 and 5 

T. P. Wadsworth do do do 4, 6 and 7 

Alex. McGibbon do do do 4, 6 and 7 

J. A. Macrae, Inspector of Protestant Schools in Treaties 4, 6 and 7 

Albert Betournay, Inspector Roman Catholic Schools in Manitoba and North- West Territories 
Qu'Appelle Industrial School, Treaty No. 4 — Report on — Rev. J. Hugonnard, Principal. . . . 
Regina do do 4 do Rev. A. J. McLeod do .... 

Battleford do do 6 do Rev. Thos. Clarke do .... 

St. Joseph's do do 7 do Rev. A. Naessens do .... 

Rupert's Land do Manitoba do Rev. W. A. Burman do .... 

British Columbia. 

A. W. Vowell, Visiting Superintendent 

W. H. Lomas, Agent, Cowichan Agency 

West Coast Agency 

Kwawkewlth do 

Lower Fraser do 

Kamloops and Okanagan Agency 

Kootenay Agency 

William's Lake Agency 

North-West Coast Agency 

Babine Agency 

J. R. Scott, Metlakahtla Industrial School, Report on .' 

Michael Hagan, Kamloops do do 

G. Donckele, Kuper Island do do 

N. Coccola, O.M.L, Kootenay do do 

P. O'Reilly, Indian Reserve Commissioner 



Harry Guillod 


do 


R. H. Pidcock 


do 


P. McTiernan 


do 


J. W. Mackay 


do 


Michael Phillips 


do 


W. L. Meason 


do 


C. Todd 


do 


R. C. Loring 


do 



PAGE 

78 

80 

80 

81 

83 

84 

177 

137 

86 

97-99 

102 

108 

110 

167 

111 

113 



181 
115 
118 
119 
202 
120 
127 
128 
169 
132 
170 
133 
135 
136 
176 



SURVEYORS' REPORTS. 

John C. Nelson, D.L.S., in charge of Indian Reserve Surveys, N.W.T 203 

A. W. Ponton, D.L.S., Manitoba and the North-West Territories 136 

F. A. Devereux, B.C 171-173 

0. Fletcher, D.L.S., B.C , 174-175 

TABULAR STATEMENTS. 

No. 1 — Showing the number of acres of Indian lands sold during the year ended 30th June, 
1891, the total amount of Purchase Money, and quantity of surveyed surrendered 

Indian Lands remaining unsold at that date 218" 

Annual Report — Land Sales Branch 220 

No. 2— School Statistics 221-222 

No. 3- -Census Returns 244 

Statement showing quantities of Grain and Roots sown and harvested on Indian Reserves, 

&c., in the North-West 254-342 

Statement showing the number of Indians in the North-West Territories and their where- 
abouts in 1891 208 

Return showing Crops sown and harvested by individual Indians in the North-West Terri- 
tories, 1891 274 

Statement of Earnings of individual Indians in the North-West Territories for the year ended 

30th June, 1891 214 

vii 

14 A J R 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



PART II. 

PAGE 

1. Officers and employes at Headquarters 3 

2, do do Outposts , 4-13 

1. Nova Scotia ^ ") 

I: Scf SS Mand : : : : St^te.,e„ts „£ Expenditure | 

4. British Columbia J 

5. General Account— Indians of Manitoba and the North-West, with Statements A. to O. ] 

A. Annuities I 

B. Agricultural Implements 

C. Seed I 

D. Cattle and Pigs. 

E. Supplies for Destitute Indians, &c ] 

F. Clothing r.... 14 to 127 

G. Day Schools. . . j 

H. Industrial Schools , | 

I. Surveys I 

.1. Wages of Farmers 

K. Farm Maintenance I 

L. Sioux j 

M. General Expenses , 

N. Agency Buildings 

O. Grist Mills j 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, 



C. Balance Sheet of Indian Fund, with Subsidiary Statements, 1 to 128. 

1. Bachewana Indians. 

2. Chippewas of Beausoleil. 

3. Chippewas of Nawash. 

4. Chippewas of Rama. 

5. Chippewas of Sarnia. 
G. Chippewas of Saugeen. 

7. Chippewas of Snake Island. 

8. Chippewas of Thames. 

9. Chippewas of Walpole Island. 

10. Fort William Band. 

11. French River Indians. 

12. Garden River Indians. 

13. Henvey's Inlet Indians. 

14. Lake Nipissing Indians. 



PAGE 

128 



15. Manitoulin (unceded). 

16. Maganatawan Indians. 

17. Mississaguas of Alnwick. 

18. Mississaguas of Credit. 

19. Mississaguas of Rice Lake. 

20. Mississaguas of Mud Lake. 

21. Mississaguas of Scugog. 

22. Mohawks of Bay of Quinte. 

23. Moravians of Thames. 

24. Munsees of Thames. 

25. Ojibbewas and Ottawas of Manitoulin Island. 
2C. Ojibbewas and Ottawa, Lake Huron. 

27. Ojibbewas and Ottawa, Lake Superior. 

28. Mississagua River Band. 

29. Oneida of Thames. 
.30. Parry Sound Indians. 

31. Pottawattamies of Walpole Island. 

32. Serpent River Indians. 

33. Six Nations. 

34. Shawanaga Indians. 

35. Spanish River Indians. 

36. Thessalon River Indians. 

37. Tootoomenai and his band. 

38. Whitefish River Indians. 

39. Wj'andotts of Anderdon. 

40. Abenakis of St. Francis. 

41. Abenakis of Becancour. 

42. Amalacites of He Verte and Viger. 

43. Golden Lake Indians. 

44. Hurons of Lorette. 

45. Iroquois of Caughnawaga. 

46. Iroquois of St. Regis. 

46«. Iroquois of St. Regis, Land Fund. 

47. Lake St. John Indians. 

48. Lake of Two Mountains Indians. 

49. Temiscamingue of Upper Ottawa. 

50. River Desert Indians. 

51. Songhees Indians, British Columbia. 

52. Cowichan Indians, British Columbia. 

53. Musqueam Indians, British Cohmibia. 

54. Squamish Indians, British Columbia. 

55. Harrison River Indians, British Columbia. 

56. Quamichan Indians, British Columbia. 

57. Chemaines Indians, British Columbia. 

58. Chilihertza's Indians, British Columbia. 

59. St. Peter's Band, Manitoba. 

60. Broken Head River Band, Manitoba. 

61. Portage la Prairie Band, Manitoba. 

62. Rosseau River Band, Manitoba. 

63. Fort Alexander Band, Manitoba. 

64. TabusintacBand, N.B. 



76. 

77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 
91. 
92. 
93. 

95. 

96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
102. 
103. 
104. 
105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 
109. 
110. 
111. 
112. 
113. 



Indians of the Lake of the Woods. 

Indians of Nova Scotia. 

Indians of New Brunswick. 

Tobique Indians, New Brunswick. 

Indians of Prince Edward Island. 

Clinch, J. P. 

Mai vi lie, Nancy. 

Manace, Jrmes. 

Wabbuck, William. 

Province of Quebec Indian Fund. 

Indian Land Management Fund. 

Suspense Account. 

Indian School Fund. 

Survey Account. 

Superannuation. 

Point Grondine Indians. 

Whitefish Bay Indians (Treaty 3). 

Whitefish Lake Indians. 

British Columbia General Account. 

Hope Indians, British ColumVjia. 

Paganakeshick, Reserve 386, Ontario. 

Ontario Relief Account. 

Ontario and Quebec Blanket Account. 

Oka Indians Removal Account. 

L. F. Boucher, travelling expenses. 

Eagle Lake Reserve. 

Ebb and Flow Lake Indians. 

Restigouche Indians. 

St. Mary's, N.B., Indians. 

Wabigon Indians. 

Ann Konwahentaken. 

Chehalis Band, British Columbia. 

Indians of Cumberland Co., N.S. 

Heirs of late Chief Piknawatik. 

One Arrow's Band, Treaty No. 6. 

Indians of Port Med way, N.S. 

Indians of Reserve 38a, Treaty 3. 

Eel Ground, N.B. 

Heirs of J. Williams and Ann Kitsetsaroukwa. 

Big Island Indians, Reserve 31c, Treaty 3. 

Swan Lake Indians. 

Spellumcheen Indians, B.C. 

Riding Mountain Indians. 

Rat Portage Indians. 

Squah Indians, B.C. 

Province of Quebec Seed Grain and Relief Acct. 

Sumas Lake, B.C. 

Lake Manitoba Band. 



115. Indians of Red Bank, N.B. 
IK). Indians of Burnt Church, N.B. 
117. Indians of Wallabuck Lake, N.S. 



120. 
121. 
122. 
123. 
124. 
125. 
126. 
127. 
128. 



Pass-Pass-Chase's Reserve, Edmonton Agency. 

White Bear's Reserve, Moose Mountain Agency. 

Whycocomagh Indians, N.S. 

Gibson Indians. 

Texas Lake, B.C., Indians. 

Yale, B.C., Indians. 

Nicoamen, B.C., Indians. 

Long Plain Indians. 

School Appropriations. 



IX 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



REPORT 



DEPARTMENT OF INDIAN AFFAmS 

FOR THE 

YEAR ENDED 31st DECEMBER, 1891. 



Department of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa, 27th January, 1892. 

To the Right Honourable Sir Frederick Arthur Stanley, G.C.B., Baron Stanley of 
Preston, Governor General of Canada, <Scg., (tc, &c. 

May it Please Your Excellency : — 

I have the honour to submit the report of the Department of Indian Affairs for 
the year ended on the 31st December, 1891. 

In presenting this report it is my pleasing duty to state that the past season has 
been one of uninterrupted tranquilHty among the Indians of the Dominion. The 
"Messiah Craze," which affected so many of the Indian tribes in the United States, 
occasioned little or no excitement among our Indians : and the " Ghost Dances," which 
were so freely indulged in by the Indians of the former country, were not celebrated by 
any of the Indians of Canada, so far as the Department has heard : nor was this because 
their sympathy was not sought by their relatives and acquaintances on the other side 
of the line. On the contrary, there is sufficient cause for believing that runners or 
messengers were sent from the disaffected Indians of the United States to some of our 
Indians, in the hope that they might be induced to lend their aid to the movement, but 
their overtures were rejected and met with no response. 

Gratifying progress towards becoming wholly self-supporting has been made by 
such of the numerous bands of Indians of whom this Department, through its agents, 
has the supervision, as are not already able to maintain themselves. 

The examples of increasing industry and thrift are more noticeable in the North- 
West Territories and Manitoba than in the case of Indians of the older provinces, 
owing to the contrast which the present settled condition of the majority of the Indians 
of those parts, as tillers of the soil and herders of cattle, presents to the continual 
unrest which but a few years ago characterized them, when as painted and feather- 
bedecked warriors they traversed the vast plains which they are now assisting to reduce 
to a state of cultivation, one tribe at continual war with another, or when as hunters 
they sought for a precarious subsistence from the buffalo chase. 

14— B 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The transformation of character which has taken place in so short a time in these 
Indians, through the civilizing influences brought to bear on them, gives hopeful augury 
of their further advancement under like management, combining as it does fairness and 
perseverance with kindness and patience. The policy pursued in the management of 
the subjects of the same has called for the exercise in a marked degree of these quali- 
ties on the part of their agents and instructors, and the fruits of it are perceptible in 
the improved condition of and the progress towards the white man's plane being made 
by these aforetime Ishmaelites of the desert. 

This transition is all the more gratifying when, as Your Excellency will obserye on 
reference to the report of the Indian Commissioner for Manitoba and the North- West 
Territories, as well as to the reports of the Indian agents for the various localities in 
that province and in the territories, the same is being effected not only at no increased, 
but at a diminished annual cost to the country, and it is hoped that in each year the 
Department, by improved methods of management, and as a result of the additional 
progress towards self-sustentation which may b.e looked for from many of the Indians, 
will be able to curtail expenses to a yet greater degree. 

JEducation. 

The item of expenditure in connection with Indian management, to meet which 
will probably necessitate in the future continued and increased drafts upon the 
generosity of the country, will be one in connection with and for the furtherance of 
which it is believed a favourable response will readily be given, namely, the education, 
in its broadest sense, of the Indian youth of the Dominion. In this connection I need 
hardly add that the sacred trust with which Providence has invested the country in the 
charge of and care for the aborigines committed to it carries with it no more important 
obligation than the moral, social, literary and industrial training of the Indian youth 
of both sexes ; and money expended with this object in view must surely be regarded 
as well spent, accomplishing as it will, through the education and training imparted, not 
only the emancipation of the subjects thereof from the condition of ignorance and super- 
stitious blindness in which they are, and their parents before them were sunk, but con- 
verting them into useful members of society and contributors to, instead of merely con- 
sumers of, the wealth of the country. And from an economic standpoint, therefore, 
apart from all considerations of a philanthropic character, which, however, would, I 
submit, be sufficient of themselves to justify the expenditure, the money, large though 
the amount required may be, which is expended in the instruction and enlightenment 
of the Indian youth of the country, will be money well and profitably invested in the 
interests of the public at large. 

The consideration of this important subject naturally conducts to a description of 
what is now being done in this direction. 

The institutions in the North-West Territories and in Manitoba which combine 
industrial training with ordinary educational subjects have, with one exception, namely, 
the Elkhorn establisliment, been filled to their utmost capacity during the year, and to 
the number in operation in 1890 of these institutions was added during the past season 
the industrial school at Regina, which, as stated in the report of the Department for 
1887 would be the case, has been placed under the charge of the Presbyterian body. 

X 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The inauguration of these institutions is of too recent a date to justify the expecta- 
tion of important results in the completion of the education of many of the children 
who have attended them ; nevertheless, instances are not wanting of success having been 
the result of the subsequent course of some- of the ex-pupils. The Reverend Principal 
Clarke of the Battleford institution says on this head : — "You will be pleased to know 
that several pupils have left the school during the year, and are now termed sub- 
students. 

" From reports received from their guardians or masters I have much pleasure in 
stating that they are giving general satisfaction. 

" One main object before us is a watchful care over those who leave the institu- 
tion, and following them through life to be able to judge of the results of this training. 

" Two boys are running the grist and saw mill at Onion Lake. Another has been 
transferred to Emmanuel College, Prince Albert, to be further instructed as a teacher. 

"Those who were trained as farmers have taken up land on the reserves, and are 
retaining the civilizing influences and doing well." 

The Rev. J. Hugonnard, the able Principal of the Qu'Appelle institution, reports : 
— " The girls are making progress in class and in all sorts of house work. More than 
twenty have been hired out during the year. At present fourteen are out at service, 
earning from $4 to $10 dollars a month. I have a few more demands for them. 

" If placed in a good family and properly overseen their stay in service is very 
useful to them, as they have every facility for learning English and housework." 

The Indian Commissioner for Manitoba and the North-West Territories makes in 
his report, under the heading " Results already appearing," the following statement : 
— " From Qu'Appelle school, which has been more favourably situated than the St. 
Joseph's, and was not so greatly disturbed by the Rebellion as the Battleford institu- 
tion, better results might be expected, and in this we are not disappointed ; for des- 
pite the difficulty, which it shared in common with the others, — of getting suitable 
children at the outset, it is beginning to turn out no small number of pupils prepared 
to make their own way in life. 

" From the Qu'Appelle school there are now fourteen girls out on service in neigh- 
bouring settlements, and they are all doing well. 

" Battleford has made a start in the same direction, having sent out three girls to 
service, and this is the beginning of a movement which, in the near future, will be much 
extended. 

" Comparatively few boys have gone out into service or to work at trades. 

" The majority of those who have left the institutions have returned to their 
reserves, no doubt more or less benefited by such training as they had, although, for 
reasons already stated, it was necessarily far short of what the present inmates are 
gaining. Such boys as have gone into service or worked at trades have been doing well. 
I may instance a lad from St. Joseph's school, who works as a carpenter at the Black- 
foot reserve, two from the Battleford institution, who have been doing excellent work 
as assistant millwrights at various points in the territories, one from Qu'Appelle, who is 
employed as a blacksmith at the Muscowpetung agency, and another from the same 
institution, who is engaged in the Department's warehouse here (Regina)." 

xi 
14-Bj 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The institutions in Manitoba, namely, those at St. PauFs, near AVinnipeg, known as 
the Rupert's Land Indian school, at St. Boniface, and at Elkhorn, are of too recent 
origin to have as yet turned out any pupils sufficiently educated and trained to do for 
themselves. 

- The industries taught at the various institutions referred to are as follows : — 

At Battleford instruction is given to the male pupils in carpentering, blacksmithing 
and agriculture. The female pupils are taught sewing, cooking, washing, ironing, 
general house work, &c. At the Qu'Appelle institution carpentering, blacksmithing, 
shoemaking and farming are taught the boys, while the girls receive instruction 'in 
sewing, tailoring, knitting, cooking, baking, and general household duties. 

At St. Joseph's institution the male pupils have imparted to them a knowledge of 
shoemaking, carpentering and farming ; while the girls receive instruction in tailoring 
and shirt-making, mending, knitting, cooking, baking, dairy and laundry work. 

At the institution recently started at Regina carpentering and agriculture are 
taught the boys ; and the girls are instructed in laundry and kitchen work. 

At the Rupert's Land institution carpentering and blacksmithing, printing and 
farming are taught the boys ; and lessons in cooking, laundry and general kitchen work 
and sewing are given to the female pupils. At the institution at St. Boniface, which 
was only opened last year, similar instruction in trades and agriculture will be given 
when it has been got fairly under way. 

At the Elkhorn schools the boys are taught carpentering, blacksmithing, boot- 
making and farming, while the girls receive instruction in the various duties connected 
with household work, sewing, knitting, etc. 

The institutions in British Columbia at Metlakahtla, Kuper Island and Kamloops 
have, with the exception of the one at the first named place, limited the instruction 
imparted to boys in industries to agriculture, in acquiring a knowledge of which the 
Principals report that the boys have displayed proficiency. At Metlakahtla carpenter- 
ing has been taught with successful results. 

The female pupils at the institutions on Kuper Island and at Kootenay are taught 
sewing, knitting, cooking, baking, washing, ironing, dairy work and gardening. 

The mention of one important feature in connection with the industrial instruc- 
tion imparted to the pupils, male and female, at the institutions in Manitoba, the 
North- West Territories and British Columbia, should not be omitted, namely, that the 
efforts of those receiving instruction are, as far as practicable, made available under 
the direction and with the aid of their instructors for the benefit of the institu- 
tion and of the Indian reserves and agencies nearest to which they are situated : for 
instance, the carpenters and their apprentices are employed in repairing, and, when it 
can be done, in making additions to the buildings, in the manufacture of school furni- 
ture, building school houses, <kc., &c. The shoemaker and the pupils under him engage 
in manufacturing and repairing the boots of the pupils and in turning out such other 
leather goods as the requirements of the school demand, and as they may be capable of 
manufacturing. The blacksmith and his apprentices manufacture and repair such 
articles in that line as the institution or the neighbouring reserves and agencies need. 

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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The work done by the farm instructors and by the pupils who are learning to farm, 
and the crops raised, wood cut, and other outside work done, all accrue to the benefit of 
the institutions. 

The instructresses in tailoring, dressmaking, the manufacture of shirts and under- 
clothing, mending and knitting, and the girls under them, direct their efforts towards 
meeting the requirements in those lines of their respective institutions. 

As in the case before mentioned of the institutions in Manitoba, so also in respect 
to those in British Columbia : their establishment is of too recent a date for evidence to 
be afforded by those who have attended thereat of practical benefit having been received 
such as would enable them to be successful in their efforts at becoming self-supporting. 
The reports, however, of the Principals of these schools, which are published herewith, 
encourage the hope that in some, if not in many instances, such will be the result of the 
instruction they are receiving. 

Next in importance to the larger and more effectively equipped industrial institutions, 
the boarding schools, several of which are in operation in Manitoba and the North- West 
Territories and a few in British Columbia, take rank as levers in the social and moral 
education of the Indian youth of the country ; and while instruction in mechanical arts 
is not afforded the pupils at these institutions, they are nevertheless taught by other, 
though less expensive means, the value of time (a most important factor in the instruc- 
tion of Indians), and that there should be an object for the employment of every moment ; 
even, therefore, the routine of rising, dressing and washing themselves daily, reading 
the Word of God, receiving instruction in the great truths of Christianity, the recurrence 
of the hours for meals, classwork, outside duties, such as gardening, wood cutting, 
watering and feeding live stock, when any such are kept, recreation, studying their 
lessons for the next day — are all of great importance in the training and education, with 
a view to future usefulness of children who would, as a rule, never have received the 
benefit of the same at their homes. 

Moreover, the instruction given the male pupils in gardening and other outside 
work, and, though more rarely, in farming, and the females in sewing, knitting, mending, 
dressmaking and household duties generally, entitles these boarding schools to be regarded 
as at least of a semi-industrial type. The class instruction given at these schools is of 
as advanced a grade as that imparted to the pupils at the industrial institutions. 

The class of schools known as the semi-boarding and day schools is that which is 
next best calculated to accomplish effectually the education morally, socially and 
intellectually of Indian children. These schools are necessarily, owing to their being 
partially of the day school type, situated on Indian reserves. They are of more recent 
origin than any of the others, and consequently the lapse of time has not been sufficient 
to admit of a judgment being formed of their success as a means of educating such of 
the Indian children in attendance as are likewise lodged and boarded at these institutions. 
IBut there can be little question, obstructed though the education of the children 
undoubtedly is by the propinquity of the schools to the residences of the parents and 
other relations of the children, that this type of school is superior in many respects to 
the day school. Regular attendance, which is the greatest difficulty with which schools 
of the latter class have to contend, is, on the part at least of the children in residence 
insured ; as are also their daily food and sufficient clothing. Orderly habits are acquired, 

xiii 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



personal cleanliness is insisted on, and the routine followed in the school room and the 
household affords practical instruction to them in regard to the value of time and in 
other important respects. Then the moral and religious training received should be of 
invaluable benefit to the pupils. 

As respects the institutions of the industrial type in the Province of Ontario, 
namely, the Mohawk institute, near Brantford, the Wikwemikong industrial schools on 
Manitoulin Island, the Mount Elgin institution at Muncey, on the Indian reserve in 
the township of Carradoc, in the county of Middlesex, and the Shingwauk and Wawa- 
nosh homes at Sault Ste. Marie, in the district of Algoma, of the beneficial results 
which have followed the education and industrial training of Indian youths who have 
completed their course in whole or in part at those institutions, numerous instances are 
to be found ; ex-pupils of the same are engaged in following some of the learned pro- 
fessions or occupying lucrative positions in other lines of life. There are three of them 
employed as clerks in this Department, and they discharge their duties in a creditable 
and intelligent manner ; one of them being a Dominion land surveyor and civil engi- 
neer, having graduated at McGill University, Montreal, is attached to the technical 
branch of the Department. 

Many of the ex-pupils of these institutions are also filling positions as teachers of 
Indian day schools ; others are following the trades taught them at the institutions, or, 
having returned to their reserves, are quietly cultivating farms in accordance with the 
principles of agriculture learned by them thereat. 

A tabular statement affixed to this report, which contains particulars respecting 
the numerous schools of all classes in operation for the benefit of the Indian youth of 
the Dominion, will supply information relative to the number of children enrolled and 
average daily attendance at the Industrial institutions, as well as at the boarding, 
semi-boarding and day schools. 

It may be here stated that the two industrial schools in the north which, as mentioned 
in previous reports, it is intended to place unde r the charge of the authorities of the Methodist 
Church, have not yet been established. The sites have, however, at length been finally 
selected ; the one in Manitoba being at Brandon and the other in the North-West 
Territories, in the Red Deer River country. The contract for the erection of the 
buildings for the latter has been let, and tenders will at an early date be invited for 
the construction of the buildings for the former institution. 

It is greatly to be regretted that there are no industrial institutions in the Pro- 
vince of Quebec or in the Maritime Provinces, for the education and training in useful 
occupations of the children of the Indians of those Provinces. The superior condition 
of the Indians of Ontario as an industrial class to that of the Indians of Quebec and 
the Maritime Provinces is in a considerable measure due to the training received by so 
many of the former at such institutions, of which the latter have not had an opportunity 
to avail themselves, being dependent for what little education they get upon day schools, 
which, as a rule, are very inferior as a medium for imparting instruction to Indian 
children, and indeed it is very questionable whether the expenditure incurred in keep- 
ing up such schools is not so much money wasted. 

The establishment of two industrial institutions in the Province of Quebec and 
two similar schools of instruction in the Maritime Provinces seem to be advisable in the 

xiv 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



interests of the Indian youth of those portions of the Dominion, and, as stated in the 
preceding part of this report, economical considerations would appear to justify the 
expenditure which such an undertaking would involve, as the ultimate results in trans- 
forming useless into useful members of society and consumers into producers of wealth 
would certainly be to the advantage of the country at large, as well as benefit the 
immediate subjects of the education and industrial training given them at the public 
expense, and their children after them would be likely to imitate their parents, and 
thus future generations, as well as the present, would benefit. 

The following table will show the number of Indian schools of the various types 
before described in operation in the Dominion, the number of children enrolled as pupils 
at the schools of each type, and the daily average attendance :■ — 

Number of children of school age 13,420 

Number enrolled as pupils, at 231 day schools 6,202 

Daily average attendance at day schools, 3, 11 2 

Number enrolled at 19 industrial schools 1,045 

Daily average attendance at industrial schools 857 

Number of pupils enrolled at 18 boarding schools 307 

Daily average attendance at boarding schools 225 

Sanitary Condition. 

With the exception of the epidemic of influenza commonly called "La Grippe," from 
which the Indians in every portion of the Dominion, in common with the rest of the 
community, suffered severely, the general health of the Indians has been satisfactory. 

The sanitary measures adopted by direction of the Department, with a view to the 
prevention of disease, which require the destruction by fire in each spring of all garbage 
which may have accumulated during the Winter around the dwellings of the Indians, 
the thorough whitewashing of the latter, and, when necessary, the use of more potent 
disinfectants, and the systematic vaccination of all Indians, young and old, who may 
have not been successfully operated upon within the previous seven years, are, it is 
believed, in some places producing beneficial results in the improved condition of the 
general health of the Indian communities, and in the absence of the epidemic of small- 
pox which used to so often attack them. The Indians appear to appreciate the efforts 
made by the Department to prevent disease among them, as the officers of the Depart- 
ment report that there is a ready compliance on their part with the regulations. 

The most serious barrier, however, to the establishment of a complete hygeian 
system among the Indians has yet to be removed, and this is comprised in the badly 
ventilated and overcrowded houses which they occupy. This is a difficulty for which, 
up to the present time, the Department has found no remedy, but on moral and social 
as well as sanitary grounds it is most desirable that the one-roomed house, which is, as 
a rule, the kind of domicile occupied by them, should be replaced by a building suffi- 
ciently commodious to admit of separate apartments being provided for the different 
sexes to sleep in and for the family to cook and eat in. 

There are, however, individual instances on a number of the reserves of departure 
in this respect from the general rule limiting . the capacity of the residence to one room, 
and when enterprise in this direction is displayed the individual is praised and held up 

XV 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



as an example to the other members of his band to be followed by them. The evil 
arising from their overcrowded houses is much aggravated in the cases of Indians who 
have substituted stoves for the old-fashioned fireplaces, the chimneys of which of them- 
selves were good conduits for both fresh and foul air. 

It is hoped that in the course of time, and with the change in their ideas which 
will gradually be effected, the Indians will recognize the great importance, from every 
point of view, of substituting properly-partitioned, well ventilated dwellings for those 
which the majority of them at present occupy. 



Eleetnosynary A ssistance. 

The sick, aged, widows of advanced years, and orphans of tender age are the especial 
objects of the Department's solicitude, and, so far as the means at its disposal will 
admit of its being done, care is taken that none of them suffer from want of the neces- 
saries of life. It is possible to prevent such being the case, and it is, it is believed, 
prevented, when the afflicted ones are members of bands who have money at their 
credit in the hands of the Government, or when provision has been made by parlia- 
mentary appropriations to meet such cases in particular localities, but occasionally dis- 
tressing instances come to the knowledge of the Department of sick or aged Indians 
who, as well as their parents before them, have been always nomadic, and belong to no 
particular band, or who, from long dissociation from their people, are not recognized as 
belonging to them, and are therefore refused assistance from their funds. In such 
instances it is most difficult to know what to do. They are not entitled, or their right 
is disputed by the band, to share in or obtain relief from any funds held in trust by the 
Department for the benefit of any Indian band, nor are the appropriations for relief 
purposes made by Parliament apparently available for such cases : the result generally 
is that the applicant for relief, being a non-descript, has, notwithstanding his condition 
may be such as to call for assistance, to be denied the aid sought for. 

In dispensing gratuitous assistance the Department exercises great caution ; other- 
wise more harm than good would be done by an injudicious extension of succour to able- 
bodied Indians, or even to the sick and aged members of a household, the head of which 
is able, and should be required to keep them without charge to the band or the country ; 
and it is only under very exceptional circumstances that those who are able to work 
receive gratuitous aid from the Department, and generally when it is given it is relieved, 
as much as possible, of that character by something in the shape of work being required 
from the recipients in return. 

The principle is inculcated in the minds of the Indians that they are expected to 
work for their subsistence, whether it be by hunting, fishing, farming or pursuing some 
other industry, and they are given to understand that the Department will not support 
them in idleness, and that when, owing to unavoidable circumstances, it has to extend 
relief to them, it expects them to work, while being supported, in their fields, or in such 
other line of industry as will give the best return for the succour rendered them, and 
which at the same time will be most beneficial for themselves. 

Moral and Social Status. 

The influences which are brought to bear upon Indians Avho are settled upon 
reserves through the labours of the representatives of the various religious denomina- 

xvi 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



tions by the medium of the different classes of schools, the constant presence with them 
of the agents of the Department and their families, and other resident employes, and 
the example thus set them of well-ordered households ; the attention that they are 
made to bestow on their outside premises, the requirement at the schools that the 
children in attendance shall present themselves daily in a cleanly and neat condition, 
washing utensils being provided at each school for this purpose, are no doubt contribut- 
ing gradually towards the elevation, morally and socially, of the Indians ; but that curse 
of the red man, liquor, is in the case of the occupants of reserves situated at all near white 
centres, the great obstacle to the progress of some of them ; for although the prohibitory 
liquor clauses of the Indian Act are sufficiently stringent, the difficulty so often 
encountered of obtaining a conviction when parties accused of violating them are 
brought to trial evidently serves as an encouragement to the vendors of spirits to incur 
the risk of selling intoxicants direct to the Indians or to others for them. 

Many of them, however, situated though their reserves are in proximity to places 
-where liquor can be obtained, resist successfully the temptation to indulge in the same, 
and are respected by the community at large for their sobriety and uprightness of 
character. 

The proneness of the Indian to run into debt, if he can at all obtain credit, 
attended as it subsequently is with a total inability and, it is feared in some instances, 
disinclination to discharge his liabilities, has a very demoralizing effect upon him. And 
unhappily there are traders and merchants m4io encourage the Indians in this pernicious 
practice, with the object, it is feared, of thus getting rid of useless articles at excessive 
prices, regulated by the risk they run of being paid at all, or if paid by the time they 
will probably be obliged to wait for their money. 

It is gratifying, however, to observe that even in the North- West, where the Indians 
have been for but a comparatively short time under- civilizing influences, they are 
learning to expend their money in the purchase of useful articles, food, cattle and sheep, 
and that the gew-gaws, of which they are naturally so fond, form but a small portion of 
their purchases. 

The law which prohibits any person from trading or bartering with the Indians on 
reserves in Manitoba or the North-West Territories without a special license from the 
Department is strictly carried out, and in the licenses issued there is a clause forbid- 
ding the holder to have in his possession for traffic or sale any trinkets or useless arti- 
«cles, and he is required to submit a list of the articles to be sold or bartered, with the 
prices to be charged therefor, to the chief officer of the Department in Manitoba or the 
North-West Territories, as the case may be, and the same must be approved of by him 
before the licensee may trade on the reserve which his license covers. 

The Department has been always strongly opposed to the system of credit under 
which Indians are encouraged by traders and merchants to anticipate the payment of 
their annuities or of their dividends of interest by obtaining goods on credit. In some 
instances to such an extent has this been carried on that the moneys of the Indian 
debtors have been mortgaged to their creditors, in so far as the same can be done, for 
years, to come. 

During the past season, in order to further demonstrate the Department's disap- 
proval of this system, and to prevent this system being continued, a circular letter was 

xvii 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 

addressed to all Indian agents, instructing them to notify all parties who were in the 
habit of trading with the Indians, or with whom the latter have dealings, that the 
Department would be responsible for no debts incurred by Indians, whether the same 
were by virtue of orders from agents, chiefs, Indian councils, or otherwise. 

In order to ejfifectually put a stop to the pernicious system, it is thought there should 
be legislation prohibiting, under severe penalty, the giving of credit to Indians, except 
under special permission. 

The more Indians are brought into contact with white men the more exposed they 
are to and the less able they seem to be to resist the temptation of running into debt ; 
therefore, the prohibition would appear to be more necessary in the case of Indians of th'e 
older Provinces, where their reserves are surrounded by white settlements and many of 
them in close proximity to cities, towns and villages, than it is in that of Indians residing, 
in the more recently acquired sections of the Dominion, where white settlement is more 
sparse, and comparatively very few of the reserves are situated near centres of white 
population. 

Progress towards becoming S elf -swp'por ting. 

As stated in my report on Indian affairs for 1891, the Indians of the several pro- 
vinces, as well as those of the district of Keewatin, are for the most part already able 
to support themselves without assistance from the Government, the exceptions being the 
aged and sick. 

In British Columbia agricultural implements in limited quantities are occasionally 
given to encourage Indians commencing to farm, but as a rule the energy of the Indians 
of this province and the ample resources they possess for obtaining a livelihood relieve 
the Government of all expense in providing for able-bodied Indians. 

The expense to which the Government is therefore put in connection with the 
administration of Indian affairs in the parts referred to consists mainly in keeping up 
what may be termed in one sense a preventive force for the protection of the Indians 
from imposition and their reserves from encroachment, and in another sense an advisory 
staif to advise the Indians in regard to matters in general affecting their welfare, and 
to encourage them to perseverance in obtaining a living. 

The agents of the Department fill this two-fold position, as well as serve as 
mediums of communication between the Indians and the Department. 

In the North- West Territories a different state of matters exists, owing to the cir- 
cumstances in which the Indians were found when the Department undertook their 
management. 

But gratifying indications of a gradual advance toward self-support are every year 
more manifest. Not a few of the bands are now able to contribute in part towards 
their own support from the crops raised by them. The fact, however, must not be lost 
sight of, that as regards many of the Indians of the North- West they have not yet 
settled upon their reserves, and that when they do make up their minds to take up land 
and become agriculturists the same process of instruction will have to be repeated as 
regards them as those who preceded them were subjected to, and, therefore, to enable 
them to become successful tillers of the soil and herdsmen, the expense of imparting 
practical instruction to them will have to be incurred. 

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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Moreover, the greater number of those who have been subjects of instruction in 
these arts have but half learned their lesson, and in order to prevent retrogression on 
their part it is necessary that close supervision of themselves and their work should be 
constantly exercised. 

As respects those Indians in the North-West who have not yet turned their atten- 
tion to the cultivation of the soil as the principal means of obtaining a subsistence, 
their dependence is still, to a considerable extent, on hunting and fishing, besides upon 
what they obtain from the Department ; and the instructions given the Indian agents 
in regard to these Indians are to supply them with ammunition when necessary where- 
with to provide their own subsistence by hunting, and to encourage them to pursue this 
avocation, coupled with fishing, as much as possible, only giving them rations of food 
when, owing to a failure of the hunt, they cannot procure the wherewithal to support 
themselves and families. By following this course a saving to the country is effected, 
and the Indians are saved from the demoralization which would attend their being fed 
in idleness. It may here be remarked that the large majority of the Indians of Mani- 
toba, Keewatin and that portion of the territory embraced in Treaty No. 3, which lies 
within the Province of Ontario, earn their subsistence by hunting and fishing. 

The latter resource being their principal dependence, it is gratifying to be able to 
refer to the wise regulations which have recently been made by Your Excellency in 
Council, on the recommendation of the Department of Fisheries, under which licenses to 
persons to catch fish in Manitoba, Keewatin and the North-West Territories for trade 
or sale are restricted to the deep water in the lakes, and by the same regulations fishing 
within a fixed distance from the mouths of rivers and streams is also prohibited. These 
regulations reserve the fishing within a certain distance from the shore to Indians and 
white residents of the country, and they provide for the issue to them of a class of permits 
termed "domestic licenses," as well as grant the privilege to Indians of catching fish 
for their own consumption, but not for barter or sale, during the close season. 

The wise reservation made of the Lake of the Woods as a fishing ground for Indians 
exclusively is greatly in the interests of the country, as all of the Indians of that portion 
of Ontario, as well as those of the Rainy Lake and River district, have from time 
immemorial obtained the most important part of their sustenance from the waters of 
the former lake, which were becoming so rapidly depleted of fish previously to the reser- 
vation thereof for Indians, by the extensive fishing carried on by parties engaged in the 
export of fish to the United States, that in a very short time the fish would have been 
completely exterminated, and, as a consequence, the Indians would have been thrown 
upon the country for their support. 

It is hoped that the measures adopted to prevent the further over-fishing of this 
body of water, as well as of the larger lakes and their tributary rivers and streams in 
Manitoba, Keewatin and the North-West Territories, coupled with such measures as 
may be taken to re-stock with fish the waters referred to, which have been depleted to 
so serious an extent by the past operations of large fishing establishments, may in time 
restore them to their pristine capabilities as sources of food supply for the Indians. 

The exhaustive reports on Indian affairs made in previous years contain such full 
particulars in regard to the position geographically of the various Indian reserves in the 

xix 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



difterent territorial divisions of the Dominion, as well as in respect to the names of the 
bands in occupation of the same, as to render a repetition of information on these 
points unnecessary. 

I shall consequently confine myself, in dealing with the Indian affairs of each 
province or other division of territory, to matters in general relative to the Indian 
population thereof. 

PROVINCE OF ONTARIO. 

Indian matters in this province continued in the same satisfactory condition during 
the past year that characterized them in previous years. 

The increasing interest taken by the Indians on many of the reserves in agriculture 
and in raising cattle, as evidenced by their keen competition for prizes at the agricul- 
tural exhibitions on their reserves, and occasionally also at fairs where they have to 
compete with agriculturists of white origin, is indicative of their progress towards 
assimilation of ideas with those of the more advanced members of society. 

The Indians residing on reserves situated in the central part of the province are, as 
a result no doubt of their being brought into frequent contact with other classes of the 
community, and observing the methods of farming followed by agriculturists of other 
origin who live in the vicinity, more advanced in their ideas, and engage more exten- 
sively in cultivating land and raising stock than those whose reserves are located in the 
more remote parts of the province. Added to this is the fact that the Indians of the 
central portion of Ontario are not now able to obtain a subsistence from hunting, as the 
tracts which formerly comprised their hunting grounds have been taken up and settled 
upon by the agricultural and "other classes of the community, and the former Indian 
owners find themselves therefore forced to resort to agriculture in order to obtain a 
subsistence. 

In the more remote parts the Indians are still largely dependent upon the chase ; 
but the nearer their reserves are to white settlements the less do the Indians devote 
themselves to hunting as a means of securing a livelihood. 

• For example, not to mention Indians more centrally situated, the Indians of the 
Great Manitoulin Island, whereon there are extensive white settlements, and the Indians 
of the Parry Sound and Muskoka districts, where several saw-mills are operated, lum- 
bering establishments carried on, and large quantities of timber handled and shipped, 
are not so wholly dependent on what they can procure with the trap and gun as are 
those living in the interior at distant points from Lake Huron and from agricultural 
settlements. 

And for similar reasons the Indians of Fort William, on Lake Superior, depend less 
upon the hunt for fur-bearing animals and game than do those at more remote points 
from civilization, situated upon or inland from the coast, or in the Rainy River and 
Lake country, or in the region of the Lake of the Woods. 

The quantity of game and fur-bearing animals obtainable in these remote regions, 
while it is not by any means as large as was formerly the case, is sufficiently so, supple- 
mented by their catch of fish, to at least render the Indians self-supporting. 

The Honourable the Hudson Bay Company and other fur traders afford them a 
mart for the furs secured by them, and they use as food the flesh of the fur-bearing 
xinimals they capture, as well as the game and fish they kill. 

XX 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Efforts are to a certain extent being made by some of these bands to cultivate land 
and raise crops, and the Department encourages them in doing so ; for apart from the 
important consideration that when white people become more numerous, and the j3resent 
hunting grounds of the Indians, which have all been ceded by them, excepting their 
reserves — are monopolized by settlers, the game and other animals on which they now 
subsist will disappear, as they have done elsewhere from similar causes, and the Indians 
must therefore look to the products of the soil for their subsistence, the farinacious 
food secured by them by the cultivation of portions of their reserves supplies them with 
a wholesome change of diet, or, rather, is an important addition to the diet of flesh with 
which the hunt and angling alone supply them. 

Educational matters among the Indians of the province have been fairly success- 
ful. The Indians on a number of their reserves have through their councils passed 
rules and regulations for ensuring more regular attendance on the part of the pupils, 
and in respect to school matters in general on the reserves concerned. These rules - 
have, with slight emendations, been confirmed by "Your Excellency in Council, and they 
have, therefore, under the provisions of the Indian Act, the authority of law. 

Several additional day schools were brought into operation during the year on 
different reserves. 

The crops in all the reserves in this province whereon the cultivation of land is to 
any considerable extent attempted were bountiful during the past season. 

A considerably larger area was also brought under tillage than was the case in the 
preceding year. As a consequence, the means of the Indians situated on reserves where 
this is the case have been proportionately augmented, and their prospects for passing 
tjie winter in plenty and comfort are assured. 

QUEBEC. 

The Indians of this province, although not as progressive as their brethren of the 
sister Province of Ontario, nevertheless contrived to support themselves for the laaost 
part without assistance from the Department during the past year. 

They farm much less extensively than the Indians of Ontario, seeming to prefer 
engaging themselves as shantymen and raftsmen when they do not follow hunting and 
the manufacture of Indian wares, which very many of them still do, for a livelihood. 

In the lower portion of the St. Lawrence some of them derive quite a considerable 
revenue by acting as guides and boatmen for tourists and anglers. 

They, as well as some of those in the western section of the province, do also quite 
a lucrative business by the sale, at seaside resorts in Canada and the United States, of 
their manufactures. 

The Indians of the Saguenay district, and those of the more easterly regions on 
the lower St. Lawrence, engage largely in the fur hunt. The former met with fair suc- 
cess last season, but the latter were not so successful, and both suffered greatly from 
the epidemic of influenza called '^ La Grippe." 

The Indians of the Upper Ottawa derive the greater portion of their subsistence 
from hunting. The prices obtained by them for their last season's hunt were 
remunerative. 

xxi 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Their valuable reserve in the township of Maniwaki is sufficiently extensive to 
accommodate all of them when hunting gives out, and when they, like their brethren 
elsewhere, will be forced to look to agriculture as a means of procuring a living. Not a 
few already reside upon the tract during the open season, and evince considerable enter- 
prise in farming, raising cattle (supplying themselves for the more successful prosecution 
of the former avocation with improved machinery), and in making public improvements 
on the reserve by the construction of roads and bridges. 

The day schools on the various reserves of the province were kept in operation 
■during the year ; but, as intimated in a previous part of this report, until industrial 
schools are established but little substantial progress in the educational line appears 
possible, as day schools have proved a poor means by which to impart instruction to 
Indian children, when unaided by the superior advantages obtainable at schools of the 
industrial type. 

NOYA SCOTIA. 

The Micmacs of this province pursued during the past year their normal course of 
lionesty and industry. 

The occupations in which they principally engage, namely, fishing, hunting, cooper- 
ing, cutting timber, porpoise shooting, manufacturing baskets and other Indian wares, 
working at mills and on railways, coupled in most cases with gardening, and on some 
of the reserves in Cape Breton with farming to a small extent, enabled the able-bodied 
among the Indians to support themselves and families ; while the Department extended 
the usual amount of assistance to the sick and aged. 

All of their agents agree that the Indians of Nova Scotia are a very honest, law- 
abiding class. One of the agents, the Rev. D. Mclsaac, of Glendale, in the county 
of Inverness, speaking on this topic, makes the following remarks : — ■" There is one trait 
in the character of the Micmacs which cannot be too highly praised. Living as they 
do, they frequently suffer many privations. This evening they may not have to-morrow's 
breakfast in reserve for themselves and families, and yet a case of theft from their 
white neighbours is, I believe, utterly unknown. The gradual elevation of a race with 
a fair characteristic like this so firmly impressed on them ought not to be despaired of." 

The same gentleman again states : — " I am happy to be able to report an unmis- 
takable improvement in the condition of all the Indians in my agency. Each succeed- 
ing year shows more clearly than the preceding one that it is only a question of time to 
find them good and useful citizens, provided only that they are well treated and have 
fair opportunities of advancement." 

The prevailing epidemic of influenza appears to have afflicted very many of the 
Indians of this province during the past year. Pulmonary complaints also claimed 
their victims among them. 

The schools mentioned in previous annual reports as being in operation on the 
more important reserves continued to be conducted with a fair amount of success. 

NEW BRUNSWICK. 

The Amalecites of the western counties of this province, and the Micmacs of the 
eastern counties, prosecuted with considerable vigour and with a fair amount of success 
their different avocations of mixed farming, fishing, manufacturing Indian wares, hunt- 

xxii 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



ing, manufacturing timber, rafting, acting as guides for sportsmen, and as day 
labourers, &c. Altogether the Indians of this province may be described as main- 
taining themselves in independence, and, for the most part, in comfort. They appear 
to be, as a general thing, a thrifty and industrious class of people, the contrary being 
the exception and not the rule with them. 

The aofed and sick received the usual amount of assistance and attention from the 
Department through its agents during the past year. 

The health of the Indians of this province in general was fairly good. " La 
Orippe," however, was prevalent among some of them, but it was not attended with 
fatal results. 

The schools referred to in the reports for previous years continued their operations 
during the past season with a greater or less degree of success in each case, those on 
the St. Mary's reserve, near Fredericton, and on the reserve on the Tobique river, 
being the most favourably reported of. 

The Amalecites are described by their visiting superintendent as a temperate, law- 
abiding people, and as commanding, by their general conduct, the esteem of those who 
employ them. 

I regret to say that, in so far as relates to temperance, so good an account is not 
given of the Micmacs by their visiting superintendent. That officer reports that " not- 
withstanding the stringency of the regulations regarding the sale of liquor to the Indians 
they do procure it, and are made miserable by its use." 

In the successful prevention of the use of intoxicants by and the traffic in the same 
with the Indians a great deal depends on the activity of their agent, and the interest 
taken by him in protecting the Indians under his charge from becoming victims of the 
habit of indulging in the use of spirituous liquor. 

It is invariably found that when an agent energetically exerts himself in the 
endeavour to suppress the traffic in intoxicants with the Indians, and to bring to justice 
parties engaging in the same, his effi^rts are crowned with success, and the Indians 
become sober, and, as a consequence, greatly benefited morally and socially by the 
suppression of the traffic. 

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 

There is but little to remark respecting the condition of the Indians of this pro- 
vince ; it remains practically the same as in previous years. An improvement in the 
moral sentiment, especially in the younger portion of the community on Lennox Island 
reserve, is reported by the Indian superintendent for the province. 

A temperance society has been formed by them which promises to be productive of 
benefit to their people. 

The Indians of this reserve added considerably to the area of land brought under 
cultivation during the past year. 

The farming operations of the Indians upon the smaller reserve at Morell appear to 
be more restricted than those of the Indians on Lennox Island. The school on the latter 
reserve has received fresh impetus by the appointment of an excellent teacher, and the 
attendance thereat is reported to be larger. 

xxiii 



55 Victoria. Ir^essional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Sickness, attended in some cases with fatal results, was very prevalent among the 
Indians of this province last season. Disease of the lungs and pneumonia were the most 
serious complaints. 

These Indians were for the most part able to support themselves and families with- 
out more assistance from the Department than the usual supply of seed to plough in the 
spring ; any other relief given was, as a general thing, confined to the sick and aged. 

MANITOBA AND KEEWATIN. 

The wise restrictions elsewhere alluded to in this report, imposed by recent regu- 
lations of the Department of Fisheries on the catching for sale or barter of fish, especially 
whitefish, in the lakes and other waters of this province and district, are the cause of 
great satisfaction to the Indians, their minds being relieved thereby from the apprehen- 
sions which before filled them, that were fishing on the extensive scale on which it was 
carried on previously to the passage of these regulations to be continued, the lakes and 
streams would be very soon entirely depleted, and thus the most important item of their 
food supply would be forever lost to them. It is, however, hope/i that, as previously 
stated, the harm that has been done in the past by over-fishing will be soon remedied by 
the restrictions referred, to, and by re-stocking with fish fry the partially depleted waters 
in the above province and district, as well as those in the North- West Territories. 

While the proximity of some of the reserves in Manitoba to towns and villages is 
prejudical to the interests of the Indian occupants, in so far as the facility for procuring 
intoxicants is concerned, it is, on the other hand, favourable to many of them, by enabling 
them to obtain remunerative employment at those places ; but on the whole the Indians 
on reserves more distant from white centres, who have to devote their energies more 
exclusively to cultivating the soil, fishing and hunting, are more comfortable in their 
circumstances, and are not exposed to such temptations as are the others above referred 
to. The energetic measures, however, taken by the Indian agents to bring to justice 
all parties guilty of infractions of the liquor clauses of the Indian Act appear to be 
bearing fruit at last ; few, if any, reports having of late reached the Department of the 
sale of liquor to Indians in Manitoba. 

The circular letter which, as mentioned in my report for 1889, was addressed by 
the Department to all police and other magistrates in the Dominion, requesting them to 
cause the law prohibiting the sale or gift of intoxicants to Indians to be stringently 
enforced, has no doubt likewise had a beneficial efiect in restraining this traffic in 
Manitoba and in the other provinces. 

A pleasing report of progress on the part of the Indians of the St. Peter's reserve 
has been received. They are said to be, as a people, in a more prosperous condition 
than are even the residents of other origin in many of the older settlements on the Red 
River and the River Assiniboine. 

The schools, which are six in number, on the reserve, were kept up during the past 
season with varying success. The great drawback to the success of these institutions, 
and to their being of greater benefit to the children of the reserve, consists in the irregu- 
larity and small attendance of children thereat. 

The council of chiefs of the band has, however, in accordance with the provisions 
of the Indian Act, recently passed stringent rules and regulations to compel the general 
and regular attendance of all children of an age to attend ; and it is hoped that good 
results will follow. 

xxiv 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The school attendance on all the reserves in Manitoba, upon which day schools 
have been established, is similarly defective ; and it is hoped that the injunctions of the 
Department, that rules and regulations to remedy matters in this respect should likewise 
be passed by the councils of the bands owning the reserves, will be obeyed. 

The resources possessed by the Indians of the eastern reserves of Manitoba for 
making a living, namely, fishing, farming and hunting, are sufficient to enable them to 
keep themselves and families in comfort. Some assistance has, however, to be extended 
to the sick and aged from time to time. 

The Indians of the Lake Manitoba reserves, residing as they do in a good hunting 
and fishing country, were likewise able last season, as they had done in previous years, 
to obtain their own subsistence from these resources without any difficulty. 

They own a considerable number of cattle, and as the land on their reserves is for 
the most part unsuitable for farming, should their other means of procuring a livelihood 
give out, which is, however, not likely to be the case for some years, these Indians would 
probably have to turn their attention to stock raising, their reserves being better 
adapted for that enterprise than they are for agriculture. 

The Indians of the central portion of the province continue to be, as they always 
were, strongly addicted to wandering about from place to place, and averse to settling 
on their reserves. The condition of matters in this respect is certainly very unsatis- 
factory. Their lands have to be planted, as well as their crops reaped for them. The only 
improvement that has taken place is an apparent, and which it is hoped will prove to be 
a permanent, reformation of moral character on their part, which consists in their not 
being so much given to over-indulgence in intoxicants as was formerly the case. The 
agent of these Indians reports that during the payment of their annuities last year no 
intoxicants were brought on any of their reserves, and that there was no indication of 
any Indian being under the influence of the same. 

With the exception of the cost of putting in and reaping their crops for them, no 
assistance, except to the sick and aged, is given to these Indians. Some of them obtain 
their living by the sale of seneca-root, which grows abundantly in that part of the 
province, is valuable for medicinal purposes, and commands a ready purchase at good 
prices. Others are employed as labourers by white farmers of the locality, and they obtain 
good wages for their services. 

The Indians of the western part of the province are for the most part tillers of the 
soil and raisers of cattle. Of the four bands of Sioux in that section three of them 
engage extensively in agriculture, occupy their farms in severalty, and possess quite 
large herds of cattle. Their progress during the past season was most satisfactory. 

The fourth band is, I regret to have to state, making no progress. Their reserve 
being situated close to the boundary line between Canada and the United States, is a 
rendezvous for Indians from the latter country ; and for a similar reason visits by these 
Sioux to the United States are so frequent as to interfere with their success as 
agriculturists. 

The other band of Indians in this agency are of the Cree tribe. They are treaty 
Indians, and dependent to a considerable extent on the chase and fishing for their 
sustenance. They, however, farm to some extent, and own quite a number of cattle. 

XXV 

14— c 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The Indians of the district of Keewatin continue to depend principally on hunting 
and fishing. The land on their reserves being of a rocky nature and covered thickly 
with trees, tillage of the same is extremely difficult. They, however, make brave 
attempts to overcome their difficulties, and, in addition to what they procure by fishing 
and hunting, they manage to grow some root crops. 

These Indians, as well as those of Manitoba, viewed with serious apprehension and 
dismay the rapid destruction which went on for several years of the formerly ample 
fisheries of Lake Winnipeg and other waters from which they had from time immemorial 
derived the principal portion of their sustenance ; and their delight and satisfaction were 
proportionately intense when they were informed of the wise and humane preventive 
measures recently established, ensuring, as it is hoped they will, aided by the steps that 
will doubtless be taken to replenish the partially depleted waters with fish, a subsistence 
for themselves and their children after them. 

These Indians are a peaceable, quiet class, and very industrious. Excepting the 
relief extended to the sick and aged, and seed supplied them every spring, they receive 
no assistance from the Government. They are practically, therefore, self-supporting. 

They own a considerable number of cattle, and the number is annually increasing. 

NORTH-WEST TERRITORIES. 

The report of the Indian Commissioner for the North-West Territories and the 
reports of the inspectors of agencies and of the Indian agents and industrial school 
inspectors, as well as the tabular statements showing the quantities of grain and roots 
planted and harvested, respectively, on the various reserves, and the quantities sown and 
harvested by individual Indians, all of which are published herewith as appendices to 
Part I of this report, contain such full information in respect to Indian matters in each 
locality that a description of their condition would necessarily be a repetition of the 
statements contained in those reports, and therefore superfluous. 

It is gratifying to observe, from the various reports and statements referred to, 
that the past year has been one of peace and quietness on the one hand, and of increas- 
ing prosperity, as the result of thrift and industry, on the other hand. 

Numerous instances of individual effort on the part of Indians having been 
rewarded with success are recorded. 

The increasing spirit of enterprise, as evidenced by tlie eagerness of many of the 
Indians to compete at agricultural exhibitions, is most encouraging ; and it is all the 
more pleasing when, as has been the case in a number of instances, the exhibits offered 
for competition by them have obtained prizes as against those of white competitors. 

The natural instinct of the Indian for gambling, or earning gain by chance, is by 
these exhibitions directed into a healthier channel, as he can, at them, have an 
opportunity of competing for and, if successful, obtaining prizes far exceeding in value 
that of the article or articles exhibited. 

The emulation between Indians of different reserves aroused by the consideration 
that by raising superior grain and roots they may snatch prizes at the fairs from one 
another, as well as from other exhibitors, has a most beneficial effect. 

They thus learn much more rapidly than they otherwise would to distinguish 
between superior and inferior products, and they are stimulated to do their utmost to 
secure prizes by giving careful attention to their crops. 

xxvi 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Some of the Indian women have also become so skilful in dressmaking, knitting, 
the manufacture of butter, baking of bread, and in making hats, baskets and mats, that 
they likewise compete for prizes at the exhibitions. 

The wives of the farm instructors on the various reserves act as instructors of the 
Indian women in these industries, as well as in household duties generally, and some of 
the former have been very assiduous in the performance of this duty, and that they 
have been successful with their pupils in many instances is evident from the style of 
articles and manufactures exhibited by the latter at the fairs, which have won prizes and 
elicited words of commendation from all parties. 

It is also most satisfactory to know that by the instruction of the Indian women 
in these avocations they are being led to employ themselves in what is not only more 
profitable to themselves and families, but in what is more becoming to their sex than 
continuing to be " hewers of wood and drawers of water," as they all previously were, 
and too many of them still are. 

The work of endeavouring to elevate morally and socially men, women and children, 
and to stimulate them to aspire to better things, thus goes on. 

What is being done for the education and industrial training of the children of 
Indians of the North- West Territories has already been described, under the heading 
"Education," in a previous portion of this report. 

The condition generally of the health of the Indians of the North- West Territories 
during the year was more satisfactory than in the year 1890. This better condition of 
sanitary matters may possibly be due to some extent to the erection on some of the 
reserves of a better class of buildings for residences, which by being partitioned off into 
two or more apartments afford more accommodation, as well as secure better ventilation ; 
and the necessity for all the occupants of the house to sleep, eat in, and otherwise use 
the one room is done away with. 

The rules of the Department in regard to sanitary precautions are likewise universally 
observed. 

The more general use of vegetable and farinaceous food, as supplementary of a meat 
diet, is also no doubt conducive to a better condition of health. 

The subdivision by survey of the land, or a portion of it, upon the reserves into 
individual holdings, so as to admit of the occupation of the latter in severalty by Indians, 
is proceeding each season. • Last year four reserves, two at Peace Hills, in the district 
of Alberta, a third at Indian Head, and a fourth reserve in the Moose Mountains, were 
similarly subdivided. 

As stated in previous annual reports, the occupation of land in severalty is an 
important factor in the civilization and training of Indians to habits of independence 
and self-support ; it also promotes among them a healthy spirit of emulation ; and the 
fact that the work they bestow upon and the products grown in their fields are for their 
own exclusive benefit gives them a deeper interest in their holdings than they would 
take in land in working which they would be merely contributing by their labour to the 
common good of the band, as is the case when Indians on a reserve cultivate the land 
in common. 

xxvii 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The following are the aggregate quantities in bushels of the grain and root crops 
harvested during the season of 1890 on the various reserves in the North-West Terri- 
tories. The grain crop for 1891 had not been threshed when the annual reports and 
returns were received : — 

Bushels. 

Wheat * 67,726 

Oats 21,592 

Barley 19,761 

Potatoes 44,284 

Turnips 14,788 

Carrots 1,340 

Rye 413 

Garden produce 2,337 

A large proportion of this produce is the result of the individual labour of Indians 
upon their respective holdings. 

A return showing, in the case of each agency, the crops sown and harvested by 
individual Indians, will be found appended to this report. 

The population of the Indians resident upon reserves in the territories surrendered 
under Treaties 4, 6, 7, all of whom are under the management of the North-West 
Superintendency, as distinguished from those under the management of the Manitoba 
Superintendency, is in round numbers about fifteen thousand. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

The Indians of this province have always been distinguished for their industry and 
energy; and the record of their conduct during the past year, as described in the 
reports of the visiting Indian superintendent for the province and the Indian agents 
for the various sections into which for Indian purposes it has been subdivided, shows 
that they fully maintained their reputation in those respects. 

The Indians whose reserves are situated in the Cowichan, Kamloops, Okanagon, 
Eraser river, William's lake or Lillooet and Kootenay districts during the past season 
combined the occupations of farming, and cattle, sheep and swine raising, fruit culture, 
hop-picking and mining with fishing and hunting ; while the Indians of the west coast 
of Vancouver Island, as well as those known as the Kwawkewlths, and those of the 
north-west coast of the mainland, including Queen Charlotte islands, and the Indians of 
the Babine district, depended more exclusively on fishing, hunting, killing seals and 
trapping. They all engaged more or less in the fish-canning industry ; and salmon 
having been very abundant, they were able to secure a plentiful supply for their winter's 
requirements, besides obtaining remunerative wages at the canneries while the latter 
were in operation. 

From one end of the province to the other prosperity and contentment reigned 
among the Indians during the past year. Even on the north-west coast, where but a 
few years since considerable difficulty was experienced in managing the Indians, owing 
to exaggerated ideas instilled into their minds as to their land rights by evil counsellors 
and mischief-makers, actuated no doubt by sinister motives, the Indians having become 
pacified and assured that the Department was doing all it could for them, tranquillity 
undisturbed prevailed during the year. 

xxviii 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The health of many of the tribes was seriously affected by the epidemic of influenza 
which has been and is still so prevalent everywhere in the Dominion. Many of them 
died from it, or from the consequence which followed an attack of the disease. 

The four schools of the industrial type established at Metlakahtla, Kamloops, 
Kuper Island and Kootenay, continue to give unqualified satisfaction, and so pleased are 
the Indians with the prospect thus presented to them of having their children educated 
and trained in a knowledge of trades and agriculture that the Principals of these insti- 
tutions report that had the buildings double the lodging capacity they now possess 
there would be no difficulty in filling them. It is hoped that the industrial institution 
which, in my report for 1890, it was stated it was proposed to establish on Cormorant 
island, in Alert Bay, for the purpose of instructing the Indian youth of the Kwawkewlth 
tribe in industries, will be brought into operation during the present year. 

The condition of Indian matters in the various provinces and territories having 
been reviewed, I shall close this report with the usual statement in respect to the work 
done at headquarters by the various branches of the Department during the past year. 

Accountant's Branch. 

The amount at the credit of the numerous trust fund accounts on the 30th June, 
1891, aggregated in principal and interest $3,515,233.67 ; being an increase of $36,032.68 
over the sum at the credit of the same accounts on the 30th June, 1890. 

The expenditure from these funds during the last fiscal year amounted to $285,490.39, 
being $8,160.42 less than was expended during the preceding year. 

The expenditure from the Parliamentary appropriations for Indian purposes in 
Manitoba, Keewatin, the North- West Territories, British Columbia and the Maritime 
Provinces, consisted of the following amounts : — 

Manitoba, Keewatin and the North- West Territories. . .$833,187 77 

British Columbia 85,054 93 

Nova Scotia 5,820 23 

New Brunswick 6,152 13 

Prince Edward Island 1,997 68 

212 74 



The number of accounts kept by this branch increased from 278 in 1890 to 476 
in 1891. 

This large increase was mainly due to a necessity which arose for opening a number 
of accounts with individual lessees to whom lands upon the Indian reserve in the town- 
ship of Tyendenaga, in Ontario, had been leased for the benefit of the individual Indian 
locatees of the same. 

The pay-cheques prepared and issued during the year numbered 12,494, being 385 
more than were issued in 1890. 

The number of certificates for credit issued by the branch was 80, and the number 
of statements prepared for the Auditor General was 60. 

Statement C and the subsidiary statements, 1 to 128, contain full particulars in 
respect to the revenue placed to the credit of and the expenditure charged against the 
trust fund accounts ; while similar information as respects the Parliamentary appro- 

xxix 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



priations can be obtained on referring to Statement B, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and the fifteen 
subsidiary statements thereto from A to O. The documents referred to are published as 
appendices to this report. 

Land and Timber Branch. 

The quantity of surrendered land sold during the past year for the benefit of the 
Indians concerned was eighteen thousand nine hundred and fifty acres, and the amount 
for which they were sold was $26,477.43. 

There still remain unsold 457,866 acres of surrendered lands. 

From old and new sales of land and timber there was realized $79,979.65, and from 
leased lands $18,195.68. 

There remained unpaid on the 30th June last on account of lands sold arrears of 
purchase money and of interest thereon to the amount of $223,343.03. 

The quantity of land sold, as well as the area remaining unsold in each Township 

are described in Statement 1 attached to this report. 

The following statement describes the principal work done in this branch during 

the year : — 

Agents' returns examined and entered 614 

New sales entered 197 

Sales cancelled ■ 8.1 

Cancellations revoked 2 

Leases prepared and entered 23 

Payments entered 1,011 

Notices to purchasers in arrears 3,029 

Assignments examined and entered 286 

Assignments registered 299 

Descriptions prepared for patents 303 

Patents engrossed 318 

Patents registered 318 

Patents despatched 332 

Patents cancelled , 6 

Location tickets prepared and entered 27 

Files dealt with 3,600 

Statistical, Supply and School Branch. 

Files dealt with, many of them entailing reports and other 

work 2,300 

Quarterly school returns examined 960 

Requisitions for teachers' salaries, being 306 over those 

received in 1890, checked and scheduled for payment. . 926 

Blankets forwarded to Indian agents for Ontario and Quebec . 898 
Requisitions on Queen's Printer and Stationery Department 

for printing, stationery and school material 563 

Acknowledgements of above supplies 563 

XXX 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 

Much work was involved in checking the numerous requisitions, which were 
heavier than those of the previous year, received from the agents of the Department for 
school material and books, and in the preparation of orders for the same, as well as, in 
preparing requisitions for stationery and printing for the agencies and for the 
Department. 

All statistical and school returns and all statements respecting supplies issued, 
cattle and implements owned, elections of chiefs and councillors, &c., &c., are 
examined and reported upon by this branch. 

The special appendix attached to this report, and the tabular statements respecting 
schools and population, which likewise form appendices hereto, were prepared by this 
branch. 

Technical Branch. 

The following is a statement of the work done by this branch dui-ing the year : — 

:E7igineering. 

Plans and tracings prepared 14 

Reports made 94 

Examinations made ; 172 

Specifications drawn 3 

Estimates, &c 7 

Architecture. 

Estimates and specifications 43 

Drawings 26 

Reports made 55 

Examinations 146 

Stcrveying. 

Maps and plans drawn 91 

Tracings and sketchings drawn 125 

Reports made 141 

Examinations made 496 

Plottings made 51 

Instructions prepared 7 

Copies made of field notes 5 

Accounts. 

Examinations 88 

Reports on same 17 



Examination of papers 63 

Reports made 26 

Contracts prepared 12 

Calculations, &c., &c 160 

xxxi 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Correspondence Branch. 

The number of letters drafted, transcribed and entered during the past year was 
18,546, being in excess of the correspondence despatched in 1890 by 809 letters. These 
letters covered 22,920 folios of letter books of foolscap size ; a number of them were 
written and entered by the stenographic staff attached to the office of the deputy head 
of the Department, for whom they likewise transcribed reports, &c., upon matters of 
importance which required the decision of Your Excellency in Council or of myself as 
Minister at the head of the Department. 

Registry Branch. 

The number of letters received and registered during the past year was 20,913, 
which shows an increase of 545 letters over the number received and registered in 1890. 

I have caused to be prepared, and I have the honour to submit with this report, a 
lithographed map, on which is shown the position of the numerous Indian reserves in 
the Dominion, which have been allotted and surveyed up to the present date. There 
are, however, quite a number of reserves in British Columbia, and a few in that portion 
of the territory covered by Treaty No. 3, commonly known as the North- West Angle 
Treaty, which falls within Ontario, which have yet to be allotted to the Indians entitled 
to the same. This map does not purport to show the extent of the reserves, as the 
scale of the same would not admit of this being done ; it merely therefore shows 
approximately the position of the reserves. 

I have the honour likewise to attach hereto, as a special appendix, the usual tabular 
statement showing the number of Indians resident on the various reserves within each 
superintendency and agency, their real and personal property, the crops raised during 
the season of 1890, and the value of the other industries followed by them. 

I have also the honour to place herewith reports from the officers of the outside 
service of the Department, and from the Principals of the various Indian industrial 
institutions ; likewise the usual tabular statement respecting the schools of all classes 
in operation, the census of the Indians, the agricultural operations on the numerous 
Indian reserves in the North- West Territories, the crops sown and harvested by 
individual Indians, the earnings of individual Indians, and the number of Indians 
belonging to the^ North- West Territories and their whereabouts. 

The financial statements of revenue a,nd expenditure previously referred to will 
also be found herewith. 

All respectfully submitted. 

E. DEWDNEY, 

Sujyerintendent General of Indian Affairs. 



XXXll 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



SPECIAL APPENDIX, 



14— D 



55 Victoria. 



{Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



SPECIAL 



PiiovixcEs, Agenx'y ok Band. 



Ontario. 

Grand River Superiiiteiidency- 

Six Nations 

Mississaguas, N.C 

Walpole Island Agency 

Western Superintendency — 

1st Division 

2nd do 

3rd do . 

Northern Superintendency — 

1st Division 

2nd do 

3rd do 

4th do 

(rolden Lake Agency 



Immovable Property, I 
Land Cultivated 

AND Fresh j 

Land Ploughed. 



Personal 



W 



3440, (i64 

2551 93 

828 i 209 

514 132 

1289; 289 

303 i 7t) 



'yendinaga 
Lake Sinicoe 
Cape Croker 
Sangeen 
A hi wick 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



Mild and Rice Lake Agency. 

Rama Agency 

Penetangiiishene Agency 
Scugog Agency 



3588 
805 

1110 

1738 
90 

1076 
125 
394 
385 
242 
251 
22(> 
357 
42 



894 

184 

206 

552 

33 

193 

34 

105 

80 

66 

61 

75 

33 

13 



Totals ' 1701813992 



Quebec. 
Caughnawaga Agency. 



St. Regis 

Viger 

St. Francis 

Lake St. John 

Maria 

Restigouche 

River Desert 

Jeune Lorette 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



North Shore, River St. Lawrence, 

Superintendency 

Becancoiir Agency 

Teniiscaniingiie Agency 

Totals 



1767 
1202 
111 
377 
403 
101 
448 
448 
299 

1302 

47 

133 



6638 



414 

155 
19 

78 
77 
20 
99 
72 
63 

147 

9 

45 



i 



312 

95 

105 

T 

110 

50 



635 

77! 

84; 

23 1 
16 
185' 
19' 
93! 
701 
37 
26 
25 
21 
11 



2071 



1198 



370 
108 

2 

32 
29 
14 
46 
35 
6 



677 



Acres. 



19200 
3600 
2734 

2199 
8410 
1220 

7315 

1495 

2195 

360 

60 

9000 

345 

1206 

()90 

2465 

785 

795 

598 

300 

64972 



4230 
2415 



144 
100 
240 
665 
725 
86 

24 

75 
123 



8827 



1^ 



Acres. 

103 
150 
138| 

172 

'40' 

228 

104 

490 

1 

() 



1574A 



J i ^ 



4(;o 

90 
95 

77 

157 

57 



290 
2() 
61 
11 



£.0 



350 
67 
49 



425 
175 

84 



66 1 109 

120 146 

28 56 



229 

28 

39 

8 

4 

112! 112 
14i 12 



85 



1639 



233 

79 



394 



1230 



178 
55 



3 
14 

5 
29 
16 

2 

2 

1 
6 

311 



158 
10 
14 

3 

1 
65 

7 
90 
35 
25 
14 
12 
12 

9 



F 



196 
44 

25 

35 
66 

15 

46 
1 
4 
1 
1 
60 
6 

13 
20 
11 
2 
5 
2 
4 






1450 557 



370 

54 

1 

9 

15 

12 

30 

18 

7 



529 



35 



28 



250 

130 

61 

61 
156 

89 

2033 



1 
284 



130 
15 
1060 
30 
25 
16 
70 

145 



930 
175 
224 

93 

175 

63 

269 
116 
87 
17 
11 
1()5 
14 
45 
50 
18 
19 
20 
39 



4588 



2535 



175 

80 



220 



140 



20 
170 



595 



536 



XXXIV 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



APPENDIX. 



PUOI'EKTY. 


(iRAiN AND Roots Harvested. 


Other 
Industkie.s 


o 


be 


3 


i 


& 








a-: 

c 




1 




i 
8 
pi 






Value, 


100 

G 

31 

9 


1470 
350 
3G5 

134 
312 
130 

218 
1G3 
105 

39 

15 
125 

21 
2G0 

9G 

29 

30 

54 

8 


1005 
180 
413 

184 
26G 

98 

614 
44 

104 
5 
9 

160 
36 

113 

105 
37 
22 
17 
36 
11 


250 
180 
148 

14 
14 
20 

105 
19 
12 

250 


2500 
190 
622 

216 


Bush. 

• 

28619 
4500 

4777 

4111 


Bash. 

48628 

15000 

2179 

9302 

15420 

3189 

4777 


Bush. 

10760 

2550 

317 

659 

910 

1366 


Bush. 

4206 
5400 

'330 
35 


Bush. 

5611 

350 

4997 

1746 
9162 
4909 

2403 

199 

65 

"375 
2520 
10 
490 
500 
597 
180 
130 
451 
250 

34945 


Bush. 

3960 

800 

47(55 

3397 
5490 

2874 

30892 
6111 
6995 
4800 

515 
2720 

250 
3500 
2590 
2052 
2235 
2800 
2793 

350 


Bush. 


Bush. 

888 


Tons. 

2420 
240 

743 

363 

3034 

260 

1384 
203^ 
610" 
137 

57 
450 

25 
175 
180 

53 

13 
180 


•1 

9,500 
1,000 
9,243 

2,817 


5 
2{)6 


474 1 8150 
264 3001 

1149 2896 

621 40 

103 

11 31 
200 2600 


"100 




500 
45 169 


43 

52 

19 

2 


6O0I 57 

1670; 320 

100 10 

102i 78 

13200 6500 


• 
1 


7100 


9,'305 
15,080 
49,250 

1,507 


"4 
"2 




13 

56 
50 


58 

300 

150 

85 

65 

58 

106 

20 


850 
1000 
500 
892 
1310 
600 
268 
800 


1000 

800 
2300 
1349 
1630 
1800 

563 
1250 


375 
2000 
1000 
1238 
1090 

400 

350 


■"625 
130 
200 

" 650 


1060 




3,125 
5,710 

2,875 
7,461 
7,905 
3,300 


38 




■'■' 


83 
11 


681 
2,280 


GOG 


3941 


3459 


1138 


6633 


64945124959 


35882 


28676 


89889 


1160 


888 10621i 


176,783 


30 




i 
1 

3101 410 
122; 156 

. .... ./ 8 


15 


156 

208 

2 


1404 


10708 
3871 

140 


2181 

441 

12 

64 


1152: 3915 
328 1566 
30, ... 
63 


10109 
4190 

100 
1580 

775 

105 
2000 
3850 

800 

140 

175 




710 


1270 

695 

3 

47 

70 

25 

200 

285 
80 

12 
40 


25,000 

8,998 

2,515 

23,000 

15,035 

2,194 

1,900 

15,950 

24,915 

43,600 

8.50 


7 

G 

15 

2 


5 
35 
55 

3 

5 
""24 


20 
11 

27 

7 

6 
1 

5 


32 

" 60 
42 

.... 

-12 


35 
18 
75 
30 
15 

6 

7 


■■45 

... 
18 


611 

196 

2000 

1072 

250 

' '265 
65 


2211 (17 

2| '4 
25: 100 

130; 

4-^1 

30i ' ' 


238 

106 

500 

30 

36 

"73 


3 


15 




1600 






2,550 














2727 




G9 


580 


G70 


161 


552 


1467 


19118 


3166 


1681 


6527 


25424 


710 


166,507 



XXXV 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Special Appendix. 





1 

1 
1 

1 


Immovable Property, 
Land Cultiva'ied 

AND Fresh 
Land Ploughed. 


Person 


al 

5 


PROVINCES, Agkxc'Y or P>ANI). 


1 


a: 


1 

6 


-4 

^ s 
SI 

J 




i 


1 

|6 


s 

bo 


J. 


i 

6 


a 


1"^ 


Nev: Brnnawick. 

North-Eastern Snperintendency . . . 
South-Western Superintendency— 

1st Division 

2nd do 


849 

455 

227 


195 

69 
40 


71 

11 
15 


Acres 

375 

170A 
262' 


Acres 

. . . 

■"2 


21 

8 
4 


29 


13 

9 



1 

1 
1 


.. .. 


169 
91 


42 

I 
55 




Totals 


1531 


304 

13 
7 

39 
3 

13 

51 

11 
22 
16 
44 
47 
40 
17 
28 
35 


97 

2 

1 

1 

11 
10 

9 

"3 
2 

7 

10 

17 
i 

9 

13 


807.^ 


2 


33 


39 


28 


3 




260 




JVoi-a Scotia. 

Annapolis 

Shelburne 


67 

58 

154 

80 

73 

139 

110 

182 

100 

60 

189 

169 

240 

137 

140 

178 


250 ' 

14 

11 
235 

20 

275 

6 

75 

28 
325 
320 
310 

83 
800 


10 

'3 

'■" 1 

24 

""2, 

""5 
5 


« 










5 


"2 
2 

1 
1 
5 

5 






Digby 

Yarmouth 

King's 

Queen's and Lunenburg 

Halifax (1890) 

Hants 

Colchester . 


1 

' 1 
3 

7 
3 


1 

" 1 
4 

"' i 


7 

1 
6 
5 
4 






359 

. . . 

3 

40 

40 








Cumberland 

Pictou 

Antigonish and G uysboro' 

Richmond 


"2 
2 
4 
1 
6 


1 

2 

4 

1 
4 


2 
3 

1 






9 
30 

40 
98 
59 


2 

' 3 
12 
10 
32 
14 






Inverness . 


6 








Victoria (1890) 

Cape Breton County 








6 








Totals 


2076 


392 


89 


27391 


284 


30 i 19 


41 






083 


89 



8 

313 
4 




Prince Edvxn-d Island. 
Superintendency 


314 


59 


18 


220 


20 


9: 12 


6 






75 




Briti.'^h Colurahia. 
Cowichan Agency 


2048 
2864 
1732 
4338 
1803 
2401 
878 
()06 
4001 

2645 


550 
369 
195 
1179 
394 
406 
173 
146 
808 

453 

4673 


258 

11 

2 

290 

152 

149 

110 

17 

5 

5 

999 


2158 


32 


102 56 

1! . 


109 


1 


i 
4 3 




West Coast do ' 




Kwawkwelth do 


74 
2999 
1155 
828i 
1384" 
180 
86 

107 


" 348 

40 

158,^ 

90 

34 

5^ 

53 










Lower Fraser do 

Williams Lake do 

Kainloops do 

Okanagan do 

Kootenay do 

N.-W. Coast do 


m 36 

51! 42 

87! 40 
93 33 
29 9 


63 
13 
19 
21 


2 
() 
2 
4 


1 
1 


2117 

278 

1300 

612 

287 


348 
531 
234 

788 
455 


. . . 


Babine and Upper Skeena River 
Agency 




.... 


229 


... 
















Totals 


23406 


8905 


760.2 


451 


216 


15 


(> 


4597 


2673 





XXXVl 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



— Continued. 



Propkrty. 








Urain AM) Roots Harvested. 


Other 
Industries 


o 


o 

be 

1 





1 


rr. 

■OE 




i 

S 


;^ 


1 


i 




1 

;2 


i 

"i 







Value. 












Bush. 


Bush. 


Bush. 


Bush. 


1 

Bush. Bush. 


Bush. 


Bush. 


Tons. 


« 


11 


55 


18 


46 


- 


56 


1401 






287 J 4286 


. ... 


.... 


118i 


2,600 


1 

1 


19 
20 


9 
6 


2 


8 
33 


" io 


565 
600 


15 




274 685 
750j 1250 




.:.; 


20 

65 


10,010 
10,600 


13 


04 


33 


48 


118 


66 


2566 


15 


1311 


6221 






203| 


23,210 




3 

35 

2 

3 

. 


io 

10 

22 


""'1 

2 

20 
1 

1 

1 

4 

\ 


9 

. . . . 

"9 

'4 

25 

i6 

25 


2 
2 

4 

2 
2 
7 
2 

1 
1 
2 

10 
6 

22 
5 










8 

' 103 


160 
"'506 

■ 200 

75 






60 


425 




.... 
60 


... 
50 



20 
83 


5 

""ii 
47 


'10 






310 

8,665 








600 






20 
107 


440 


10 
5 






122 


1 


'"75 


250 

'■ 50 

8 

70 

100 

120 

200 

75 


5 
1 

21 

7 




10 


175 
250 
250 
600 
570 
500 

1700 
600 

3000 






50 

■ i* 

40 

40 

260 

75 
1200 










550 




20 
25 


■'16 
64 
35 
20 


815 
4,070 


3 
4 






3,250 
320 

3,300 
160 


7 20 






8,690 












30 107 


40 


88 


68 


135 


1026 


79^ 


63 


256 


8580 






1858i- 


31,717 











6 


24 


15 


4 


6 


7 


500 




« 


260 


2330, 




29 


6,400 


106 

2 


462 

5 

"495 
204 
283 
369 
542 


381 

18 

893 
3244 
2202 
3316 
2068 
14 


404 
30 

■ 363 

"20 


198 
76 

2301 

1020 

251 

382 


500 

3560 

7300 

1383 

11780 

235 


9280 

"5797 
2000 
1831 
2450 
1700 


500 

4764 

1175 

615 

784 
140 


i 

i ! 5000 

.. . ; 1.500 






700 

10 

2 

1334 

720 

608 

612 

68 

6 




' " " 76,260 






460 
25425 






8.100 


138 


388 1 2329 






62,750 




1585! 20' 4505 




25,700 


1)2 
216 
127 


90 


743 

654 


17794 

10200 

1230 

3600 


1 2157 

1 630 


67,020 

24,455 

1,100 

320,530 


.... 4 




10 







100; 950 


2 


14 






















99,080 


























681 


2366 


12150 


817 


4238 


24758 


23058 


7978 


2063 


3746 


69714 


100 3737 


4060 


684,995 



XXXVll 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Special Appendix 



Provincks, Aoenoy or Band 



Manitoba and N.-W. Territories. 



F. Ogletree, Agent, Treaty N< 
A, ^L Muckle do 

H. Martineau do 

R. .1. N. Pither do 

F. C. Cornish do 

John Mclntyre do 

Touchwood Hills Agcy. do 
Muscowpetung's Agency do 



Birtle Agency 
l^^ort Pelly Agency 
File Hills do 
Assiniboine Res. Agcy. 
Crooked Lakes Agency 
Moose Mountain do 
A. Mackay, Agent 
Joseph Reader, Agent 
Saddle Lake Agency 



Peace Hills 

Battleford 

(^nion Lake 

Duck Lake 

Edmonton 

Carlton 

Sarcee 

Blood 

Black foot 

Peigran 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



Totals . 



Immovablk Property,; 

Land Cultivated i 

1 and Fresh ! 

I Land Ploughed. 



1^ 



512 

1901 

760 

1095 

873 

£24 

800 

713 

930 

()37 

272 

210 

618 

267 

20871 

991 

699 

552 

875 

609 

705! 

697 i 

1263 

850' 

1696 i 

1757 

914 



38! 16 

441 ! 298j 

306 163! 

132! 37: 

277i 38| 

328 21 

187 71 

254 85' 

107 81 i 

60; 51 j 

441 42! 

138' 38! 

122 1 91 ! 

93 46 1 

656 148 

220 57 1 

128 88! 

63i 43 

324 150' 

123' 76 

138 101 i 

193 105 

111 91 

330 43| 

227 14 



472 

87! 



Acres. 

429 
738 
131 
109 
68 
95 
639 
720 
1466 
161 
291 
370 
1465 
371 
204 
65i 
534 
500 
850A 
594" 
1103 
733 
720 
3974 
281" 
327 
187 






24210,5599 2018 13549i 



Acres. 

35 
6i 
29" 

i34 

640 

4 

60 

27 
295 

15 

21^ 

7| 
1274 

88 
HI 
100 

74 
149 
102 



71 

0^ 



9m\^ 



Persona I 



16 10 
75 96 
28 1 234 
11! 8" 
18 j 13 
15 15 
97 1 32 
98 i 45 



82 
38 
44 
29 
91 
30 
42 
28 
51 
84 
133 
47 
49 
48 
57 
10 
1 
2 
27 



54 
33 
18 
7 
36 
16^ 
62 
39 

m 

40 
61 

16 i 
26 ! 
22 
43 ! 
11 I 



i 

as 
iX) " 

to 



31 

130 

52 



'/ 






01 


S 










bcj= 








«3 




^a 


H 


o 


O 









23 



12517734 899 



220 

1228 
6 

660 

450 

680 
3855 
1127 
2400 
1206 

554 

44 

1260 

573 
2410 

751 
1225 
2283 
1336 

920 
1411 

194 



25 
354 
223 

42 

37 

20 
182 

94 
122 
149 
132 

27 
110 

38 
112 

61 
166 

87 
241 
137 
151 

66 



10671 105 



1102 

1525 

1155 

238 



121 



126 



29880 2928 



70 



Note. — The 1st division of the Western Superintendency of Ontario includes the Chippawasof Sarnia, 
and Munsees and Oneidas of the Thames ; and the 3rd division of the same superintendency comprehends 

The 1st division of the Northern Superintendency of that Province includes the Ojibewas, Ottawas 
Huron ; the 2nd division of that superintendency embraces the Ojibewas of Parry Island, Shawanaga, 
division of the same superintendency comprehends the Ojibewas of liarden River, Batchewana Bay 
Superior. 

The North-Eastern Superintendency of New Brunswick includes the Micmacs of the counties on the 
embraces the Amalecites of all the counties on the south and west sides of the Province, except Victoria 



XXXVIU 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. H.) 



A. 1«92 



— Concluded. 



Pkoferty. 


Gkain and 


RoOTiS 


Haiu'ested. 


0th EK 
Industries 


Oxen. 

Young Cattle. 





11 






. 


^ 


k 


s 

'I 






1 




1 





Value. 


23 

272 

121 

31 


37 

582 

284 

42 


71 

77 

125 

8 


« 


■102 

14 


Bush. 

5708 
1230 


Bush. 

2610 
33 


Bush. 

6 

10 


Biish. 

1570 
10 


Bush. 

400' 
56 


Bush. 

1000 
14965 
4730 
2940 
5966 
3894 
1680 
2634 
.3595 
1196 
1550 
1154 
2461 
371 

'42i5 
1710 
1283 

2285 
1064 
1359 
1830 

750 
2520 

49r. 


Bush. 

""25 


Bush. 
''5li 


Tons. 

195 

3980 

923 

236 

248 

61 

1070 

1144 

1145 

625 

575 

.S40 


3,050 

25,500 

10,824 

8,492 

9,456 

19,468 


26 


27 26 
131 . 


■ 




" "4i 
3091 
3318 
9315 


i 


..... 


591 
4 


89 
135 
175 


332i 158, 1 . .. 

193 2981 ... .... 

249 i 24Si 901 10 


3101 .... 

302i 

1660 


Til 

250 
607 

■30 




78 

45 

2110 

"229 

"312 
10 




"ii76 


"455 




4,195 
10,971 
21,150 


67 
67 
'?1 


265 
258 

61 
212 

99 
130 

81 
230 
160 
457 
200 
284 
123 
225 
180 


68 

77 

57 82 

"'2Z\.'.'.'.'.. 


"I6 

7 

1 
26 

"39 


212 
2317 

943 
5932 

733 

130 

76 

5807 

169 
3029 
1110 
1324 

••l9- 


551 
609 


.... 


3i36 


6,817 

678 
958 


101 
44 
50 


657 
215 


98 


. •■ ; 835 

719! 1 260 

' 728 


5,654 

2,215 

47,515 


94 


"'l87 
..547 
1868 

' ■ 783 
540 
544 
135 


1 

.... 1287 

2242 

42 160 

\ 2312 

10 i 940 

1 2216 

.. .. j 749 


■"887 

702 

500 

1237 

350 

" i30 

120 


184 


30,719 
8,055 
2,775 
4,104 
1,700 
2,606 
5,075 
3,091 
1,675 
780 


84 

81 
236 
108 
116 

49 
113 

10 


191 

""'"91 

80 

103 

170 

4 

450 

1552 


123 

26 

"39 
62 


50 
120 


1210 

652 

1865 

1000 

1315 

940 

1329 

220 

175 

195 




1345 




! 


675 \. i 48.38 




..... . 

14! 99 662 .. . 


•■;••• • 


175 


i ! 1700 


2,710 


20(i4 


4823^ 5879' 428 215 44460ij 12401 


166| 13151 1 3303^ 72186 

1 i 


8982 


676^ 


21450 


240,233 



Kettle Point and Riviere aux Sables ; the 2nd division of that superin tendency embraces the Chippawas 
the Moravians or Delawares of the Thames. 

and Nipissingas of Manitoulin and Cockburn Islands, and the Ojibewas of the north shore of Iiake 
Henvey Inlet, Lake Nipissing, French River, Lake Temiscamingue and the Iroquois of Gibson ; the 3rd 
and Michipicoten ; and the 4th division of the said superintend ency takes in all the Ojibewas ot Lake 

north-east of that Province. The 1st division of the South -Western Superintendency of that Province 
and Madawaska, which form the 2nd division of that superintendency. 



XXXIX 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



PA RT I 



OF THE 



REPORT OF DEPARTMENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



Indian Office, 

Brantford, 14th September, 1891. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I beg to transmit my annual report in duplicate, on the Six Nations, of the 
Grand River, with. tabular statement for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

I have experienced considerable difficulty in obtaining the required information, as 
I have been here such a short time, but I endeavoured, from a personal house to house 
visitation on the reserve, to obtain such accurate statements as was possible. As a 
number of the Indians were absent from the reserve, I had in many cases to obtain my 
information from neighbours. The Indians are very reticent in regard to their affairs, 
consequently I do not feel certain in every instance of the correctness of the figures 
given in the tabular statement ; I hope, however, before another report is required, I 
shall be able to give an accurate statement regarding the reserve. 

The crops for the past year were generally good. There are but few good farmers, 
and these always manage to have 2[ood returns from their farms ; if they fail in one 
direction, they succeed in another. Generally, the Indians do not look ahead. They 
can live on very little during warm weather, and make no preparations for apj)roaching 
winter. 

Stock is being raised in greater numbers every year, but great difficulty has been 
experienced in sheep raising, on account of the number of dogs on the reserve. These 
are, however diminishing in number, and more sheep are being raised, and it is hoped 
that in a few years the Six Nations will be successful in stock raising generally. 

Some of the Indians are raising a larger and heavier class of horses than formerly, 
and these will at any time be marketable. 

Eight threshing machines are owned on the reserve. Some are the latest steam 
traction engine threshers, and managed exclusively by Indians. 

There are industries on the reserve which give constant employment to a number 
of people. There are also some general stores, all managed by Indians. 

The health of the Indians during the summer and autumn months is generally 
good ; but during the winter and spring there is a great deal of sickness, principally 
influenza and malarial diseases. These were of a mild type last winter. They are due, 
principally, to the small, over-heated and badly ventilated dwellings, the want of wells, 
and imperfect drainage ; while their diet, consisting so largely of pork, hot biscuits and 
corn bread, is not conducive to health. The Indians, however, are gradually providing 
better ventilation in their dwellings, digging wells and growing and keeping for winter 
use greater quantities of potatoes and other vegetables and consuming more wheat 
bread and oatmeal. 
14—1 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Educational matters have been fairly satisfactory during the past year, although 
the attendance was not so large as in the previous year, owing to sickness among the 
children. There are ten schools under the control of the Six Nation School Board, and 
one school under the control of the chiefs, and a new school house is now in course of 
erection. 

There are four Episcopal churches on the reserve, and services are held in two 
school houses. There are also two Methodist and three Baptist churches, all well 
attended. 

There are about 790 members of the Six Nations, belonging to the Cayuga, Seneca 
and Onondaga bands, who do not identify themselves with any Christian Church. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

E. D. CAMERON, 

Visiting Sujyerintendent. 



Walpole Island Agency, 

Wallaceburgh, Ont., 31st August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit herewith my annual report and tabular statement 
on the Chippewas and Pottawattamies of Walpole Island, for the year ended 30th June, 
1891. 

In my report for 1890 I had to say that I did not think the Indians were quite as 
well prepared in the way of provisions, &c., for the winter as they were the previous 
year, but I am able to report that notwithstanding this they have got through the 
winter without suffering in any way. The planting and cultivating were attended to 
better this year than ever before, and the harvest just gathered was the best that 
Walpole Island ever saw. 

There has been a general turning to the land as a means of support, and many, 
very many, who never sowed a bushel of grain before last fall, have got wheat enough 
for their bread and some to sell. The corn crop this year is not quite up to the usual 
mark, owing to the cold weather about planting time, but it will nevertheless be a very 
good one. 

The potatoes and vegetables are a fine crop, and there is scarcely a family on the 
three Islands who has not a pretty fair outlook in the way of provisions for the winter. 

I am glad to be able to report a substantial increase in the population since taking 
the census for 1890. I visited every house within the last month, and have taken the 
census with as much care as possible. 

The health of the people has been better during the past year than it has ever been 
during my term of office. Partly owing to the change in the mode of living from camp- 
ing out to living in houses, and partly to the attention paid to the suggestions of Dr. 
Mitchell as to the proper cooking of food and other matters respecting which they had 
no previous instructions, there are fewer deaths among the young children, and 
longevity is becoming a characteristic among the older portion of the people. 

The schools have been regularly kept during the year, with a fair attendance of 
scholars. The teachers are all well trained, two of them having been educated at the 
Mount Elgin Institute and the other at the Shingwauk Home. 

Divine service is held in both churches every Sunday, and the morals of the people 
are improving, especially in the matter of drinking. In this particular there is a great 
change for the better, there being not more than three habitual drunkards on the 
reserve at this time, and they are becoming ashamed to be seen drunk. 

There have been some improvements in the way of drainage, roads and bridges ; 
there has also been a new ferry established at the High Banks, which is quite a con- 
venience to those who live at that end of the Island. 
2 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



I hope that another school will soon be established at the head of the island, as the 
distance from that point to the school is too great for the children to travel, while there 
are children enough of school age there to warrant the establishment of another school. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

ALEX. McKELYEY, 

Indian Agent. 



Western Superintendency, — 1st Division, 

Sarnia, 15th September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to transmit my annual report and tabular statement for the 
year ended 30th June, 1891. The three reserves in my agency are the Sarnia Reserve, 
in the township of Sarnia, on the banks of St. Clair River, and the Kettle Point and Aux 
Sable Reserves, on the shore of Lake Huron, in the township of Bosanquet, all in the 
county of Lambton. The crops last year were very light, but I am pleased to say that 
they are excellent this year ; the only difficulty has been to get them saved during the 
wet weather. Improvements in building have not been numerous, but there have been 
considerable improvements made on the farms. The Indians on the Sarnia Reserve have 
started an agricultural society for the first time and are preparing for what they hope 
will be a successful show. The school on the reserve has been taught since January by 
Miss Walsh, and the improvement she has effected in the attendance is marvellous ; 
the school house is well filled every day. The Rev. Mr. Edwards, the Methodist Mis- 
sionary, and his wife are doing a good work, as they both take an active part in school 
matters and also look closely after the spiritual interests of the Indians. The school on 
the Aux Sable Reserve is taught by Miss Yance who is very energetic and has a fair 
attendance every day. The spiritual wants of the Indians of that reserve are looked after 
by Rev. Mr. Fesant, Methodist Missionary. He holds service once each Sunday. The 
Kettle Point School is taught by Henry Fisher, an Indian, but the attendance is not as 
satisfactory as it should be. The Methodist and English churches both hold services on 
this reserve. I am able to report a small increase this year in population. There have 
been twenty-one births and thirteen deaths, making eight of an increase, and produc- 
ing the total of 508 Chippewas on these reserves. The Pottawattomies on the Aux 
Sable Reserve, number thirty-four, an increase of eight since last year. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

A. ENGLISH, 

Indian Agent. 



Western Superintendency — 2nd Division, 

Strathroy, 26th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to transmit herewith my annual report and tabular state- 
ment, with statistics of the Indians within this agency, comprising the Oneidas, Chip- 
pewas and Munceys of the Thames, for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

Oneidas of the Thames. 
The members of this band felt themselves very mueh honoured by a visit of the 
Deputy of the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs to their agricultural exhibition 
last season. 

The progress of this band has been steady. They are a quiet, industrious people. 

[part i] 3 

14-11 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Chippewas of the Thames. 

This band is also prospering. Their farming operations have been fairly satisfactory 
for the past year ; many of them have done well, while a very few, as usual, appear to 
be rather indifferent about farming, and wander about making baskets and axe-handles 
and such like for a living, only remaining upon the reserve for a short time occasionally. 

Munceys of the Thames. 

The Indians of this band have, during the past year, pursued their usual avocations 
with little or no variation. 

There are living upon the Caradoc Reserve four families of the Pottawattamies, who 
are located for land, but have no claim to any money for distribution to the other In- 
dians living upon the reserve, as they do not belong to either of the bands living there- 
upon. They number ten souls and are very quiet and inoffensive people. 

All the schools within my agency have been kept open during the year, and have 
been duly visited by the Public School Inspectors for Middlesex. Four of the teachers 
employed are whites and three are Indians. 

The Mount Elgin Institute and Industrial Farm, under the able care of the Rev. 
W. W. Shepherd, is doing a good work among the Indians. 

Divine service in the several churches within the agency has been regularly held 
during the year. 

The sanitary condition of the Indians has been good, there being no contagious dis- 
eases prevalent among them. 

In general the affairs of the bands are prosperous, and the Indians, with a few ex- 
exceptions, are doing ordinarily well. 

The usual supply of blankets to the aged and infirm among the Chippewas and 
Muncey bands, have been distributed, as directed by the Department. 

The total population of Indians within my agency is one thousand two hundred 
and ninety-nine. There are a few illegitimates living upon the reserves who are not 
included in any of the bands, neither are they in the number given as the total 
population. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

THOMAS GORDON, 

Indian Agent. 



Western Superintendency — 3rd Division, 

HiGHGATE, Ont., 18th August, 1891. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit herewith my annual report and tabular state- 
ment respecting the Moravians of the Thames for the year ended the 30th June, 1891. 

The population of the band now numbers three hundred and three, being an 
increase of eleven since last census ; at least one-half of this increase is from immigration. 
There has been also an increase in the number of births. 

I have to report a good harvest in all kinds of grain ; the greatest improvement being 
in the quantity of hay raised ; this crop far exceeds the quantities raised in previous 
years. 

This band made a fine exhibit of farm and other products at the Western Fair held 
in the City, of London last fall, and again succeeded in carrying off the silver medal for 
the best exhibit of any reserve exhibiting at the Fair. 
4 [part i] 



I 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



This is an agricultural reserve and that only, and all things considered the advance- 
ment in that line during the last few years has been marked, although there is room for 
greater improvements still. 

There are two good schools on the reserve, one taught by an Indian teacher, and 
the other by Miss Millar of the Moravian Mission ; they are fairly well attended. 

There are three churches on the reserve, and if earnest work can accomplish any- 
thing, all should prosper. 

The health of the Indians of this reserve has not been good during the past year. 
Consumption seems to be on the increase, a number of deaths having occurred from this 
disease, which, according to medical opinion, being infectious, has spread to a great 
extent among the Indians of this band, so much so that a number of the old log houses 
have been pulled down and others will have to follow. 

At present there are only two cases on the reserve, and we hope thorough sanitary 
measures will stop (or at least check) the disease. 

The roads and bridges are in a fair state and where required they are being re- 
paired as fast as possible. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

JOHN BEATTIE, 

Indian Agent. 



Northern Superintendency, Ontario — 1st Division, 

Indian Office, Manito waning, 14th September, 1891. 

To the Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit my report and tabular statement, with statis- 
tics of the Indian bands under my charge for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

The Indians of Manitoulin Island continue to maintain their reputation as good 
and successful farmers and fishermen ; their crops having been remarkably good. They 
have also been fortunate in their fishing ; their material condition is one of comfort and 
prosperity. 

The general health of the Indians during the year has been satisfactory. 

Sixteen schools have been in operation during the year, the new schoolhouse at 
Thessalon Indian Reserve has been completed and the school is in operation. The com- 
bined church and schoolhouse at White Fish River Indian Reserve has been completed 
but has not been opened, a suitable teacher not yet having been obtained. 

The usual distribution of blankets to the sick, aged and infirm Indians has been 
made, and grants in relief have been made to the blind and crippled. 

Ojihways and Ottawas of Manitoulin Island. 

The Sheguiandah Band are intelligent and industrious, prosperous and contented ; 
they have been visited three times during the year. The census shows an increase 
of four during the year. They have a handsome church, also a school, on their reserve 
under the auspices of the Church of England. 

The West Bay Band occupy an extensive reserve containing some of the most pro- 
ductive land upon this island, excellent crops are raised and the Indians are well-to-do 
and contented. Three visits have been paid to their reserve during the year. They 
have a school and church on their reserve, which are under the auspices of the Roman 
Catholic Missionaries at Wikwemikong. The census shows a decrease of five during the 
year. 

The Sucker Creek Band possess a small reserve near Little Current, which contains 
some excellent land. They number one hundred and ten, an increase of one during the 

[part i] 5 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.j A. 1892 



year. They have a combined church and schoolhouse on their reserve under the auspices 
of the Church of England. 

The Sheshegwaning Band number one hundred and sixty-five, a decrease of four 
during the year. They have a school and church on their reserve, and are under the 
spiritual care of the Reverend Missionaries at Wikwemikong. They are industrious and 
well-to-do. 

The Obidgewong Band occupy a small reserve on the west side of Lake Wolsey. 
They number twenty-four, an increase of one. They pay much attention to their farms 
and are successful agriculturlists. The band are all pagans. 

The South Bay Band number seventy, the same as last year. They are farmers and 
fishermen, and are prosperous. They have a church and school at their village under the 
auspices of the Roman Catholic Church. 

The Cockburn Island Band number thirty-six, an increase of one. They follow 
farming and fishing, and are fairly prosperous. 

The Ojihways of Lake Huron. 

The Thessalon Band are still very much scattered, a part only of the Indians live on 
the reserve. They are principally fishermen and devote but little attention to farming. 
The census shows a decrease of one. The school on their reserve is under the auspices 
of the Roman Catholic Missionaries. 

The Maganettawan Band are settled on the West Bay Reserve, Manitoulin Island, 
Their farms contain some excellent land and are very productive. Their children attend 
school at West Bay. The census shows an increase of one. \ 

The Spanish River Band have increased fifteen in number during the year. They are 
separated into three divisions. The first division live on the reserve at Sagamook ; the 
second on the reserve on Spanish River, and at Pogamasing on the Canadian Pacific 
Railway ; the third on the Manitoulin Island. 

The first division farm and fish, but seem to lack industry and energy. The second 
are hunters, with the exception of those who live on the reserve, who are farmers. The 
third division live on the Manitoulin Island and are very well-to-do. There are two 
schools on the reserve. 

The White Fish Lake Band follow hunting as their main support. They are com- 
mencing to do a little farming and have added some three acres to their clearings ; at my 
recent visit to their reserve the potatoes, corn, oats and pease looked remarkably welL 
The census shows a decrease of two since last year. 

There are two schools, one at White Fish Lake Village, under the auspices of the 
Roman Catholic Church. The other in the immediate neighbourhood of the reserve con- 
trolled by the Rev. Mr. Huntingdon of the Methodist Church. 

The Ojibways of Mississauga River are another band of hunting Indians; they are 
usually very successful. The census shows an increase of six during the year. Agri- 
culture receives but little attention at their hands. The school on the reserve is under 
the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church. 

The Point Grondine Band have decreased three in number. They farm, fish and 
hunt for their support ; they earn considerably money by gathering blueberries and cranber- 
ries. The fall of 1890 was a very successful season for them in this respect. 

The census of the Serpent River Band shows an increase of eight. They are good 
hunters and are beginning to farm a little and are slightly increasing the area under culti- 
vation. The school is under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church. The band 
enjoy a considerable degree of prosperity. 

The French River Band have increased five in number during the year. They live 
at Sheguiandah, Manitoulin Island, and are prosperous and contented. 

The White Fish River Band numbers seventy-nine an increase of three ; about two- 
thirds of these Indians live on their reserve, the remainder at Sucker Creek and Shegui- 



andah. They have recently completed the erection of a combined church and school 
house at their village. The building is highly creditable to its builders and is a fine and 
commodious structure. 
6 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The Tahgaiwinine Band live on the uncedecl part of Manitoulin Island. Their 
census shows a decrease of one. The men follow farming and fishing, and are industrious 
and prosperous. The children attend school at Wikwemikong. 

The Manitoulin Island Indians (unceded) number one thousand and seventy-nine, an 
increase of eighteen during the year. The births were fifty-eight, deaths thirty-nine ; 
emigration two and immigration one. They got out and sold timber to the value of 
$25,000 ; this, in addition to their earnings as farmers and fishermen, has rendered them 
very prosperous. 

They continue to improve their dwellings ; new and more commodious houses are 
continually being built and their village presents a highly creditable appearance. 

The industrial and oihen- schools on this reserve are doing good work. 

The annuity and interest payments made to the Indians of this superintendency 
during the year just past amount to $12,819.56. Their earnings from other sources 
have been satisfactory. 

The general condition of the various bands is highly favourable, a large degree of 
material prosperity being enjoyed by all. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

JAS. C. PHIPPS, 

Superintendent. 



Parry Sound, Ont., 12th September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
SiR,^ — ^I have the honour to submit the following report and enclosed tabular state- 
ment, showing the condition and progress of the various Indian bands within my super- 
intendency for the year ended the 30th June last. 

Parry Island Band. 

This band, during the past year, has pursued an even course. There have been the 
usual petty variances incident to all communities, but nothing has occurred either to 
seriously disturb the general harmony or to obstruct a quiet steady progress. The crops 
of last year were fair and there was no distress in the band during the year, and while 
attendance at the two schools might have been better, there is little to complain of in 
this respect. 

The close proximity of this island to the town of Parry Sound with its large lumber- 
ing establishments affords, at almost all seasons of the year, abundance of labour to those 
of the band who are disposed to work, and most of the band freely avail themselves of 
these facilities. Consequently, with fertile soil, plentiful fishing, and abundant and 
remunerative work at almost all times, the lot of this band is unusually fortunate. 

Shawanaga Band. 

The habits and methods of this band show little, if any, improvement. Indolence 
and procrastination are still the characteristics of the older members. The severe 
lesson which sickness should have taught them during the year 1889-90, has not pro- 
duced the hoped-for results, and only a very slight addition has been made to the num- 
ber and size of their houses. 

In one respect, however, a notable improvement has taken place. Some of the 
younger men are showing a disposition and ability to adapt themselves to civilized means 
of earning their living. In addition to working in the lumber woods in winter, several 
of them now, with skill, endurance and success, fish in the deep waters of the Georgian 
Bay with nets and boats the same as white fishermen. 

The health of the band during the year has been fairly good, notwithstanding that 
an epidemic of scarlatina again broke out last spring and caused several deaths. 

[part i] 7 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The school has made some improvement during the year, but it has been deemed 
expedient to substitute a white for an Indian teacher, so as to promote the learning of 
English by the pupils. 

Henvey Inlet Band. 

The past year has to this band been one requiring care and circumspection. The 
crops of last year were not over abundant, and to make matters worse many of their 
potatoes were destroyed, so that on the approach of spring they were short even of seed 
potatoes. In their need, however, assistance was rendered to tKem, and now they have 
crops that compare favourably with those in other parts of this district. To compensate 
for this there has been a good hunting season and good fishing, consequently another 
year has passed without any untoward event. 

I am glad to have to report that considerable improvement has taken place in con- 
nection with the school, and that the progress of the pupils has been very good. Unfor- 
tunately the teacher after holding the position for nine months resigned it at the end of 
last June quarter, and it was only at the beginning of this month that another was 
secured to take her place. 

Like their Shawanaga neighbours, though not to so considerable an extent, some of 
the members of this band are beginning to seek employment at deep lake fishing. It is 
to be hoped that this beginning is the prelude to their entering generally and systemati- 
cally into this class of work. With ready markets at Point aux Barrie and the Bustard 
Islands for all the fish they can take, there is every opportunity for them to make money 
at this lucrative and, to them, congenial occupation. 

Nipissing Band. 

With one exception, there are none but favourable circumstances to report in con- 
nection with this band. That exception is the unfenced or only partly fenced condition 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway which runs through the full length of the most populous 
part of the reserve. This is a serious grievance, for when an Indian of this band becomes 
possessed of a cow, he also becomes seized with a constant anxiety lest he should, on look- 
ing for her, find her mangled carcass on the railway track. 

Though several infants and children have died during the year, only one adult 
(killed on the railway track) has passed away ; consequently the general health of the 
band may be considered to have been fair. 

The crops of last year were below the average, but as labour was abundant and 
hunting successful there was no privation or destitution complained of. 

The school operations for the year were not all that could be desired, owing entirely 
to the frequent changes in the teachers. The progress of the pupils, notwithstanding, 
has been satisfactory. 

Dokis Band. 

Little if anything can be reported concerning this band. Reticence and independ- 
ence characterize its leading members, and as these seem to exercise a dominant influ- 
ence over the rest, it is almost impossible to approach them for any other purpose than 
that of paying them their annuities. 

On the question being again brought before them, they again decidedly refused to 
surrender their timber with the object of its being sold for their benefit. Owing 
to extensive lumbering operations going on all around their reserve, their timber 
is in great danger from fire,' and it seems most expedient that it should be sold ; but 
the obstinacy of one or two in refusing to surrender, blocks the way of this being 
accomplished, with the result that $50,000 worth of pine timber is liable to be 
destroyed any dry summer. 

Tetnogamingue Band. 

I am happy to say that I generally receive a cordial welcome from all the bands, 
but my reception by this band may be termed enthusiastic. As soon as my canoe 
8 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



rounded one of the points of Bear Island, in the centre of Lake Temogamingue, quick 
movements among the snow-white tents that dotted the shore showed that we had been 
seen and recognized, and then a general movement was made to the usual landing, 
where, by the time I set foot on shore, every male member of the band was waiting to 
give me a firm grasp of his hand and a glad and smiling greeting, and for an hour or 
more I had ample evidence that the coming of their Superintendent with the 
"Shooneyah" was a welcome event. 

It was soon evident that improvement was taking place in the condition and pros- 
pects of this band. One of the first things I was spoken to about, when in council 
assembled, was the best means by which a whip-saw could be obtained. This band, 
which hitherto lived chiefly in tents all the year round, now desire to build houses, and 
at once consulted me as to the best way to obtain the means of manufacturing lumber 
at a place where saw mills are unknown. 

Another sign of improvement is that more attention is being paid to agriculture, 
but owing to the want of a reserve the effort does not promise the satisfactory results 
that would otherwise accrue. Each man who turns his mind to tilling the soil clears up 
a piece of land on the shores of the lake where he thinks best, frequently isolated and 
far distant from any neighbour or neighbourly assistance. 

The earnest hope that the question of their reserve would be speedily and satis- 
factorily settled was again expressed. 

Gibson Band. 

As usual this band stand foremost of all others in this superintendency in the 
matter of material welfare. They are happy, contented and prosperous. Their personal 
property, as shown on the enclosed tabular statement, is increasing in a most satisfactory 
manner, and their crops this year at the time of my visit (1st instant) were simply 
splendid, and if securely harvested should abundantly supply all the year's needs. It was 
on this reserve that I saw the finest fields of oats, turnips and Indian corn that I have 
seen in the district. 

During the year, one death and ten births have taken place. 

I visited the school and found that it had been wainscotted and lathed preparatory 
to plastering. The educational condition of the pupils was not satisfactory. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

THOS. F. WALTON, 

Indian Swperintendent. 



Northern Superintendency — 3rd Division, 

SaultSte. Marie, 13th October, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Aflairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to forward you my report for the year ended 30th June, 
1891, of the three Indian bands under my charge. 

Garden River Band. 

On the 23rd December, 1890, Chief Augustin, head of this band, died at a good old 
age, and was buried in the Church of England cemetery, Garden River. A subscription 
was taken up to erect a monument over his grave to his memory, and, I believe, the sum 
of $70 was collected for that purpose, one firm, the Marble Mountain Company, subscrib- 
ing $20 towards it. It then became a question of having a new chief, and by your in- 
structions an election was held at Garden River, on the 10th March, for that purpose, 
and four members of the band came forward to contest the honour. Seventy-six votes 
were polled and it resulted in the choice of one of the late Chief's brothers — Pequit- 

[PART l] 9 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



chenene — being elected by a majority of two. Four sub-chiefs were also elected, and 
matters have gone on very well under their rule. Regarding the state of the reserve 
the appearance of the houses continues to improve, fences are kept in better condition, 
crops have not been so good as usual ; the hay crop was the best had for some time back. 
The members still continue to earn their living in the old way, in the winter time work- 
ing in the shanties, in the spring at Hollister & Co.'s mill, and in the summer going out 
with American fishing parties ; but this last occupation has greatly fallen off. The 
liquor traffic, I regret to say, still continues. I have made several attempts to prose- 
cute, "but it has never gone further than to serve the summonses, and just before the case 
comes on they go over to the American side. I am glad to be able to note an improve- 
ment in the attendance of the children at the Church of England school, but there is 
still room for more. The members of this band are divided, part being adherents of<the 
Church of England, and part belonging to the Roman Catholic Church. Each have a 
school and also a church. The Roman Catholic school is attended by the Batchewana 
Band, The Garden River and Batchewana Bands are so mixed up on the one reserve 
that it is difficult to speak of them apart. 

Batchewana Band. 

The greater part of this band reside at the bay west of the Garden River Reserve,, 
and earn their living much in the same way as the Garden River Band, except that they 
do not participate in the cordwood-cutting during the winter on the reserve. They 
are great explorers, but as yet no great discoveries have been made. Their chief, Nu- 
benaigooching, has shown his people a good example by building himself a very good 
frame house. Most of the houses on this portion of the reserve are good. Their crops 
were much the same as the Garden River Band, in fact, it is difficult to make a distinc- 
tion between them, both living, as they do, on the same reserve. A good many of this 
band work for Hollister & Co. during the winter, and they do more fishing than their 
neighbours. The school is pretty well attended from this end. All of this band are 
Roman Catholics. They have only a small reserve of their own, about twenty-three 
acres ; they are more scattered than the Garden River Band, some of them living at 
Goulais Bay, where they have a church ; some at Batchewana, and a little settlement at 
the Hudson's Bay post, Agawa River. These last get their living by hunting and fishing ; 
the last are very poor, but they all appear to be very contented. 

Michipicoten and Big Head. 

The Indians have for Chiefs Sanson Legard and Gros Jambette. The former 
resides with thirteen families of the band on the Michipicoten River, on the land bought 
from the Ontario Government, about three hundred acres. They have a Roman Catho- 
lic Church and schoolhouse, and fourteen houses. They raise very little, merely a few 
vegetables and about one hundred and thirty bushels of potatoes. They live by hunting 
arid fishing, and working for the Hudson's Bay Company. On each of my visits I gave a 
dinner to thirty-eight or more. This year it was the number mentioned. I gave them 
blankets and tobacco. The rest of the band live in the interior by hunting ; the Big 
Heads live most at Chapleau ; these are Methodists, numbering about fifty, 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

WM. VAN ABBOTT, 

Indian Lands Agent. 



10 [PART i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Northern Superintendency — 4th Division, 

Port Arthur, 31st August, 1891. 
To the Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to present my annual report upon Indian affairs within 
my agency, together with my annual tabular statement covering the period for the year 
ended 30th June, 1891. 

Fort Williavi Band. 

This band, I may say, are prospering each year more and more. About five hun- 
dred bushels of seed potatoes, oats, and pease in addition to smaller seeds such as turnip,. 
&c., were planted by them last spring. They are also giving more attention to stock- 
raising of late. They have altogether three horses, seventeen milch cows, thirty head of 
young cattle and fifteen working oxen. On account of the increasing scarcity of fur 
and fish, they are obliged to turn their attention to agriculture and other modes of gain- 
ing a livelihood. During the last winter they got out a lot of different kinds of timber 
off their reserve for the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, and the most industrious, 
of them made money. They did their statute labour this year in a creditable manner,, 
each man working two days, and they have their roads and bridges in good order. They 
have three schools, an Indian day school, girls' school, and St. Joseph's Orphanage, all 
well attended and well supplied with stationary from your Department. Those among, 
the girls at the Orphanage who have some genius and musical ability are taught fancy 
and other needlework and piano music. There has been a good deal of sickness, princi- 
pally "la grippe," and several deaths in this band. They have good medical attendance. 
They now number three hundred and fifty-nine, an increase of nine over last year. 
'Their religion is Roman Catholic ; they have one church and a resident priest, and are 
very regular in their attendance at the church services. The appointment of two con- 
stables by the Department has had a good effect upon their morals, and has assisted to 
a great extent in their general improvement. During the past year four whites who- 
came to the reserve with liquor were arrested and imprisoned, at hard labour, for two,, 
three, and six months. 

Bed Bock Band. 

The Indians of this band are divided. A portion of them settled on the Catholic- 
Mission Ground some fifteen years ago, where they built their houses and made other- 
improvements, and now object to moving on their reserve, five miles away across Lake^ 
Helen. Another portion are settled on the English Church Mission Rererve on Lake 
Nepigon ; a few others are scattered about ; and the remainder are on their Red Rock 
Reserve at the mouth of the Nepigon River, Lake Helen. At each of these settlements 
they make yearly improvements in the way of garden grounds and clearing new land,, 
vieing as to who will do the best. They, too, have to pay more attention to agriculture 
on account of the scarcity of fur. This band makes considerable profit during the sum- 
mer season, out of the tourists who visit the Nepigon River, renowned for its beautiful 
scenery and fine speckled trout fly-fishing; these fish are plentiful, and run from two 
pounds to seven pounds in weight. The Indians get from $2 to $3 a day and canoe 
hire, which assists them very much. They have a good Roman Catholic school 
and church at Lake Helen, also an English church and school on Lake Nepigon. The 
teacher remains on the reserve, but the pastors move about on their missions to different 
points. This band numbers two hundred and five, the same as last year ; the deaths 
have been equal to the births. 

Pays Plat River Band. 

The Indians of this band are gradually improving. They have cleared about three 
acres of new land, and seeded it down with timothy. They have a good working bull 
to do their ploughing, draw fuel, and do other work ; they have also three cows and 

[part i] 11 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



some calves. Their crops of potatoes and turnips are good ; altogether they will have 
about three hundred bushels, enough for their own use and seed for next spring. They 
dress neatly, and their houses are neatly kept. They number only fifty-three persons, a 
decrease of two from last year. The river runs through the centre of their settlement 
and abounds with fine trout and whitefish, a great assistance to them in living com- 
fortably. They have a Hudson's Bay store, kept by their chief, Joe Fisher, who is a very 
industrious man, and a good example in every way to his band. This portion of the 
country is noted for good fur. They have no school, but are striving to get one ; it is 
their intention to build a sehoolhouse next year, after which they will ask the Depart- 
ment to supply a teacher. They are Roman Catholic in faith. 

Pic Band. 

This band succeed well in agriculture ; they have good crops of potatoes, turnips and 
other vegetables, which, together with a few barrels of trout and whitefish, which they 
catch eveiy fall, keep them comfortably over the winter. Their fur catch is getting less 
every year, and they begin to see that in a very short time they will have to depend 
entirely on their land for a living. The oxen advanced them by the Department last 
fall, and for which they have partly paid, were well wintered and are doing good work. 
They have placed money with me to make another good payment on them, which will 
leave but a small balance to pay next year. They feel very thankful to the Department 
for the accommodation. This past year they have been much afflicted with "la grippe," 
twenty-six of them having died of the malady, I paid them every attention personally 
and gave them good medical care, otherwise many more. would have died. The death of 
several heads of families and the inability of others, through illness, to pursue the chase 
last winter has greatly impoverished many families, some of whom will require assistance 
to live through this winter, I have received letters giving me notice of coming distress. 
The band numbers 253, only one less than last year, despite the many deaths, owing to , 
the increase of children. 

Long Lake Band. 

This band live entirely by the chase. This year, for the first time, however, they 
planted potatoes and sowed turnip seed furnished by the Department to give them a 
start, with the understanding that they should afterwards provide their own seed. But 
they have not had a fair trial this past summer, the weather having been very wet and 
cold the crop does not appear promising ; if it should prove a failure, however, they will 
try again next year. They number 253, an increase of twelve over last year. They, 
too, have lost some by "la grippe," There are many more widows in this band than in 
any other in this part of the country, there being 91 women and only 57 men. Pressed 
by force of circumstances the women become good hunters, and it is said they stand the 
fatigue and exposure better than the men do. In all the bands under my agency there 
are more widows than widowers. The fur catch of the band last winter was worth about 
$12,000 ; but the fur is found far from the frontier, principally between Long Lake and 
James' Bay and near the Atlantic coast. They live altogether in wigwams and have less 
•consumption among them than those living in houses. Their lakes and rivers abound 
with fish, upon which they live in the summer season, but they subsist on animal food 
during the winter, 

Nepigon Band. 

This band numbers 513 persons, one less than last year. They, like the Long Lake 
band, live principally by the chase. Some of them made money this summer by attend- 
ance upon tourists. Their land is good and productive ; many have potato gardens with 
^ood crops and will have several hundred bushels. They begin to see, by example of the 
frontier Indians, that it pays them well to work their land, as in the spring their hunt- 
ing season is over and they have nothing else to do. Their fur is decreasing yearly, and 
they will soon have to procure their living by agriculture and fishing, I assist them and 
give them every encouragement in working their land. The Nepigon Lake abounds with 
12 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



the finest fish, perhaps, in America. It is about 100 miles long by 50 wide, and will 
always be a source of revenue to them so long as white fishermen are kept off this and 
other inland lakes, as they have been, so far, very wisely, by the Provincial Government. 
This band has also been afflicted by " la grippe," and several deaths have occurred. They 
have divided into four different settlements for farming purposes, namely, Gull River 
Reserve, Jackfish Island, Trader's Bay and Poplar Lodge, where they are building houses 
and making improvements. They consider that if they should all settle at Gull River 
Reserve the fish in that locality would soon give out, and they would have to go too far 
to get them. Their school at Jackfish Island is well attended. In religion they are 
Roman Catholic, with the exception of a few pagans, but have no church. They are a 
very law-abiding people, the two constables appointed by the Department having a good 
effect upon them. 

English Church Reserve Band. 

These Indians have good houses and gardens ; their land is productive and yields 
well. This year they failed to put in as many potatoes as formerly, but promise to dO' 
better another year. They keep their bull in good order, and he is very serviceable to 
them, ploughing and in other ways. They have been whipsawing lumber to rebuild the 
parsonage and schoolhouse burnt down two years ago. For about two months during* 
the summer season they are employed by the fly-fishermen tourists, and thus they make 
some money. They are located on Nepigon Lake side, with plenty of fine fish close to 
their doors, and nothing to prevent them from living comfortably, if they choose to be 
industrious. They, like others, have been much afflicted with "la grippe." Their school 
is well attended according to the number of their population ; and they have also a fine 
church. Their minister has not been constantly with them since he was burnt out ; his.' 
absence is not a good thing for them, but he expects before long to be able to remain 
steadily with them. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

. J. P. DONNELLY, 

Indian Agent. 



County of Renfrew, Golden Lake Agency, 

South Algona, 2nd October, 1891. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — In submitting my annual report for the year ended 30th June, 1891, I beg 
to state that I have very little information to comii(iunicate to the Department beyond 
that contained in the tabular statement herewith enclosed. 

It is noticeable that there has been very little sickness among the Indians of this 
agency during the last two years. Signs of greater comfort among them are perceptible. 
They seem to be contented and happy. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

EDMUND BENNETT, 

Indian Agent. 



[part i] 13 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



County of Hastings, Tyendinaga Agency, 

Shannonville, 12th October 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for the 
year ended 30th June, 1891. This band now numbers one thousand and seventy-six, 
being an increase of thirteen during the year, the result of twenty-four births and twelve 
■deaths, while one person was admitted into the band. 

Since my last report the general health of the band has been good. The crops last 
year were good and provisions plentiful. The four schools on the reserve are in oper- 
ation and are progressing favourably. A number of children from this reserve are 
attending the high school at Deseronto, while others are attending the institution at 
Brantford and the Shingwauk Home at Sault Ste. Marie. 

The interest money distributed during the year amounted to $2,143.78 and the 
usual supply of blankets has been distributed among the aged and infirm Indians. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

MATTHEW HILL, 

Indian Agent. 



Indian Agency, Georgina, 10th August, 1891, 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for the 
year ended 30th June, 1891. 

The population is now one hundred and twenty -five, an increase of two since last 
census. 

During the first quarter of Ihe present year the band suffered severely from serious 
illness which involved a larger medical bill than usual. The succeeding quarter happily 
more than made up for this, the health of the band having been restored, and the 
medical account was only a trifle. 

The harvest on the reserve, last year like that of the white man, was poor indeed. 
The present outlook is most cheering, and never before was there such a prospect, and I 
made every effort to supply seed grain this spring with this expectation. 

Root crops and vegetables are being more and more cultivated every year with good 
results. Gardens and fields are alike flourishing ; houses and premises well looked after. 
The large stock of horses and cattle, as shown in the tabulated statement, in excellent 
condition, is another evidence of prosperity. 

The sobriety and morality generally of the band is all that could be desired. 

The Methodist Mission Board has built a very substantial and pretty cottage on 
Georgiana Island at a cost of about $800.00 for Mr. Mayes, who is back at his old post 
as teacher, and the Indians are putting up a neat board fence and digging a well to com- 
plete the surroundings. The school is well kept, and Mr. Mayes spares no pains to 
make it a success. 

The contract for a new council house is let and work will be proceeded with at once. 

The Rev. Mr. Wilkinson of the Methodist Church is a most energetic man, anxious 
and diligent in his duties among the Indians, and by far the most useful man the 
Methodist Church ever sent here. 

I was especially pleased, on my last visit to Snake Island, to notice the well-kept 
gardens and premises of the two families there. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. R. STEYENSON, 

Indian Agent. 
14 ■ [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Cape Croker Agency, 26th August, 1891. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement on 
Indian affairs for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

There has been an increase of two in the population of this band, since last year. 
They now number three hundred and ninety-four persons. The health and sanitary 
condition of the people is good. There have been several deaths during the year, but 
nearly all from natural causes. The hay and grain crops last year were excellent. But 
the prospects are not so good this year, on account of drought in spring and early sum- 
mer months. The seed did not germinate, and hay is a total failure, and many will be 
forced to dispose of their stock for want of feed. The catch of fish last fall was 
bountiful. The fishing industry adds greatly to the welfare of this people. The three 
schools have been open most of the year, and the pupils who attended regularly made 
good progress. But I am sorry to say that some of the parents are careless and neglect 
their duty in this respect. Under the new regulations which were passed in council 
here, and assented to by the Department of Indian Affairs, I trust the attendance of 
pupils will be better in the future. There are two churches here : one belonging to the 
Methodist body and the other to the Roman Catholic denomination. Services are held 
in both every Sabbath. The presiding ministers are doing a work amongst the people, 
which I trust in due time will have a good effect. 

I am much pleased to be able to state that this year several of the Indians show a 
■desire to give more attention to agricultural pursuits than last year, and if they can be 
persuaded to adopt farming for a living, there is no fear for the future. All that is 
necessary to make this people prosperous and wealthy is application to industry and 
■economy ; and I hope this result will, in time, be attained. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant. 



J. W. JERMYN, 

Indian Agent. 



Saugeen Reserve, 

Chippewa Hill, 29th August, 1891. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith my report and tabular statement of 
the Chippewa Indians of the Saugeen Reserve for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

This band now numbers three hundred and eighty-five, being an increase of twenty- 
one over last year. The sanitary condition of the Indians has been remarkably good for 
the last year, there being only two deaths to record. They have great cause for renewed 
gratitude to the Giver of all good who has blessed them with another bountiful harvest. 

The fishing interest on their extensive fishing grounds at French Bay is becoming 
a source of increased revenue to them, and their art in this industry is annually 
increasing, so that they can now compete with the most expert white men. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

JAS. ALLEN, 

Indian Agent, 

[part i] 15 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Alderville Agency, 

RosENEATH, Ont., 3rcl August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I enclose herewith tabular statement in connection with the Mississagua 
Indians of Alnwick, for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

This band now numbers two hundred and forty-two, an increase of six since last 
year. We had during the year twelve births, seven deaths, two immigrations and one 
^ration. 

Considerable improvement in agriculture has been made by the band during the 
present year. The Indians have a much greater extent of land under their own culti- 
vation than in any previous year, I assisted them to a considerable extent to procure 
their seed grain and potatoes. 

In addition to farming, large quantities of baskets and other articles were manufac- 
tured by the women, for which they found a ready sale. 

Many of the Indians earned large amounts of money during the past year in 
wages, catching frogs, working in the lumber shanties and river-driving. From the best 
information I could gather, after making careful enquiry, they earned $6,872, while 
from fishing and hunting they only made $589. The general health of the Indians is 
good. The school is still taught by the Rev. J. Lawrence, and the children on the 
whole are doing fairly well ; one of the pupils of this school recently passed the entrance 
examination to the high school, being the first from the Alderville school. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

JOHN THACKERAY, 

Indian Agent. 



Rice and Mud Lake Agency, 

Gore's Landing, 31st August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report and tabular statement show- 
ing the state of the Indians under my charge, for the year ended the 30th June, 1891. 

Rice Lake Reserve. 

The Indians have given more attention to farming, and have been rewarded by 
excellent crops. The wild rice that grows in the lake was also a good crop, and they were 
well paid for the time spent in gathering and disposing of it. They also made consider- 
able out of fish and fur, and some of them did well as wage-earners. Some of the Indian 
women are very industrious and make fancy baskets and other articles out of the bark 
of the birch trees and porcupine quills ; they also make market and clothes-baskets for 
which there is always a demand. There has not been any serious illness. The year has 
passed away quietly and pleasantly. 

Mud Lake Reserve. 

The year at Mud Lake has been one of quietness and prosperity, and the Indians 
have enjoyed good health, except in two or three cases of pulmonary diseases of long 
standing. This is no doubt due to their growing tidiness and cleanliness and th^ improved 
sanitary condition of things in and around their homes. 

Those who will do what is right are encouraged and assisted to help themselves, and 
those who have been turning their attention to farming have been very prosperous and 
are doing well. 
16 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



All those who are willing to work may receive constant employment at good wages 
either with pleasure seekers on the lakes or with the farmers, at least during the sum- 
mer months. 

Those who occupy holdings are gradually tidying, stoning and otherwise improving 
their places. 

By the free labour of the Indians, the roads from the mission house to the church 
and from the church to the wharf have been straightened, graded and greatly improved. 
A new wharf has been built of two piers nine feet square and twelve feet apart. 

The children are becoming more regular in their attendance at school and make 
very good progress, but some parents are yet negligent, and of course the children suffer 
in consequence. 

There are two services in the church every Sunday, and both are fairly well attended. 
Most of the young people attend Sunday school regularly all the year round. 

I have to honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

EDWIN HARRIS. 

Indian Agent. 



Rama Agency, Atherly, 18th September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for the 
year ended 30th June, 1891. The population is now two hundred and twenty -six, being 
a decrease of nine since my last report. There has been considerable sickness, but no 
particular epidemic. Several old people have died from the effects of " la grippe," and 
others from consumption. I am glad to inform you that the Indians are turning their 
attention more to agriculture, and are making decided progress. Some of them are 
sowing fall wheat and others are busy fall-ploughing at the present time. The steam 
thresher will have several days work on the reserve. One man has threshed and has 
■a'ot over three hundred bushels of wheat and about five hundred bushels of oats and 
some pease and barley ; another has got over three hundred bushels of oats and a nice 
quantity of wheat, sufficient to make flour for his family all the year. For the most 
part they are very comfortable and clean in their homes, many of them having all the 
necessaries, and, in fact, some of the luxuries found in the homes of their white neigh- 
bours. The Chief and several others have made some nice board fences along the fronts 
of their places, which give them a nice, tidy appearance. Statute labour was performed 
by the band, and the roads on the reserve are much improved. The usual supply of 
blankets has been received and distributed among the aged and infirm. I am glad to 
state that drinking, or the use of intoxicants, amongst the Indians is decreasing ; of 
course there are always a few who will drink when liquor can be had during the year. 
I prosecuted one person for supplying intoxicants to some of this class ; the case was 
proven and the offender fined $100. The school is presided over by Miss Hattie Taylor, 
who deserves great credit for the way in which she gets the children to take an interest 
in their work. She teaches reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, dictation, drawing, 
recitation and singing. There are thirty children on the roll and an average attendance 
of fifteen for the year. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

D. J. McPHEE, 

Indian Agefif. 

[part i] .17 

14—2 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



New Credit Agency, 

Hagersville, 24th September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to report upon the affairs of this agency for the year ended 
30th June, 1891, and also to enclose my tabular statement. 

The Census. 

The population has decreased since my last report by one. The increase was' four, 
by birth, and three by marriage into the band ; total, seven. The decrease, six by 
death, and two by marriage out of the band ; total, eight. 

Of the deaths two were phthisis, two infantile disease, one old age (Chief David 
Sawyer) and one killed upon the railroad. 

Education. 

Miss Mary Murray, who for several years so successfully presided over the school, 
resigned last December, and her place has been filled by Miss Maggie Meehan, who is 
very satisfactorily conducting the school. 

Last May the question for or against the erection of a new schoolhouse was sub- 
mitted to the vote of the electors and carried for the erection. The plans and specifica- 
tions are now under the consideration of your Department, and it is probable the 
children will enter their new schoolhouse after the Christmas holidays. The school by-law 
has been amended to suit the Advancement Act, and will hereafter be strictly enforced. 

Agriculture. 

Those who had sown wheat last fall have reaped an abundant crop, and although 
the hay and other spring crops were not so good as usual, still the extra wheat crop has 
made up for that deficiency, and the crops are fully as good as those upon the surround- 
ing white farms. 

General Remarks. 

An investigation has been held into several disputed cases by Mr. Inspector A. 
Dingman and will be continued to completion. 

The council have passed a resolution that hereafter all culverts upon the roads 
must be replaced by stone instead of wood, and a new bridge with stone piers is to be 
built over Spring Creek. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant. 

P. E. JONES, M.D., 

Indian Agent. 



Mount Elgin Industrial Institution, Munceytown. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you a brief report of the condition and pro- 
spects of the Mount Elgin Industrial Institution, for the year ended 30th of June, 1891. 

Over one hundred pupils, representing fourteen reserves, have shared the advantages 
of this institution during a part or all the year. The average attendance being eighty- 
one and a fraction. The advancement made by the pupils in their regular studies and 
in the various branches of industry has quite maintained its former high record. At the 
end of our tenth year of management we are glad to say, that for several years, the pro- 
18 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



ceeds of the farm and shops, together with the amounts paid by the Department for each 
pupil ('f 60) per annum, have been sufficient to cover all current expenses, and to assist in 
making large improvements. To secure these improvements, the Department has paid for 
most of the material, while the institution has largely performed the labour. The 
new steam laundry and dry-house, a building 28 by 40, completed and furnished during 
the year, adds greatly to our comfort and is highly prized. 

Our school hours are similar to the public schools, with the addition of Saturday 
afternoon, and one hour each evening for home work under the care of a teacher. Our 
system of having the pupils two days in school and one out, gives us all the advantages 
of a graded school ; while it means to the pupil four days each week in school and two 
days at some branch of industry. 

During the past six years, some fifteen pupils have obtained certificates entitling 
them to teach on any reserve in the Province. Most of them have taught or are teach- 
ing, while others will continue their studies in hope of gaining a higher certificate. 

These pupils have quite sustained their high reputation for good moral character. 
They have been regular in their attendance at public worship and have been greatly 
helped through our excellent sabbath-school. 

W. W. SHEPHERD, 

Principal. 



WiKWEMiKONG, 15th July, 1891. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — As a scholastic year has just expired, it is my duty, as Principal of the Wik- 
wemikong Industrial School, to furnish your DejDartment with a report of the working, 
management, &c., of this institution. 

I shall state in the first place that, as it was meet to do, the main efforts of all who 
had authority over the pupils have been directed towards their moral training, and I am 
happy to be able to say that we have not laboured in vain. Edifying, indeed, has been 
the general behaviour of the pupils in both departments, boys and girls, and very en- 
couraging the eagerness with which they availed themselves of the opportunities pro- 
cured for them for the thorough understanding of the teaching of the Church, and of the 
obligations imposed upon them. Hence the facility experienced by the officers of the 
establishment in enforcing its rules and in maintaining, the whole year round, perfect 
order and discipline among the pupils. To bring the children entrusted to our care not 
only to comply with the requirements of cleanliness and polite manners, but moreover 
to a true appreciation of those two important social qualities, has been the object of our 
constant endeavours. With what results could be ascertained in divers ways, but espe- 
cially from the sympathetic consideration and admiration often shown by the people for 
our pupils, whenever they chanced to meet them on the street on the occasion of public 
school exhibitions or other like occurrences. It is the first year that something like a 
uniform has been introduced among the boys, and we do not intend to stop halfway. 

I now come to the subject of class instruction, that is to that of the developement 
of the pupils' mental faculties. This year the number of the inmates has been on an 
average about one hundred, nearly equally divided among the boys' and girls' schools. 
Well, I do not hesitate to say that, in general, there has been among them very marked 
progress in the different branches of study to which they were applied. Special men- 
tion, however, should be made of English composition and arithmetic. Mr. White, 
one of the School Inspectors, tried them in both when visiting our school last fall, and 
he declared himself very well satisfied with the results, the boys of course showing 
greater proficiency in the science of numbers. Still greater, indeed, would have been his 
satisfaction had he been present at the last public school exhibition given by the boys a 

[part i] 19 

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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



short time before the end of the year. On that occasion the most advanced among them 
gave such answers in mental arithmetic, that one who was present would not believe 
they were extempore, but thought that the teacher must beforehand have made known 
to the pupils the questions he would ask them. Such however was not the case, but the 
answers were bond fide, the result of constant and thorough training, a fact which is 
so much the more worthy of notice as it is well known that Indian children naturally 
have little taste and aptitude for that branch of learning. Truth has forced me to 
declare the boys superior to the girls in arithmetic, and it obliges me likewise to give a 
contrary judgment concerning the use of English in conversation. In this respect, the 
girls are considerably more advanced than the boys, though these also have made progress 
during the last year. We attach great importance to this point and are determined to 
insist on it very much. The very reason of the existence of industrial schools being the 
teaching of trades or industries, this subject should by no means be neglected in a report 
likethis. The last year has given very satisfactory results, indeed, in this branch of teach- 
ing. We had ten apprentices among our boys, and they, in general, applied themselves 
earnestly to the respective trades they were taught. I will give a few proofs. A young 
shoemaker apprentice was able to make a tolerably good pair of shoes after only four 
months of apprenticeship. Another apprentice in the same industry left the school at 
the end of June, after having spent three years in it. He is now earning his living by 
his trade in a neighbouring village, having received a set of tools from the institution. 
Two other lads will soon receive their sets of tools and probably begin to work at 
their trades on their own account. 

This report I would consider incomplete were I to omit speaking of certain acces- 
sory studies and exercises. The first mention is due to music, of which Indians are 
very fond, and for which they exhibit considerable talent. Our boys can already sing 
with taste and precision, and a few among them are able to play the organ. But again 
in this respect they yield to the girls, who are very proficient both in vocal and instru- 
mental music. The children have also been taught the first rudiments of drawing. 
Judging by these beginnings, I believe this is the study in which they could obtain the 
greatest success. 

It would not do to neglect in a school like this the hygienic exercise of the Indian 
clubs ; our children (the boys especially) have had it, I might say, daily, and it is probably 
in a great measure owing to it that their health has generally been so good the year 
round. 

Finally, the boys have had military drill, not occasionally, but hundreds of times. 
To say that they liked that exercise would be saying too much ; nevertheless, it was 
very pleasing, indeed, to see with what precision and exactitude they could manoeuvre 
at the end of the year and how military were their mien and appearance. 

In conclusion I will say that we have every reason to be thankful to God for the 
blessings with which he has deigned to favour our labours during the past year. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

D. DuRONQUET, 

Principal. 



24th October, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs. 

SiR,^ — I will now state what has become of some of the ex-pupils of this Institution. 

Ex-Pupils of last year. 

Charles Maiangowe has become school teacher at Bapwa village. 
Louis Tillison keeps a shoemaker's shop at Killarney. 
Jean Jabokwam works as shoemaker at Wikwemikong. 
Ignace Osawaminiki works as blacksmith at Wikwemikong. 
20 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Ex-Pujnls of former years. 
Names. Avocations. Places. 

J. B. Wakekijik School teacher Shishigwaning 

Joseph Jabokwam Weaver, expects a situation as school teacher . . Wikwemikong 

Joseph Peltier Merchant do 

J. B. Peltier Blacksmith , South Bay. 

Moses Wibokamigak do Wikwemikong 

Stephen Kiniwikijik Farmer do 

Joseph Trudeau do do 

Wm. Kinojameg Shoemaker do 

Lucy Kinojameg Taught school several years at West Bay and 

Serpent River, expects soon a similiar 

situation 

Agothe Aljoe Storekeeper, taught school for years, until 

lately do 

Sophie de La Morandiere . Wife of Joseph Peltier merchant, taught school 

over 10 years until lately 

Magdeleine Atchitawens . School teacher South Bay. 

Harriet Atchitawens .... do ... Sagamok. 

Victoria Wakekijik do Thessalon. 

Lucy Assiniwe Married to good farmer of Wikwemikonsing, 

expects soon situation as school teacher. . . 

Elisabeth Proulx School teacher Wikwemikon - 

sing. 
I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

D. DuRONQUET, 

Principal. 



Homes for Indian Children, 

Sault Ste. Marie, 4th July, 189L 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to present to you my report of the Indian Homes under 
my charge for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

At the Shingwauk Home, Sault Ste. Marie, we have accommodation now for 
seventy-four boys, and everything is in excellent trim for carrying on the work on a 
more extensive scale than we have been able to do hitherto. 

Our buildings consist of the main Shingwauk Home, in which are the dormitories, 
dining hall, kitchens, and officers' quarters, including my own residence ; the ho.spital, 
with beds for six patients ; the industrial building, in which are rooms for teaching 
weaving, tailoring, shoemaking, besides office and storeroom ; the chapel ; farm cottage, 
barn and stables ; carpenters' cottage and factory, with engine, boiler and machinery for 
planing, turning, sash-making, etc ; lastly, the new " Shingwauk Hall" — of which the 
lower storey is a drill hall and recreation room and the upper storey is used as a school 
room. This latter building occupies the highest part of our property and has a small 
observatory on the roof, from which a splendid view is obtained of the surrounding 
country. All the buildings are connected by telegraph wires, and five or six boys are 
able to operate the instruments. 

At the Wawanosh Home, which is nearly three miles distant from the Shingwauk, 
our buildings consist of the main Wawanosh Home, with accommodation for twenty-six 
girls ; laundry, laundresses' cottage, stable, and girls' playroom. 

[part i] 21 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



At Elkhorn, Manitoba, our buildings are the Washakada Home, with accommoda- 
tion for thirty-five girls ; the Kasota Home, with accommodation for thirty-five boys ; the 
central building, with superintendent's rooms, dining hall, schoolrooms and kitchen ; the 
laundry, connected by a passage-way to the Washakada Home ; and the industrial 
building, containing stable, carpenter shop and bootmaker shop. Four miles away from 
the institutions is our farm of six hundred and forty acres. 

On this we have just erected a farm house, with room for the farm instructor and 
his wife, and a dormitory for six boys, also barn and stables. 

About forty acres of land have thus far been broken, and of this about ten acres are 
already in crop. 

At Medicine Hat, Assiniboia, we have within the past year purchased a very excel- 
lent site for another institution, and have partly erected one of three proposed 
buildings. The building in course of erection is to be the central one of the group^ and 
the contract price is $4,000, but only $2,000 has as yet been expended on it ; the walls 
are concrete and the roof is a mansard one. The ground is fenced in, and about three 
acres of land are already in crop. The school will accommodate about seventy pupils, 
when completed. 

Our Live Stock. — At the Shingwauk Home we have four horses, a dairy of eleven 
cows, several young cattle, pigs, poultry, etc. At Elkhorn we have a pair of light horses, a 
pair of heavy horses, a herding pony, a yoke of oxen, two cows, and some calves and pigs. 

The total attendance at our schools, during the past year, has been one hundred and 
sixty-four. During the winter we were obliged to reduce our numbers at the Shingwauk 
to thirty, and at the Wawanosh to sixteen, in order to economize funds. The attendance 
at Elkhorn has usually averaged about forty. At the present time there are fifty at the 
Shingwauk Home, twenty-six at the Wawanosh Home, forty-three at Elkhorn, one hundred 
and nineteen in all. We had four deaths during the year — two boys died at Elkhorn, 
one boy at the Shingwauk, and one girl at the Wawanosh — all from pulmonary com- 
plaints. 

Besides the pupils in residence at our Homes, we have one ex-pupil a student at 
St. John's College, Winnipeg, and another attending Trinity College School, Port Hope. 
Both these pupils are still dependent on us for their support. 

We have recently made a little change in our school arrangements and holidays. 
According to our present plan, the year is divided into six school terms of about seven 
and a half weeks each. At the close of each school term there is an examination, fol- 
lowed by seven or eight days holidays, the regular Christmas and summer holidays are 
thus done away with, but if any children living at a distance are desirous of going home 
for several weeks they are still permitted to do so, and by so doing they miss either a 
whole or the part of one of the six terms. Our object in adopting this new plan is to 
avoid the inconvenience of the pupils being all away just at the busiest time of the year, 
and also to save the trouble and expense that is often caused getting them back when 
they have gone in large numbers to their homes. The Indian parents do not seem at all 
to object to the new plan. 

Since the Homes were first started, seventeen years ago, I have received five hundred 
and eleven pupils in all. Of these, three hundred and twenty-one were boys, and one 
hundred and ninety girls. They belonged to the following tribes : three hundred and 
thirty-three Ojibways, forty-six Crees, twenty-three Delawares, thirty -three Ottawas, 
thirty-nine Sioux, three Blackfeet, two Bloods, thirteen Mohawks, fifteen Pottawat- 
tamies, two Assiniboines, one Abenaki, one Muncey. And of the number received, twQ 
hundred and fifty-three reported themselves members of the Church of England, ninety- 
seven Methodists, fourteen Presbyterians, ninety-six Roman Catholics, seven Moravian 
Church, forty-four heathens. Our chief, and indeed I may almost say only drawback 
during the past year has been want of funds. 

I am sorry to say that the Church of which I ^m a member and a minister, has, in 
my opinion, been doing but scant justice to the cause of the Indians, whom God in His 
Providence seems to have placed specially under our care and protection. I have been 
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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



vainly endeavouring to induce the Canadian Church Missionary Society to take a more 
active interest in the work, but am compelled to say that I have been and am still left 
too much alone in my efforts to build up what I hope may one day prove itself to be an 
important and useful work. 

I desire to thank the Department for the very great encouragement it has given me 
during the last two or three years in my arduous undertakings, and although disap- 
pointed somewhat about the expected grants for this year, I trust that the way may yet 
open, before another year speeds round, for me to carry out my plans, both for extend- 
ing our work at the Shingwauk Home, and also for establishing another institution at 
Medicine Hat. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

EDWARD F. WILSON. 



Sault Ste. Marie, 12th November, 1891. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs. 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — In compliance with your request in your letter (No. 82390) of 16th September 
to add to my annual report of this year some particulars as to what has become of the 
pupils that have left us during the year, I beg to submit the following : — 

1. Albert Lahguj, aged nineteen, completed his course satisfactorily at the Shingwauk, 
passed the High School entrance examination, and when he left us — a year ago — 
expected to teach an Indian school, but I have not yet heard that he has one. 

2. William Riley, aged nineteen, completed his five years at the Shingwauk, became a 
good carpenter, and when he left us received an order for tools for $42.54, that being 
the amount to his credit in our savings bank. Is supposed to be now following his 
trade on Walpole Island. 

3. Matthew Sampson, aged eighteen, completed his time at the Shingwauk ; had be- 
come a good shoemaker ; received order for tools for $20.88, Has not been able to follow 
his trade (at Sheshegwahning, Manitoulin Island) owing to sickness. If well enough, he 
is to come back and take charge of our shoe-shop this winter, as our funds do not allow 
of our employing a white man. 

4. Frank Maggrah, aged fifteen, completed his five years at the Shingwauk ; learned 
shoemaking ; earned $10. Would have done better to remain longer with us, but 
expected to get employment at his trade at Littie Current, Manitoulin Island. 

5. Philamine Sampson, aged seventeen, was three years at the Wawanosh ; was out in 
domestic service for several months after leaving, and is now married. 

6. Charles Gilbert, aged twenty-one, completed his time at the Shingwauk; became an 
excellent blacksmith ; received order for tools for $71.11. Agent Mclntyre, of Fort 
William, undertook to look after him and get him started in life. 

7. Nancy Petahnuhgund, aged nineteen, was three years at the Wawanosh. Since 
then has been several months in domestic servic and done well, but I believe is now at 
her home. Christian Island. 

8. Daniel Imoyin, a Blood Indian, aged twenty-one, was at our Elkhorn school for 
about a year ; returned home a year ago. Is prepared to enter the Medicine Hat 
school as soon as started. 

9. John A. Maggrah, aged twenty-two, was five years at the Shingwauk. Is now 
a Divinity student at St. John's College, Winnipeg, giving every satisfaction. (Still 
•dependent on us for support.) 

[part i] 23 

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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



10. Joseph Loney, aged seventeen, was five years at the Shingwauk. Is now a 
student at Trinity College school, Port Hope, and making most satisfactory progress. 
(Still dependent on us for support.) 

11. Arthur Miskokoman, aged twenty, completed his five years at the Shingwauk. 
Tried the High School entrance examination this summer, but failed to pass ; so, at his 
own request, he has been admitted to the Shingwauk as a boarder, and attends the public 
school in the town. Papers are at present being got out for this boys' enfranchisement. 

12. Sylvester Kezhig, aged seventeen, completed his five years at the Shingwauk; 
learned farming ; received an order for farm tools for $19.22, and is now farming at his 
home, Cape Croker. 

13. Dora Jacobs, aged fifteen, completed her five years at the Wawanosh, but at her 
own request has been admitted again, and is now studying for next year's High School 
examination. 

14. Joseph Sampson, aged twenty, completed his five years at the Shingwauk ; has 
become a very good shoemaker and has $42.25 in the saving bank. Is anxious to 
improve his education before following his trade, so, at his own request, has been 
received back at the Shingwauk, and is studying for the next High School entrance 
examination. 

15. John Solomon, aged nineteen, completed his five years at the Shingwauk ; had be- 
come a good carpenter ; has $37.48 in the saving bank ; but, at his own request, has been 
admitted again to the Shingwauk, to improve both his education and his proficiency at 
his trade. 

16. Nancy Henry, aged seventeen, was four years at the Wawanosh. Has been 
nearly a year in domestic service and gives every satisfaction. 

Trusting that the above report may be adjudged satisfactory. 



I have the hour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant. 



EDWARD F. WILSOK. 



24 [part i] 

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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Mohawk Institution, 

Brantford, Ont., 11th September, 1891. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you a report on the Mohawk Institution, 
for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

Attendance. 

During the year fifteen boys and thirteen girls entered, and sixteen boys and four- 
teen girls left the institution; the number on the books 31st December, 1890, being 
ninety. 

The periods of attendance of the pupils who left during the year, were as follows : — 

Under 1 year 1 

From 1 to 2 years 7 

do 2 to 3 do 14 

do 3 to 4 do 5 

do 4 to 5 do 2 

do 5 to 6 do 1 

Average attendance of boys, two and a-half years ; girls, two years and five months. 

The attendance has become more uniform ; only one pupil attended less than a year 
(she went home sick), and only one remained longer than five years. In 1880 eight 
pupils attended less than a year, and five more than five years. 

The applications for admission continue to exceed the accommodation of the 
institution. 

The average number of pupils boarded and clothed was ninety-one. 

The following improvements have been made : — 

(a.) Building a brick basement to the boys' play-house with lavatory, hot and cold 
shower baths, dressing room, in which each boy has a separate locker, a boot shelf and 
towel rack. 

In the upper floor are a reading room, clothes press, play room and trunk room, 
forming altogether a most complete home for the boys, whilst it is so situated as to afford 
a refuge in the event of a conflagration in the main building. 

(6.) Putting electric (incandescent) lights into the class rooms and sewing room. 

(c.) Constructing an officers' dining hall in the basement of main building. 

(d.) Building a furnace room in boys' department, so as to remove furnace from 
dining hall. 

(e.) A new cooking, baking and hot water apparatus in kitchen and scullery. 

(/.) Adding a third organ for the girls to practice upon. Every girl in the upper 
school now receives daily instruction in instrumental music. 

Health and Conduct. 

An epidemic of influenza visited the school early in the year and caused interrup- 
tion to the usual routine, as few pupils or ofiicers escaped its attack. Though in some 
cases the sickness was severe, no fatality occurred. One girl (a pagan Indian) positively 

[part i] 24a 

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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



refused to take the medicine prescribed for her, on the ground that " white medicine no 
good for Indian." I was obliged to ask her friends to remove her. I regret to say she 
did not recover. 

Beyond this the general health of the inmates has been good and no death has 
occurred in the institution during the last ten years. 

The conduct of the pupils has been fair. Six boys absconded immediately on the 
reopening of the school after the summer holidays, for which, I believe, the system of 
allowing partially trained lads a period of unrestrained license is responsible, as no 
others ran away during the previous twelve months, nor have any done so since. 

All pupils are now admitted upon written agreements that they shall remain for 
not less than two years and without any vacation ; that those who go home upon the 
completion of their term must, if they wish to re-enter, make application within thirty 
days. By this system undesirable characters are eliminated and those only who are 
deserving are re-admitted. The result is already apparent, and I am convinced that 
more lasting effects will result from even two years continuous training than from four 
years attendance under the old system of an annual return to former habits and evil 
surroundings, which entirely unfit the majority of pupils for further training and in all 
cases greatly retarded their progress in English speaking. 

Education. 

The class work has been well done and good progress effected. Four pupils passed 
the examination for entrance to the Collegiate Institute, and are now taking their 
special course of training as teachers of Indian schools, viz. : — Francis Styres, Christie 
Anderson, Reuben Tobias and David Benedict. 

Farm. 

The results of the farming operations for the year have been most gratifying to me 
— in fact, they have far exceeded my most sanguine expectations. 

The rainfall was above the average and especially benefited the light and gravelly 
soils of which this farm is chiefly composed. We harvested one thousand two hundred 
and seventy-five bushels of w^heat, one thousand four hundred and ninety-five bushels of 
oats, two hundred bushels of pease, one hundred and fifty tons of hay, nine hundred and 
ninety bushels of corn (unshellecl), and six hundred bushels of potatoes, besides other 
roots, corn fodder and garden vegetables. 

Trade Shop. 

The balance in favour of this department is small, as there has been very little 
work done in which profit could be gained, nearly the whole operations being confined 
to improvements and repairs at the institution, which are charged at actual cost. 

It is a great disappointment to me that I cannot induce more lads to remain long 
enough in the trade shop to gain a fair knowledge of the business. As soon as they 
obtain a little experience in the use of tools they imagine they are worth more than they 
get and, are easily led by their friends (?) to seek employment elsewhere, so that few 
attain to anything like a fair knowledge of their trade. 

In reviewing the results of the year's work I am on the whole satisfied, finding, as 
I do, that substantial progress has been made and that the outlook affords encourage- 
ment for future effort. 

There is great improvement in the condition of the Indian dwellings, but the advance 
is most marked in the dress and manners of the younger women and girls. 

Formerly it was very rarely that a girl came to the institution provided with under- 
clothing and night dresses ; these are now becoming necessities. The highly-coloured 
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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



cotton kerchiefs have been replaced by hats ; jackets are taking the place of blankets 
and shawls, and neatness is considered more attractive than flashy colours and tawdry 
ornaments. 

Increasin*^ necessities demand a wider range of, and more continuous, employment, 
and this results in a large increase in the number of youths of both sexes seeking occu- 
pation away from home, the boys as farm-hands and the girls as domestics ; in the latter 
class the increase is very marked. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

R. ASHTON, 

Superintendent. 
To the School Board of Six Nations' Indian Reserve : 

Gentlemen, — I beg to submit my report for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

Financial Statement. 
Receipts. 

To Balance brought forward $ 675 99 

Annual Grants — 

New England Company $1,000 00 

Indian Department * 400 00 

Six Nations' Council 1,500 00 

Methodist Conference (six months) 125 00 

3,025 00 

$3,700 99 

Expenditure. 

By Salaries $2,409 80 

Buildings and grounds 1 8 00 

Fuel 123 18 

School requisites 35 31 

Printing and office expenses 15 28 

Prizes 48 75 

Insurances 16 50 

Sundries 21 60 

School fees 27 75 

2,716 17 

Balance in bank 984 82 

$3,700 99 



[part i] 25 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Report for the Year ended 30th June, 1891 — Comparative Condition of Schools. 



Name of Teacher. 



Miss Hyndman (one-half 
year only) 



Miss Maracle (one-half 
year only) ... 



Mrs. Wetherell . 
Mr. E. Bearfoot 
Mr. T. Miller. . 

Miss S. Russell . 

Miss M. Davis . . 

Mrs. Scott 

Miss S. Davis . . . 
Miss F. Davis . . 





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The two schools, "Stone Ridge" and "Red Line," formerly under the control of 
the Methodist Mission Board, were transferred to this Board on 1st January, 1891, the 
Methodist Conference to pay the sum of $250 per annum towards the general fund of 
the School Board, and to appoint one representative at the same. 

W. Wilkinson, Esq., M.A., Principal of the Brantford Public Schools, was 
appointed a member of the Board by the Methodist Conference. 
26 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The "Stone Ridge " school was not re-opened by the Board, as it is situated within 
Section No. 5. 

The " Red Line " school becomes No. 1 on the list of Board Schools, and its 
condition during the past six months is shown on the tabular statement. The school- 
house is not fit for the purpose. It is situated on the northern limit of the reserve and 
is very poorly equipped. It is recommended that a new schoolhouse be immediately 
erected on the north half of Lot 30, Concession III. 

School No. 2 was not opened during the first half of the year, the Board having 
decided to remove it. On petition, however, of the residents of the School Section it was 
reopened on 1st January, 1891, with Miss Kate Maracle as teacher. 

Though there is an increase of fifteen on the roll of the schools, the average 
attendance for the year was one lower than last year. This was owing in part to an 
unusual amount of sickness during the spring months. 

The superintendent has visited each school once a fortnight, and reported upon the 
same at the meetings of the Board. His report on buildings and grounds at the end of 
the year is as follows : — 

Nos. 2, 5, 6, 7 and 11 — in good order. 

Nos. 3, 8, 9 and 10 require some little repairs, chiefly to fences, and at No. 6 the 
closets should be masked. It is recommended that all necessary repairs be immediately 
executed. 

Lieut.-Col. J. T. Gilkison, Visiting Superintendent of the Six Nations, and for- 
several years chairman of this Board, having been placed upon the retired list by the 
'Indian Department, ceases to be a member of this Board. Upon his retirement, the 
members of the Board passed a resolution expressing their appreciation of his long and 
valuable services and the deep interest he has shown in the schools under their control. 

Members of the School Board : — 



PTTV T) T PA^^WTTTT T \ Representing the New England Company. 

E. D. CAMERON, Esq., Representing the Indian Department. 

CHIEF JOAB MARTIN, ] 

CHIEF LEVI JONATHAN, [Representing the Council of the Six Nations 

CHIEF NELLES MONTURE,J 

W. WILKINSON, Esq., Rejjresenting the Methodist Conference. 

REV. I. BEARFOOT, Superintendent. 

I have the honour to be, 

Your obedient servant, 

R. ASHTON, 

Honorary Secretary. 

Read and adopted as the report of the Board, 29th August, 1891. 

R. A. 



Caughnawaga, Que., 31st August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my report for the year ended 30th June last,, 
together with a tabular statement on the affairs of the Iroquois Indians of Caughnawaga.. 
There were seventy-seven births and forty-nine deaths during the year, resulting in 
an increase of forty-five. This increase, however, includes the return into the tribe of 
several of its members who had absented themselves. 

Both our schools, boys' and girls', have given great satisfaction ; but the progress 
achieved by the girls was greater owing to their regularity in attendance at school.. 
I am very happy to be able to state that the Indians are far more zealous in the 
tilling of the land than heretofore. Quite a number of them now reside on their hold 

[part i] 27 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



ings, and it is hoped that with the good harvest they expect to realize this fall, they will 
be able to live comfortably next year. 

In general the affairs of the tribe are prosperous and flourishing. The reserve has 
been free from all kinds of diseases during the year. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

A. BROSSEAU, 

Indian Agent. 



St. Regis, Que., August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, ' 

Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit my report and tabular statement for the year 
ended the 30th June, 1891. 

The crops on the reserve and on the different islands for the last year were not as 
good as usual. The grain crops were a general failure through this section, but the 
Indians in general managed to get through the winter without asking for any assistance 
from the Government. They have a ready sale for all the baskets, lacrosse sticks, bead 
work, etc., which they manufacture, the proceeds being from eight to ten thousand 
dollars a year ; this amount, with the products of the soil, keeps them in very good cir- 
stances. 

Many of the Indians and their families travel from one place to another, berry 
picking, hop-picking, and basket-making where wood can be easily had ; and many of 
them are employed as pilots to run the Long Sault Rapids with rafts or drams of tim- 
ber ; some go as far as Quebec, for which they receive good pay. 

I am much pleased to report that the Indians for the last three years have greatly 
improved in farming, and in building fences, repairing and putting up new houses. 

The sanitary condition of the Indians has been satisfactory, there having been no 
contagious disease on the reserve. The number of the band at the last distribution of 
interest money was twelve hundred and two, being an increase of seventeen. The five 
Indian schools have been kept open regularly, with a fair average attendance, I must 
also mention that the Rev. M. Mainville is, as usual, still attentive to the interests of 



the Indians under his charge. 



I have the honour to be. Sir, ' ^ 

Your obedient servant, 

GEORGE LONG, 

hidian Agent. 



Cacouna, Que., 1st September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you my report, together with a tabular 
statement, for the year ended the 30th June last. 

There were seven deaths during the year, mostly all the result of pneumonia and 
pleurisy. 

The many tourists who come to our water resorts every year, never fail to purchase 
a quantity of Indian curiosities ; but unfortunately the number of widows is increasing 
and the population proportionately decreasing, so that progress is retarded. The wood 
required for the manufacture of Indian curiosities is becoming every year more scarce, 
and with only a few men able to work, it is not an easy matter for those to support 
their families. Our Indians have also to compete with the Indians of the surrounding 
localities, who come here when the tourists are here, to sell their own wares. The men 
28 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



are often engaged by the tourists to guide them to the different fishing and hunting 
places. 

The Government has made these Indians very happy in having purchased a reserve 
for them at Cacouna Point. 

They will now be able to improve their houses and build others. 
I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

NARCISSE LEBEL. 

Indian Agent. 



Maria Agency, Que, 2nd October, 1891. 
The Honou liable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report on the affairs of the Micmac 
Indians of Maria for the year ended the 30th June last, together with a tabular state- 
ment for the same period. 

The Indians of my agency have suffered greatly during the past two years from 
" la grippe " and other ailments. 

The crops look very well and promise an abundant harvest. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant 

J. GAGNE, 

Agent. 



Lake St. John, Que., 17th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my report, together with a tabular statement, 
for the year ended the 30th June last. 

Consumption and " la grippe" have caused several deaths among the Indians during 
the year, and this circumstance, together with the absence from the reserve of two 
Indian families, caused a decrease of 11 in the population. 

In general, hunting has proved successful, but no progress has been made by the 
Indians in agriculture since my last report. Hiring themselves as guides to tourists, 
and the manufacturing of birch canoes during the two months they spend on the reserve, 
form their chief occupation. Some, however, made small clearings on their land. Two 
horse-rakes have been purchased by two of them, and others intend to band together to 
procure a mower next year. 

The crops this year are most promising, except hay, which has suffered from 
drought. Last year's harvest was an average crop. The prosecution of liquor sellers 
and the exercise of strict watchfulness to secure observance of the law is securing 
peaceful lives to the Indians. The school has been better attended this year than usual. 
A number of patients were treated in the hospital, and five adults and three child- 
ren died during the year. 

Not having visited the Indians of the Lower Saguenay, the relief grants which 
were sent for them have been duly and economically distributed among them by the 
Cures of their respective parishes. According to reports received from these gentlemen 
these Indians are contented. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

L. E. OTIS, 

Indian Agent. 
[part i] 29 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Agency of Ste. Anne de Restigouche, 

Province of Quebec, 24th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report, with my tabular statement, 
concerning the affairs of my agency, for the year ended 30th June last. 

The Indians generally live comfortably, particularly those who till the soil ; some 
of them are even well off. 

The grain crop last year was fairly good, but potatoes were partially destroyed by 
insects. 

With the exception of some Indians who always manage to procure intoxicants, 
their greatest barrier to advancement, and which they succeed in procuring notwith- 
standing all efforts made to prevent their doing so, they were sober in their habits. 
It is almost impossible to reach the vendors of intoxicants in such a way as to secure 
their conviction, for the simple reason that the Indians will not reveal their names. 

The Indians of this agency have suffered from the effects of " la grippe" or influenza, 
during the greater portion of the summer, and some have died from its effects. Fortu- 
nately the disease has now disappeared, but those who have suffered from it are still 
very weak. 

The Indians in general are very remiss in sending their children to school ; this is the 
reason why the pupils are progressing so slowly. 

There were twenty-four births and twenty-five deaths during the year. 
I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

S. POIRIER. 

Indian Agent. 



River Desert Agency, Maniwaki, Que., August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, ^ 

Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report with tabular statement for the 
year ended 30th June, 1891. 

During the past year the sanitary condition of the Indians of this band has been 
very good, there having been but five deaths, as against twenty-five for the previous 
year. One of these was a woman aged ninety-one whose death was caused by accident, 
having been severely burned by a " smudge " fire whilst hoeing potatoes. 

During the year there were fourteen births, and nine members were dropped from 
the pay list, having been absent for three years from the reserve, which leaves the mem- 
bers on the pay list the same as on the date of my last report — three hundred and thirty- 
six. There are also about one hundred and twelve members of the band who are habitu- 
ally absent, making the total membership four hundred and forty-eight. 

The Indian school on the reserve continues in operation with an increasing atten- 
dance. The progress of the pupils is satisfactory. 

The crops last season were good. Potatoes, however, rotted after being dug. 

The new bridge over the Bitobee Creek, which was under contract to ex-Chief Otjik, 
was completed last fall at a cost of $500. Two hundred and twenty dollars was ex- 
pended on wire fencing, and $85.00 on the repairs of the Bitobee Road last season. 
This summer the Desert Road was repaired and extended, at an oulay of $191. The 
labour on these public works was performed by members of the band under the super- 
vision of an Indian foreman. 

Last winter's hunt was successful. Prices for the different sorts of fur continue 
remunerative and there seems to be no perceptible diminution in the number of fur- 
bearing animals. 
30 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The Indians engaged in hunting receive from $200 to $500 for their winter's work. 
With these returns attainable from this source it is not surprising that farming is con- 
sidered merely as a pursuit auxiliary to their main occupation of hunting. 

The term of the chiefs having expired, an election was held on 23rd August, 1890, 
when Peter Tenisco, Louis Pezzendewatch and Louis Comondo were chosen by the band 
to replace Simon Otjik, Joseph Menass and M. Tehenene the retiring chiefs. Peter 
Tenisco had previously been Head Chief for three consecutive terms. He is one of the 
most progressive members of the band and gives an excellent example of sobriety 
and industry to his people. 

Evidences of material progress on the reserve are perceptible. Clearings are being- 
extended, new dwelling houses are being erected, whilst several of the Indians have 
recently acquired horses, cows and farm machinery. 

The great drawback to the advancement of some members of this band is their 
habit of using intoxicants to excess. It is almost impossible to suppress this owing to the 
facilities for obtaining whiskey in Maniwaki and vicinity, the Quebec Government hav- 
ing licensed eight places in the village for the sale of liquor. 

I have the honour to be Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

JAMES MARTIN, 

Indian Agent. 



Agency of La Jeune Lorette, Que., 

29th August, 189L 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you my annual report together with a tabu- 
lar statement for the year ended the 30th June last. 

The Huron Band of Indians is composed of two hundred and ninety-nine members, 
being an increase of six over last year 

The sanitary condition of the band has been satisfactory, and the reserve has been 
free from all contagious diseases. 

The trade in snow-shoes and mocassins was not as good as in the previous year — 
and consequently less remunerative. A certain number of families visited the different 
watering-places in the Province of Quebec, to dispose of their fancy work and Indian 
curiosities, but sales were not remunerative. 

The operation of vaccination on those Indians who required to be vaccinated last 
winter, was very successful. 

No progress has been made in agriculture since last year, and the harvest was con- 
siderably less. 

The school was better attended this year than last, and some progress has been 
made. The average number of the pupils who attended was about sixty. 

Those Indians who went hunting last winter were successful, and their beaver- 
skins and other furs were sold at remunerative prices. 

Some of the Indians were again engaged by American tourists as guides, to take 
them to the hunting and fishing places. 

Although the Indians are improving in their habits and in sobriety, there have been, 
nevertheless, several disturbances in the village owing to the great number of strangers 
who were drawn to this reserve by the construction of the Quebec and Lake St. John 
JRailway. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 
• Your obedient servant, 

ANTOINE O. BASTIEN, 

Indian Agent. 

[part i] 31 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



North Temiscamingue, Que., 27th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to forward my annual report and tabular statement for 
the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

The Indians had good crops of potatoes last fall. Owing to high prices for furs and 
scarcity of work, the Indians have been hunting and, therefore, have not enlarged their 
clearances during the past year. 

I regret to say that some of them obtain intoxicants at the Baie des Peres. 
The school has been fairly attended, and the pupils made good progress. 
The new schoolhouse being erected on the reserve is near-ly completed and will be- 
ready for commencement of school on the 1st September, 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

A. McBRIDE, 

Indian Agent. 



PiERREViLLE, QuE., 11th July, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — ^I have the honour to present to you my annual report, together with a tabular 
statement, for the year ended the 30th June last. 

The Indians composing this band are steadily progressing in the manufacture of 
baskets, canoes and other articles, which they export every year to places within the 
United States visited by tourists. They generally leave in the month of June and 
return about the middle of the autumn. 

Some of those Indians employ their money in improving their residences and in the 
liquidation of their debts, but others — these, however, are the exceptions — spend it in 
useless things and sometimes squander a portion of it in liquor. 

I am glad to be able to say that the general conduct of the Abenaki Indians is very 
good and that there is little intemperance among them. Were it not for the neighbor- 
hood of the whites, some of whom, for the sake of gain, care very little whether they 
destroy the good effect of civilization, those Indians would be examples of sobriety. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

P. E. ROBILLARD, 

Indian Agent. 



Becancourt, Que., 20th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affaii-s, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit to you my annual report and tabular statement 
for the year ended the 30th June last. 

The Indians made very little progress this year, and some of them experienced 
great, difficulty in getting through the winter, because of the poor harvest of last year, 
and also because of their improvidence ; but thanks to the Department for the assist- 
ance given to those who were most in need, their suffering was considerably lessened. 

Only one Indian went out hunting this year. They mostly all cultivate the soil to 
some extent. 
32 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Some have been hired by sportsmen to show them the fishing places in the lakes of 
the Upper St. Maurice. 

The Abenakis of Becancourt are great manufacturers of baskets, which they sell 
with profit. 

These Indians suffer nothing in the summer season ; they all find something to do ; 
and I am very happy to be able to report that they are now by far more temperate in 
their habits than they formerly were. 

I have the honour to' be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

H. DESILETS, 

Indian Agent. 



Notre Dame de Betsiamits, 

Saguenay District, Que., 29th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for the year ended 30th June, 
last, in connection with the affairs of my superintendency, together with a tabular 
statement for the same period. 

Owing to delay in starting on my tour of inspection, having been taken sick with 
"la grippe," I could not see the Indians of Maskharo. They had left for the woods 
when I arrived there, their Missionaries having advised them to leave to avoid exposing 
themselves to the disease I suffered from, and which was then prevailing all along the 
coast. None of these Indians, I have heard since, caught the disease. 

These Indians and those of the neighbouring localities, were not more successful 
this year in hunting for fur-bearing animals ; but having managed to kill a large 
number of cariboo, the did not suffer from hunger. They are generally sober in their 
habits. I left instructions with the agent of the Hudson's Bay Company to distribute 
to them provisions to the amount of their annual grant when they return to the post, 
and handed to that gentleman a list of the names of the aged and widows who should 
participate therein. I will transmit to you the vouchers in connection with this 
distribution as soon as I shall have received them. 



I met all the Indians of this place when I arrived here. Some were suffering from 
the effects of "la grippe." One woman died for want of proper care, and had it not 
been for the Missionary, the Rev. Father Arnaud, to whom our thanks are due, there 
would have been several other victims of that fell disease. 

The hunt for fur-bearing animals was not of much account, but having succeeded 
in killing a large quantity of cariboo, none of the Indians suffered from hunger. Blankets 
and provisions were distributed to the sick, the aged and the widows. These Indians also 
keep sober in general, but they are very lazy. 

Sept Isles. 

Nearly all the Indians of this place were here attending the mission and awaiting 
my arrival when I reached here. Some were down with " la grippe." Two women and 
three young men died from pneumonia after I had left the place. The hunt for fur- 
bearing animals was not very successful, but no one suffered from hunger. Good prices 
were paid to them for whatever fur they had by the Hudson's Bay Company and other 
traders. The traders of this and of the neighbouring localities watch closely for those 
Indians who return home by the River Moisie ; they actually go from wigwam to wig- 
wam in order to secure the furs, and they bring intoxicants with them. Liquor it would 
appear was sold on the reserve in four different places, at night. I had not the good 
fortune to come across the Stipendiary Magistrate of this district and was consequently 

[part i] .33 

U— 3 



r;r; 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A 1892 



unable to prosecute the delinquents. When I passed here cod was plentiful, the same 
at Sept Isles and at Moisie, but owing to the epidemic then raging the Indians could 
not fish. I have since heard that they were all in good health. Three families remained 
at Sheldrake for the purpose of fishing for cod, which was plentiful. Provisions were 
•distributed among the sick and the aged Indians and to the widows. 

Godhout. 

All the Indians of this place were gathered here awaiting the arrival of both the 
Missionary and myself. When I visited them their health was good, but in June they had 
suffered from the effects of " la grippe." These Indians are clean in person and in their 
houses, and generally sober in their habits. An old widow died during last autumn of 
old age, and two others, also very old, died, it would appear, from sheer fear of catching 
^'la grippe." 

The hunt for fur-bearing animals was not much better than in the previous years. 
The Indians succeeded, however, in killing quite a large number of sea calves, and 
none of them suffered from hunger. They could catch fish and porpoises in quan- 
tity were they not so indolent. I gave provisions to an old man and to several widows. 

Escoumains. 

The Indians of this place also suffered from the effects of "la grippe," but in 
a very light form, during the month of May. Seal hunting was poorly rewarded this 
year, the same with regard to fur-bearing animals. One of these Indians w^ent out 
salmon fishing, and he was very successful. 

The potatoe crop last year was poor. The Indians had just enough to keep them 
through the winter, and I had to give them some to use as seed in the spring. 

I gave provisions and one blanket to an old widow who has been sick for the last 
three years, I also gave some blankets to other aged Indians. 

The Indian family residing at Tadousac are well behaved ; and none of them were 
sick during the year. 

Betsiamits Reserve. 

The hunt by the Indians for fur-bearing animals was not very successful, but they 
have squanderd less money than usual on intoxicants. They sold their furs at good 
prices to the Hudson's Bay Company and other traders, and no one suffered from hunger. 
They are all well clothed. 

Nearly all those who left for the woods escaped the epidemic, whereas those who 
remained on the sea coast were all stricken down with it. I have observed that the 
disease was less severe by far among the children than with grown up people, and of 
shorter duration. 

The medicines which were given to me last autumn by the Department were most 
xiseful during that period of sickness, and when I made my tour of inspection I was 
very careful to take with me all that I had, and I could have made use of more had I 
had more with me. 

I have noticed quite a change for the better with the Indians of this reserve ; they 
have kept very sober and quiet. None of them went to Quebec or crossed over to the 
south shore for intoxicants this year ; they were too much afraid of imprisonment. The 
traders are also more careful as regards giving them liquor, nevertheless, some of these 
Indians succeeded in obtaining some at Bersimis. It is sold there under license and they 
use third parties to procure it ; they also got some from trading schooners. I expect 
that the Stipendiary Magistrate of the district will be here before the departure of the 
Indians for the woods, and if I can obtain convicting proof, I will prosecute the delin- 
quents. 

The potato crop last fall was almost a failure, caused by the drought of last sum- 
mer, and but few will be harvested this year. The Indians as a rule prefer eating the 
potatoes which are given to thenj foj? seed purposes, and they keep but a very small 
quantity to put in the ground. 
34 > [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Salmon and trout, on the sea coast and in the rivers, were in abundance this year, 
but the Indians would' not take the trouble to fish. They are as improvident now as they 
formerly were. 

The two Indians accused of murder last year, man and woman, were released on 
their own recognizance for want of sufiicient proof to convict. 

The distribution to the sick, a^ed, widows and orphans was duly made in the course 
of the year. 

I did not mention in the tabular statement this year the families who, for some 
years past, have been absent from Maskharo, Mingan, Sept Isles, Escoumains and 
Betsiamits, nor shall I make any mention of them in the census which I am about to 
make in compliance with your instructions. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

L. F. BOUCHER, 

Indian Agent. 



South Western District 1st Division, 

Fredericton, ]Sr.B., 31st August 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to present my annual report and tabular statement relat- 
ing to the Indian affairs of this agency fgr the year ended the 30tli of June, 1891. 

St. Mary's Reserve. 

This band in the month of May past numbered one hundred and twenty one — fifty- 
nine males and sixty-two females. During the year there have been five births and 
two deaths, one of these an adult. This band as in former years derive their 
living mostly from woodboat loading in the summer season at the Nashwaaksis 
River and the manufacture of Indian wares. Amongst the latter are the manu- 
facture or building of canoes, which are readily sold to parties in and about 
Fredericton, and usually realize fai* prices. Hunting is only engaged in by a few, 
as it is not as profitable as in former years. The moccasin trade for the last 
year or so has been very unprofitable, as the shoepack which is manufactured extensively 
at Fredericton by a company is prefered amongst lumbermen and has driven the 
Indian make out of demand, so that basket making etc. are almost their sole dependence 
for a livelihood. In spring past I supplied them with the usual allowance of garden 
seeds and potatoes, which were neatly planted in patches about their dwellings, and 
adds not only to the appearance of the reserve but will also prove beneficial to their 
families. In view of your letter of instructions regarding sanitary regulation I have to 
report that this duty was attended to on the approach of fine weather, by the removal 
of all nuisances from their premises. The health of the band was very good, excepting in 
April, last, when some fifteen families had "la grippe," and who would have suffered 
at the time had it not been for the timely aid rendered by the Department ; 
the only sickness this year being from natural causes, and none of a contagious character, 
and whilst for several reasons I can not report this reserve as a desirable locality for 
Indian life, yet it must be admitted that there is a marked improvement in the habits 
and customs of these people. Intemperance is not as prevalent as in former years ; only a 
few are addicted to the use of liquor, and these can only procure it by the most indirect 
means, as those engaged in the business will not sell to any Indian for fear of prosecu- 
tion. 

The school for the past year has been under the supervision of Miss M. H. Martin. 
The teaching sessions are three hours in the forenoon and two in the afternoon. The 
number on register ranges from twenty to twenty five. Their studies consist of 
writing, arithmetic, geography, catechism, drawing, &c. A number of children are 

[part i] 35 

U-3J 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



making rapid progress, and all are doing fairly, the average for the year being thir- 
teen and three-quarters. Excepting the holiday season, the school has been regularly 
taught. The school is also regularly visited on Friday of each week by the Rev. Father 
Kiernan, their Missionary, who is ever watchful of their religious training and know- 
ledge of catechism. The cleanness of the school room and surroundings and the comfort 
of the children have also been carefully seen to. 

King's Clear Reserve. 



This reserve, situated eleven miles distant from Fredericton, had in May last a 
population of one hundred and one. The births for the year were four, and the deaths 
three ; one of the latter, familiarly known as " Capt. Tomar," aged ninety years, 
came to his death by accidental drowning. These Indians are well situated, their 
lands are good and very productive. Last year they gave considerable attention to 
farming ; but owing to the dry season and the heat during harvest weather, their 
crops were almost a total failure. This season they have again farmed their respec- 
tive lands ; and I am pleased to report that, should there be good harvest weather, 
there will be an abundant crop, including hay, grain and potatoes. The other 
pursuits engaged in by this band are the manufacture of Indian wares. A few of 
the young men engage as labourers in the lumber woods, river rafting and stream 
driving, from which they secure immediate returns, that are always much needed. 
Sanitary measures, directed to be enforced by you, received the proper attention in the 
latter part of April last. The dwellings are all situated on a hillside, and in close 
proximity to the river, where the drainage at all seasons is good. These Indians were 
free from sickness of a contagious nature during the past year, the ordinary sickness 
prevalent amongst them })eing entirely the result of natural causes. In matters rela- 
ting to school attendance and their religious affairs, they are especially favoured. Their 
church, priest's residence and cemetery are situated in the centre of reserve. The Rev. 
Wm. O'Leary is the resident clergyman, and at all times manifests the deepest interest 
in all matters appertaining to their moral and temporal welfare. Amongst the improve- 
ments noticeable at this reserve for the past year are the erection of one dwelling and 
the shingling of several others. In addition to this they have been enabled, through the 
kindness of friends in the vicinity of Fredericton who subscriVjed some- one hundred and 
fifty dollars to commence the erection of a temperance hall. The building is now 
framed, boa,rded in, and the roof shingled ; work, however, is suspended for the 
want of funds, which is to be regretted, as the building would prove useful in stimu- 
lating temperance principles amongst them. 

The school, in which the Indians take a deejD interest, has been taught by Miss 
McXulty for the past term. The attendance for the year has been very regular. The 
number of children on the reserve who are entitled to attend school is eighteen ; these for 
the year have made an average of fourteen and two-thirds. The school is in session five 
hours per day ; the subjects taught are reading, writing, geography, arithmetic, etc., 
in which the children are making fair progress. Due regard is always had to the health 
and comfort of the children. Occasionally the V)uilding is whitewashed, the floors, wood- 
work and outside premises cleaned, making the schoolroom both pleasant and healthful 
for those in attendance. 

Carlton County. 

The Indians in this county number eighty-four. The births for the year were three 
and^the deaths three, the latter were adults ; the cause of death in two instances was old 
age, the other from accidental burning. Seven families live on the reserve situated three 
miles below Woodstock ; the remainder of the Indians live in shanties at Upper Wood- 
stock and in other sections of the county. Those living on the reserve and elsewhere derive 
their sole living from the manufacture and sale of Indian wares. A few are very indi- 
gent, requiring, as shown by provision returns, considerable assistance. Yearly I sup- 
ply them with a few seeds, to induce them to raise more or less potatoes, tfec, but, as a 
rule, they prefer trading in their natural employments to that of any kind of farming. 
36 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The balance of the Indians of this agency are located as follows : At Oromocto, 
Sunbury County, there are forty-four ; at Upper Gagetown, Queen's County, twenty- 
seven ; at Opahaqui, King's County, twenty-eight ; Charlotte County, twenty-nine ; and 
St. John County, fourteen. Mostly all of these subsist from the sale of Indian wares, 
which are generally sold to farmers and traders, the Indians taking in return either 
trade or money. A few in each place, excepting St. John, receive seed potatoes that 
are planted on friendly white neighbours' lands, and whatever produce is raised is 
usually divided amongst their relatives. Owing to exposure, particularly in winter 
season, considerable sickness often occurs amongst them. At Oromocto the Indians 
were taken down with " la grippe " in April last, and it was fully a month before they 
recovered from this epidemic. In the meantime their wants, like those of St. Maxy's, 
had to be provided for by the Department. In summer, however, they enjoy life, and 
are seemingly a happy people. 

The total population of this agency for the current year is four hundred and fifty- 
five. During the year there were fourteen births and sixteen deaths. Last year I 
reported the total number four hundred and seventy-four ; consequently there is a falling 
off of nineteen, which is accounted for by the removal from my agency to the United 
States and border Provinces of this number. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

JAMES FARRELL, 

Indian Agent. 



Northern Division, 

Fredericton, N.B., 26th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa, 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for the 
Counties of Madawaska and Victoria, for the year ended the 30th of June, 1891, 

Tohique Reserve. 

This reserve, situated at the junction of the Tobique and St. John Rivers, has a 
population of one hundred and eighty-nine, the births exceeding the deaths by two. The 
occupations of the band for the past year were confined chiefly, with the exception of the 
aged and infirm, to the lumbering business, namely, axe-men, stream driving, rafting, act- 
ing as guides to sportsmen, and in the manufacture of Indian wares, from which they 
derive remunerative wages. In the latter part of May last, and on receipt of seed allow- 
ance, they devoted considerable attention to planting and sowing, and whilst they cannot 
be classified as practical farmers, they, as a rule, plant sufficient potatoes to supply their 
needs for each season. ' The facilities for farming in connection with this reserve cannot 
be surpassed in New Brunswick. The Indians, however, with but a few exceptions, are 
not prepared to devote their whole time to agricultural pursuits. 

Sanitary measures for the preservation of health receive yearly attention by those 
Indians, for on the approach of fine weather the past spring, all garbage, noxious 
weeds, etc., were removed from the yards and premises surrounding their dwellings. 
The water supply in connectioii with the reserve for domestic purposes is carried in 
pipes from the adjoining hills and is of the purest quality. I have also to add that the 
Indians of this reserve display considerable taste in their respective holdings. Their 
houses are kept clean both within and without — they are neatly painted — and when 
added to this, the new hall, and receent repairs and painting of their church, make 
Tobique Point one of the most picturesque spots on the River St. John. 

The school, in which the Indians are deeply interested, has been under the 
supervision of Miss Davis, a competent and earnest worker, for the year past. A few 
of the children are not regular attendants ; those, however, that attend regularly are 

[part iJ 37 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (^No. 14.) A. 1892 

e 
progressing rapidly in their respective studies. The daily sessions of teaching wer 
three hours in the forenoon and three in the afternoon. The teaching consists of both 
secular and religious instruction. Frequent examinations of this school are held by 
their sjjiritual director, the Rev. J. J. O'Leary, who at all times manifests a deep interest 
in the welfare of the band. The average attendance of the pupils was fourteen. 

Edraundston Reserve. 

The band comprises but five families ; their total number is thirty-eight. Their 
lands are very productive but not farmed to advantage. Yearly they receive $30.00 
worth of seed potatoes, oats and buckwheat ; this for want of horses is usually farmed on 
shares by their white neighbours, who as a rule, reap the most benefit. This year I have 
succeeded in suppressing, to some extent, this mode of farming, and have to report, as 
witnessed during my recent visit to their reserve, that their crops are fully a third more 
than last year, and from every appearence, if carefully harvested, will be sufficient, with 
their other industries, for the maintenance of their families the coming winter. 

The Indians of this agency were very free from sickness, exept cases arising from 
natural causes, the past year. The total number of births for the same period was eleven, 
and the deaths nine ; two of whom were adults, the remainder being children. 

In closing my remarks, I beg to report that the Indians of this agency, with but 
rare exceptions, are a very industrious and thrifty people. Their habits are temperate 
and law-abiding, and wherever engaged as labourers, in matters of dealing or otherwise, 
they always command the respect and esteem of their white neighbours. 
I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

JAMES FARRELL. 

Temjwrary Indian Agent. 

Annapolis, N.S., 30th September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to transmit herewith my tabular statement on the Indians 
of my agency, for the year ending the 30th day of June, 1891. 

I have very little change to report as to the condition of the Indians of this agency. 
None of them live on the reservation. They are very industrious, making baskets and 
other fancy work ; the men are coopers and make mast hoops when required. There was 
some siekness during the winter ; but I am pleased to report that they have been almost 
entirely free from sickness during the past summer. One Indian, who did not belong 
to my agency, died here. There have been three births, increasing the Indian population 
from eighty to eighty-three, of whom sixteen are away from home. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

GEO. WELLS, Sen'r, 

Indian Agent. 



Bear River Reserve, Digby Co., N.S., 25th September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour of again submitting my annual report and tabular state- 
ment for the year ended June 30th, 1891. 

There are no changes of importance to note in the affairs of the Indians of this 
district, as they still pursue the callings of former years, with some improvement in 
farming on the reserve this spring. They have taken more interest in getting their 
38 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



planting done than formerly, and have more crop in the ground than usual. Every 
family on the reserve, with one exception, has a good field of potatoes and other vege- 
tables, which promise a large crop. 

The Indians suff'ered much from sickness the past winter and spring, the children 
with whooping cough, the adults with la grippe ; in consequence there were ten deaths, 
all young, except two. 

There has been but three births, which leaves the population one hundred and forty- 
seven, three less than last year, with the addition of two families that have taken ujd 
their resideiice on this reserve from the County of Annapolis. 

The Indians have enjoyed good health of late, and have plenty of employment as 
guides for sportsmen, in shooting porpoises (which are plentiful this spring), and in 
making mast hoops, jib-hanks and baskets. 

The school on the reserve has not been as efficient as would be desired, owing partly 
to the teacher being disabled by a fall, which closed the school for some time, and partly 
to want of interest manifested by parents and pupils ; but the Department has pro- 
cured the services of another teacher who will give his whole time to the work, and the 
Indians have promised to assist in making the school better by sending their children 
more steadily and promptly, which it is hoped they will do in future. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

F. McDORMAND, 

Indian Agent. 



Yarmouth, N.S., 8th July, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
SiE, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for the 
year ended 30th June, 1891. 

I have but little change to report as to the condition of the Indians of this agency, 
very few of them remain permanently on the reserve ; consequently little is done in the 
way of planting. Last year the potatoes suffered from blight, which was very disap- 
pointing to those who had planted for the first time, and they are, therefore, more inclined 
to seek employment among the whites. They are very good labourers when employed 
by white men, and they work much better for them than they do for themselves. 

The health of the Indians for the past year was good. There were but three deaths 
during the year. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

GEO. R. SMITH, 

Indian Agent. 



Agency No. 2, Kentville, N.S., 26th September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs. 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to enclose to you tabular statement and report for this 
agency for year 1891. The Indians of this agency are quiet and peaceable, and, as a rule, 
industrious. There is but very little drinking going on amojigst them, as it is very 
difficult for them to procure liquor. They are inclined to settle upon land of their own 
lying in the neighbourhood of some town or village. They will manage to procure from 
one to six acres, and, with the seed obtained from the Government, put in a small crop, 
enough generally for their own consumption, and work at different employment during 

[part i] 39 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.j A. 1892 



the rest of the time, such as labourers, guides, team driving, coopering, basket mak- 
ing, etc. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

CHARLES E. BECKWITH, 

Indian Agent, District No. 2. 



Caledonia, N.S., 27th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for the 
year ended 30th June, 1891. I have little change to report this year regarding the 
Indians of this county. The crops so far look exceedingly good. 

The Indians of Mill Village and Milton are an industrious class of people and earn 
considerable money during the summer and autumn fishing and working about the 
mills. 

Those at Greeiifield and Caledonia Corner are ever rea,dy and willing to do any- 
thing that will bring them fair wages. I know of no cases of destitution amongst them. 
The health of the Indians of this county during the past year has been very good. 

In Lunenburg County there has been much sickness and several deaths during the 
past winter. - 

Farming is carried on with the usual vigour at New Germany and Gold River. At 
Bridgewater the Indians work at the mills and at basket-making. 

The Indians of both counties are an industrious, quiet and sober class of people. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

THOMAS BUTLER, 

Indian Agent. 



Shubenacadie, N.S., 10th September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I enclose herewith tabular statement for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 
I have nothing particular to report, there being no noticeable difference in the con- 
dition of the Indians of this district. 

During the past year there has been considerable sickness among them. I think 
they are generally improving in their habits, there being not nearly so much drunkenness 
as formerly among them. 

Some of them are getting quite aged and unable to work, and several young men 
do not seem disposed to farm, but prefer to shift about from place to place. 
The crops this year, with the exception of potatoes, are good. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

JAMES GASS, 

Indian Agent. 



Truro, N.S., 13th October, 1891. 
The Honomable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
SiR,-^I have the honour of submitting my annual report and tabular statement for 
the year ended 30th June, 1891. 
40 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The Indians of this county are still progressing. Whilst not increasing in numbers, 
as a body they are much more comfortable. Truro being a railway centre, they get 
■employment on gravel trains, at railway fencing and in the surrounding mills ; this helps 
them to tide over the long winter. 

They only raise potatoes, which this year, owing to a rot, has not been a good crop. 
The past winter was one of much sickness and several deaths occurred, j)rincipally 
from pulmonary diseases. 

On the whole they are a quiet and orderly class, and are improving slowly but surely. 
I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

D. H. MUIR, 

Indian Agent. 



District No. 7, 

Parrsboro', Cumberland Co., N.S., 28th September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your inspection my annual report and tabu" 
lar statement for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

While I have tried very hard to make this statement as accurate as possible, I feel 
that it is only fair to myself to remind you that at the end of the fiscal year I had been 
agent for only two or three months, and to inform you that my predecessor had left the 
country when I had received my appointment, and as a consequence I had to gather 
my information as best I could, mostly from the Tndians themselves. 

These Indians are as a rule industrious, but improvident. Some of them work for 
the white people at chopping during the winter, and in the mills and farms during the 
summer season ; more of them make baskets and tubs. A few of the young Indians 
earn considerable money by acting as guides for hunting parties. 

Most of them planted the seed furnished by the Department and raised very fine crops. 
There are none of them, however, who put by anything for a rainy day, and as a conse- 
quence the aged and sick and disabled would be in a wretched condition were it not for 
the food and clothing supplied to them by the Department. 

During the last few months of the year there was a great deal of sickness. A large 
number of the children and some grown up Indians suffered from measles, and afterwards 
"la grippe" affected very many of them. From the latter disease a number have never 
fully recovered, and, as a result, several of the young Indians are in the second or third 
stages of consumj^tion. During the year there were seven births and six deaths, making 
an increase in population of one. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

F. A. RAND, 

Indian Agent. 



PiCTOU, N.S., 1st October, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following as my annual report upon the con- 
dition of the Indians and Indian affairs within my district. 

I am happy to report an improvement among them in the way of adapting them- 
selves to the methods of civilized life. The wigwams are fast disappearing, and houses 
comparatively comfortable taking their place. Other domestic comforts are also being 
introduced. The instinct of independence and self-respect is showing signs of life ; for 

[part i] 41 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892^ 



they depend less for a livelihood on begging than in former years. The majority of the 
men are industrious, and look for work, as other labourers do, and command the same 
wages. Their indigence, as a rule, does not arise as much from not earning as from a 
lack of domestic economy. The Indian seems to take to a labour that shows immediate 
results ; and I consider this a reason why he takes comparatively little interest in 
farming. Farming under present circumstances is necessarily unsatisfactory ; they have 
no cattle to enrich the soil with manure, or to restore its exhausted strength, and they 
are too poor to invest in artificial fertilizers. 

The principal occupation of the Indians in this locality is in making butter tubs 
and pick handles for the coal mines, to provide material for which they seem to lay 
undisputed claim to the forest far and wide. In morals, I must say that their lives are 
commendable — there are a few drunkards, but not so depraved that they do not make 
an effort to reform. They are essentially religious. They assemble annually on Indian 
Island, on the feast of St. Anne, their patron Saint, and remain there for about two 
weeks ; on which occasion they attend specially to their religious duties, and also to 
temporal matters which concern the whole tribe. It is on this occasion that the influence 
of the Priest and Agent is most effective, and it is for this reason that I wish to offer all 
the inducements possible to have them assemble there. 

We have no school on the reserve ; because it is not remunerative enough for any 
teacher to open a school. 

There has been no contagious disease among the Indians for some years. It may be 
remarked that the population given in the census of this year is in excess of last year's. 
Some of those who were absent from the reserve for two or three years have returned, 
and young men getting married in other districts added in each case one more to the 
population of this reserve, and it is possible also that some escaped being marked down. 

The crop promises a fair yield. Fishing is, I may say, abandoned by them, for it 
is so uncertain on this coast. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

RODERICK McDonald, 

Indian Agent, District Xo. 8. 



Heatherton, Antigonish County, N.S., 25th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Afiairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for the 
year ended 30th June, 1891. 

The condition of the Indians of this district has not materially changed since my 
last report. Their health, as a general rule, is not good. Three of them died this year 
from the prevailing ailment — consumption ; and many more are suffering from the same 
complaint. Their progress in agriculture is slow ; they raise a considerable quantity of 
potatoes, but with regard to other crops their efforts are not very successful. The crops 
look very well this year, however. The Indians of this district are, with few exceptions, 
sober and industrious, but even with the best of them improvidence is the cause, at. 
certain seasons of the year, of their being in want. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. C. CHISHOLM, 

Indian Agent, District Xo. 9, X.S, 



42 . [part 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Glend.\le, River Inhabitants, 

Inverness County, N.S., September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indians Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — It again becomes my duty to inform };our Department of the state of the 
Indians under my supervision. The tabular statement, which I forward herewith, 
contains information regarding them which would be superfluous to produce here. 

I am happy to be able to report an unmistakable improvement in the condition of 
all the Indians of my agency. Each succeeding year shows more clearly than the pre- 
ceding one that it is only a question of time to find them good and useful citizens, pro- 
vided only that they are well treated and have fair opportunities of advancement. 

Among them agriculture is yearly being better attended to ; but they do not yet 
devote as much attention to that important industry as I would wish. Their hay this 
year is very good. Their other crops, particularly potatoes, promise an excellent 
yield ; but I am sorry to say their grain fields are yet very limited in extent. Con- 
sidering the failure of last year's crops throughout Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, their 
thrift and contentment was admirable. 

Those who were more likely to suffer for want of seed in the early part of the 
summer received timely relief through the funds so generously placed at my disposal by 
your department, for which they felt very grateful. 

Some of the white people, contiguous to the band of Whycocomagh, to whose 
trespasses I had occasion to refer in some former reports, are still using valuable- 
portions of the Whycocomagh and Malagawatch Reserves. 

It is a matter of regret that whites, who profess to be Christians, should invariably, 
when an opportunity presents itself, do their utmost to impose upon and defraud 
of their rights the Indians who never trespass against them. There is one trait in the 
character of our Micmacs which cannot be too highly praised. Living as they do, they 
frequently suffer many privations. This evening they may not have to-morrow's break- 
fast in reserve for themselves and families ; and yet a case of theft from their white 
neighbours is, I believe, utterly unknown. The gradual elevation of a race with a fine 
characteristic like this so firmly impressed ought not to be despaired of. 

TJie children attending the Indian school on the Whycocomagh Reserve are under- 
the tuition of Mr. John McEachen, an excellent teacher ; and those who attend regularly 
are making satisfactory progress. 

During last year there were six births, and three deaths among aged people. 

As a class, the Indians with whom I have to deal are sober and very well conducted 
and very industrious. Cases of drunkenness are of very rare occurrence among them. 

- I have the honour to be, Sir, i 

Your obedient servant, 

D. McISAAC, 

Indian Agent. 

Christmas Island, Cape Breton, 7th October, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — ^I enclose herewith the tabular statement for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 
There is but very little to remark in regard to the condition of the Indians of this 
agency since my last report. Their health, in general, has been good. They were free 
from infectious diseases, but pulmonary troubles and hemorrhage are, I think, getting 
more frequent among them. They, themselves, attribute this to heavy loads they have 
to carry long distances. All kinds of wood suitable for coopering, basketmaking, etc., 
are exhausted on their reserves, and they must now go a long way in search of proper 
material. In consequence thereof they overload themselves when they find it ; and to 

[part i] 43 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



this they ascribe the frequency of chest and lung complaints among them. One regretta 
ble thing I have to mention in connection with this is the tendency on their part to 
leave the reserve and settle in the vicinity of towns, villages and mines. On the 
reserve, they are as far away from market as from material necessary for prosecutinu 
their handicraft. None of them live exclusively by farming, and as they find it almost 
impossible, for the reasons above stated, to ply their trade and continue farming at the 
same time, many of them forego the latter, remove to places within easy reach of a ready 
market and confine themselves wholly to an occupation more congenial to their nature 
than that of farming. Some of these are doing very w^ell ; but some, I regret to say, are 
neither morally nor materially benefitted by the change. Proximity to danger has been 
the downfall and ruin of not a few. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, , 

Your obedient servant, 

A. CAMERON, 

Indian Agent, District Xo. IS. 



District No. 15, Barrington, N.S., 26th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement in con- 
nection with the Indians in this agency for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

The condition and circumstances of the Indians here have not undergone any 
material change since my last report, except that during last winter and spring there 
was an unusual degree of sickness amongst them, " la grippe," rheumatism and weak lungs 
being their chief enemies. I have to report two deaths and a few removals, but those 
who have removed will likely return. Last winter some of the saw^ mills in which they 
sometimes found employment were closed, which rendered the assistance they receive 
from the Government doubly acceptable. Their little gardens and potatoes look 
excellent. 

It is very difficult to persuade Indian children to attend the public schools with 
white children, but there are exceptions, and one worthy of special mention is Rosie 
Mooney, a very bright and intelligent girl of seventeen years, who is well advanced in 
her studies. This summer she attended a teacher's examination here, and she is very 
-sanguine of receiving a teacher's license, in which I trust she may succeed. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

E. T. FERGUSON, 

Indian Agent. 



Egmont Bay, P.E.I., 25th July, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my report together with a tabular statement for 
the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

There was no remarkable change or progress amongst the Indians of Prince Edward 
Island since my last report. 

Those who live on the reserve extend their farming operations every year, but I 
regret to have to report that the oat crop of last fall was almost a failure ; from pre- 
sent appearance, however, the crops this fall will be very good. 

I am very happy to be able to report great improvement in both the moral and 
social condition of the youth of Lennox Island. They have established a temperance 
society, each member having to pay 25 cents yearly. 
44 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Those who took the initiative in the formation of this beautiful society were the 
first pupils of the school of the island. ^ They already number twenty members. 

The school is now well attended ; there were no less than thirty pupils present on 
the occasion of my last visit. I succeeded in securing the services of a good teacher. He 
resides on the island and is much esteemed by all the Indians. 

There was considerable sickness amongst the Indians during last winter, and several 
(lied from inflammation of the lungs and pneumonia, causing a slight decrease in the 
population this year. 

Mot ell Reserve. 
There are only live families on this reserve. Two of these families are well-to-do. 
They live from the produce of their lands, and from all appearance the crops this year 
will be good. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

JEAN O. ARSENAULT, 

Indian Su2)erintendent. 



Manitoba Superintendency, 

Portage la Prairie Indian Agency, 22nd August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to transmit for your information my annual report, with 
taljular statement, showing the state of the Indians under my charge, with an inventory 
of Government property and the approximate value of the same, for the year ended the 
30th June, 1891. 

The Rosseau River Bands. 

In reference to these bands I have very little to add to my report of last year, as 
far as agricultural pursuits are concerned. These Indians pay very little attention to 
farming ; the occupation of farming to them seems to be too slow in l^ringing in the 
returns which they look for. They prefer working at something for which they can 
realize every evening the value of their day's labour, such as digging seneca (snake 
root), (fee. 

The crops on this reserve were fairly good. The yield of wheat was nearly twenty 
bushels to the acre. The potatoes were very good, but very few of the Indians remain 
on the reserve to put in crop. Antoine, one of the Councillors, raised two hundred and 
fifty bushels of a very line quality. The hay crop was very good, but for want of a 
mower they did not put up much themselves. If it were not that I got farmers in the 
neighbourhood of the reserve to cut the hay on shares, taking two-thirds and leaving one- 
third in stack for the Indians, it would be difficult for me to get the Indians to cut enough 
to keep their stock, as they are generally away digging snake root at the time they should 
be making their hay. When I was at the reserve on the eighth of this month there was 
only one man on the reserve besides the Chief, who is too sick to leave. 

The crops on this reserve this year look very well — there are one hundred and 
thirty-four acres of wheat, and about twenty-seven acres of wheat at the Rapids. The 
wheat on the reserve proper looks very well, and there are thirteen acres of barley — the 
barley is very heavy. 

The Long Plain Band. 

The Indians of this band are given more to roaming about than formerly; only a 
tVw of them remained on the reserve last spring. I could not get the threshing done on 
tills reserve until this spring. All the machines in this part of the country are run by 
steam and are very heavy, and while there is anything to be done in other places, it is 
impossible to get any of them to go there — the distance is fifteen miles, over a pretty 
rough road. 

[part i] 45. 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



There were eleven hundred bushels of wheat from the thresher : eighty of this 
belonged to three of the Indians. The potatoes were a very good crop ; there were alto- 
gether on the reserve over three hundred bushels. These Indians put up a sufficient 
^quantity of hay to keep their cattle, and had some to spare. 

The crops on the reserve this year are not looking very well. With the exception 
of about sixteen acres of the newest part of the land the soil is very sandy, and has been 
cropped too long without rest, and the month of May and greater part of June were too 
dry to bring on the crop on this soil. 

The hay lands on this reserve are too wet to allow of cutting until after harvest, 
and it will be very difficult for them to get enough for their cattle. This band of Indians 
are getting quite a stock of cattle, there being now about thirty-five head of cattle, 
young and old, on the reserve, and the Indians of this band have thirty ponies. < 

The Swan Lake Band. 

The Indians of this band are still divided ; nine or ten families live on the reserve 
at Swan Lake and the balance of the band remain at the Gardens at Hamilton's Cross- 
ing of the Assiniboine River. 

The wheat crop on this reserve was almost a failure owing to the dry spring and 
the excessive hot winds in the month of June, which brought the growth of crops to a 
standstill until the rains fell in the beginning of the month of July, and, although the 
crojDS revived very much and became a very heavy crop of straw, it was too late for the 
grain to mature. There were seven hundred and forty bushels as it came from the 
thresher, but it is only fit for feed. 

The Indian Gardens. 

There were thirty-four acres of wheat here put down by the Department. The crop/ 
was heavy, but did not ripen in time. The quality of the sample was not very good, and 
the very bad harvest weather injured it still more. There were over eight hundred v 
bushels as it came from the thresher. Five of the Indians had of their own over five; 
hundred bushels. The Chief, Yellow Quill, and son had four hundred bushels, and three 
others had ovej- over one hundred bushels, but all of inferior quality. 

At the time of making the payments this year the Rosseau River Indians disposed 
of some eight thousand pounds of snake root ; the other bands, with the exception of a 
few of the Swan Lake Band, do not work at it. The Long Plain Indians work a great 
deal for the farmers and get good wages. 

During the time of making the annuity payments this year I do not think that 
there was any intoxicants brought on the reserves, as I saw no appearance whatever of 
any Indian being under the influence of liquor. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

FRANCIS OGLETREE, 

Indian Agent. 



Clandeboye Indian Agency, Treaty No. 1, 29th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Ijidian Affairs, 

Ott^wva. 
Sir, — I have the honour to transmit the following report, and tabular statement in 
triplicate, for the year ending 30th June, 1891. 

St. Peter's. 

During the year this band has been fairly prosperous. The young men could get 
plenty of work in the woods during the winter taking out cord wood, ties, etc. 

46 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



These Indians are advancing in civilization and worldly wealth ; they now own one 
hundred and twelve waggons and bob-sleighs, sixty-eight mowers and rakes, sixty- 
eight horses, nine hundred and five head of cattle and seventy-seven pigs. 
They planted this spring one hundred and two bushels of wheat, one hundred and 
twenty bushels of barley, one hundred and twenty -four bushels of oats, and eight hundred 
and ten Vjushels of potatoes, and a lot of corn, and a garden truck, so that it is remark- 
ed that they are in a worldly sense ahead of many of the old settlements along the Red 
and Assiniboine Rivers. 

The six schools on this reserve are not attended as they might be, for out of three 
hundred and thirty-eight children of school age, there are only one hundred and sixty- 
two on the rolls, with a daily average attendance of seventy -one ; and the present 
Chief and Council have considered the advisability of having a compulsory 
law of some kind to compel parents to send their children. The Chief and 
Council, four of whom can read and write, see that education is, and will be, 
the great factor to elevate their people, and are trying, by precept and example, 
to encourage the schools in every way, the Chief in particular having three of his child- 
ren at the Rupert's Land Industrial School ; Councillor Sinclair also has one at that 
institution. 

Statute labour has been done on this reserve. Each member of the band between the 
age of eighteen and sixty worked for a day and a half, and the condition of the roads is 
greatly improved. 

The Chief, with a number of his band and thirty teams, put up over four miles of 
fencing at their hay grounds at Devil's Lake, to prevent outside ranche cattle from spoil- 
ing this meadow ; and the consequence is that they have hundreds of tons of hay, where, 
without this fence, they would have had none. This is a beginning, and I hope that in a 
short time they will have all their hay fields fenced. 

This band have also cut thistles ; but it seems almost a hopeless task as there are 
hundreds of thousands of acres of thistles on Government land to the north, east ^nd 
west, which are not or never will be cut. 

Broken Head. 

The Indians on this reserve, are poor farmers, but as they have good hunting and 
fishing they make a fairly good living. They have one hundred and eleven head of 
cattle and five horses. They planted eighty-nine bushels of potatoes, eighty of which were 
supplied by the Department, some of which on my visit had never been hoed. 

From some cause sixteen of the calves died on this reserve this spring, in fact every 
year a number die. I have an idea it is from want of salt, as the Indians never have any 
to give them, and there are no salt patches there, as there are on the prairies 

There are sixty-seven children of school age, and twenty-nine on the roll, with a 
daily average attendance of eight, but a number of these people never live on the reserve, 
and those that do are away hunting and fishing so much that the attendance is poor. 

Fort Alexander. 

The crops on this reserve are not quite up to the average, the potatoes suffered from 
excessive rains, and from this cause all along the river landslides have occurred, and in 
some cases gardens and fencing have settled down some ten or fifteen feet, and as this 
happened when some of the people were away the cattle and pigs have destroyed several 
gardens. 

The Indians now own fifty-seven cows, twenty-three oxen, fifty-nine young cattle, four 
horses, and twenty-three pigs. They planted six hundred and seventy-five bushels of 
potatoes, and a few bushels of wheat, oats, barley and corn, besides vegetables. Some of 
the gardens are beautiful, and a number have been looked after since seeding time. 

One of the Government oxen turned out breachy, and did much damage. I exchanged 
him for a good young three-year-old ox, and the breachy one was killed. 

The Indians of this band caught over twenty-five thousand whitefish last fall, which 
was a little better than the previous year ; but their winter fishing was almost a failure, 
so that if it had not been for a good fur hunt and their potatoes they might have suffered. 

[part il 47 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



There are three schools on this reserve, two Protestants and one Roman Catholic. 
There are one hundred and seventy-nine children of school age, with seventy eight on the 
rolls, and a daily attendance of thirty eight. The attendance is not as good as it should 
be, and as it used to be, particularly at the lower Protestant and Roman Catholic schools. 
This is accounted for by the fact that there is no work or money to be made on the reserve 
since the saw mills were removed ; and the men with their families go ofi* to Selkirk, 
Whitemouth, Rat Portage, and Winnipeg, to work : this has made the difference in the 
attendance, as for the greater part of the year the children are not on the reserve. 



General Remarks. 

The catch of whitetish by Indians near the mouth of the Red and Broken Head 
Rivers last fall was better than for years past, but the fish were small and of rather 
poor quality. One man with four nets, inside of two weeks, caught over two thousand. 

At Fort Alexander those who fished near home had fairly good fishing, but those 
who went north hardly got any. 

A large number of jack or pike were caught near the mouth of the Red River 
during the winter, but the fishing at that season for pickerel and other fish, in the lake 
between St. Peter's and Fort Alexander, was almost a failure. 

Sturgeon and catfish have been plentiful during the spring, and other fishing fairly 
good. 

While the pound and trap nets were allowed the whole shore of the lake was strewn 
with dead fish, now, when their use is not allowed, no dead fish are to be seen ; still 
some persons argue that this kind of net is not destructive. 

There has been no epidemic amongst the Indians, but there has been a great deal 
of sickness of the nature of relapse of "la grippe," w^hich they had the winter previous. 
At the agency there have been daily, almost hourly, calls for medicine on week-days 
and Sundays during oflEice hours and after; in fact it would take up the time of one man 
to attend to the Indians of my agency in this respect. 

The sanitary condition of the Indians is fairly good. They gathered up the refuse 
about their houses and burnt it, and almost every house has been whitewashed. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

A. M. MUCKLE, 

Indian Agent. 



Treaty No. 2, Manito-wa-paw Agency, 

The Narrows, Lake Manitoba, 17th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Afiairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for the 
year ended 30th June, 1891. 

The Indians comprising the different bands inhabiting the nine reserves under my 
supervision are in a fairly prosperous condition, and by fishing and hunting manage to 
be self-supporting with few exceptions, as in the case of old and infirm Indians to whom 
some relief is ijranted durintj the winter months. 

The potato crops are generally good, but I regret to say that most of the land in 
some reserves is not adapted for farming purposes ; stock-raising could, however, be 
successfully carried on, as hay is to be had in abundance and of the very best quality. 

There are nine schools in operation, with a good average attendance ; the progress 
made by the pupils is encouraging, with few exceptions. The teachers are competent, 
and those found lacking we hope to have replaced shortly. 

A new church was built, solely by the Indians, on the Water Hen River Reserve 
and was opened for service in January last. 

A number of new houses are also in course of erection on the different, reserves. 
48 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



A new schoolhouse is being built at Ebb and Flow Lake and at Pine Creek, and 
when finished it will be a credit to these reserves. 

The cattle are increasing rapidly and get very good care, evidence of which is 
apparent. 

With few exceptions the health of the Indians is fairly good. 

In conclusion, I am happy to say that the Indians under me are prosperous, peace- 
ful and contented. 

I have the honour, to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

A. MARTINEAU, 

Indian Agent. 



Rat Portage Agency — Treaty No. 3, 

Lake of the Woods, 14th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for the year ended 30th June, 
1891. The tabular statement has already been sent in by Mr. McPherson, who paid 
the annuities to the Indians of this agency. 

On 5th September I left this agency to visit the several bands on Shoal Lake and 
Lake of the Woods, and branded several of their cattle. They had good crops of pota- 
toes, but the crop of wild rice was almost a total failure. Two schoolhouses were built 
last fall, one at Assabasca Reserve and one at Whitefish Bay. I inspected the buildings, 
and they are good and substantial. In October I visited the reserve at Islington. The 
schoolhouse is old, the Indians mucked it ; and I have asked for tenders to have it put 
in repair. The children are improving, but from October till May most of the children 
are absent with their parents hunting. Several bands lost their seed potatoes by frost 
and water getting into the pits. They were supplied with two hundred and eighty-six 
bushels this spring. They had sufficient hay for their cattle, and when I visited the 
reserves in April their cattle were in good condition. The Assabasca Band lost one cow, 
and the Indians at Dalles one, both by sickness. The Chief of Rat Portage Reserve, who 
resides at Dalles, has taken the contract to build a schoolhouse, and it is now almost 
completed. The Indians of this agency only plant potatoes and corn. In sanitary 
matters most of these bands are improving, and they are putting up more substantial 
dwellings. The general health of these Indians has been good (Dr. Hanson visited the 
several reserves during the winter), nor did they suffer for want of food. They are 
self-supporting with the exception of a few old and infirm Indians, who have been 
supplied during the winter, and a small quantity given to some of the bands, who were 
in want towards spring. The Indians of the Lake of the Woods still complain of the 
scarcity of fish, and I have heard that on Rainy River, where the sturgeon were always 
numerous in spring, very few were caught, in fact barely enough for present use. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

R. J. N. PITHER, 

Indian Agent. 



CouTCHECHiNG Agency, 30th June, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith my tabular statement and inventory of 

Government property under my charge in this agency for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

I arrived here on the 1st of November, 1890, having been ordered to take charge 

of the agency during the late Agent's leave of absence and regret having to report his 

[part i] 49 

14—4 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



death at Rat Portage in the early part of the year, which necessitated my remaining in 
charge ever since. 

The different reserves being so scattered it has taken me some time to get accus- 
tomed to my new work, but in the spring of this year I was able to visit all the river 
reserves and two on the lake during seeding time, and so gave them all the help I could 
in the way of advice and practical instruction. The Indians on the river have some nice 
iields, and their potatoes were well put in, with some exceptions. On the Little Forks 
Reserve the Department assisted in the matter of seed grain ; it was well put in and I 
trust there will be a fair return. At the time of writing it looks promising. The farm- 
ing on the lake consists almost entirely of small gardens, containing potatoes, corn and 
other vegetables. I was also able, during this visit, to brand all the Government cattle 
on the reserves mentioned, and will have to finish on the lake at some future time. 

The cattle passed through the winter well and the Indians had put up a sufficiency 
of hay. There has been some trouble with the Little Forks Indians cutting hay on the 
American side, but they have promised me that in future they will not repeat the 
offence. 

The winter's hunt was a successful one, and the Indians, when I saw any of them 
at that time, appeared to have a sufficiency of food and did not complain. Some assist- 
ance was given to the very old and destitute. 

There are five schools in working order and two in course of erection. The Cout- 
cheching and Little-Forks schools are doing well. The one at the Long Sault will improve 
as the present teacher becomes better acquainted with the Indians. Those at the Man- 
itou and Hungry Hall are backward and show little sign of progress. 

The reserves have been visited by Dr. Hanson, and the health of the Indians generally 
has been good — nothing worse than coughs and colds. 

I find these Indians backward in regard to their houses and have taken every oppor- 
tunity of telling them so. They are too fond of building close together small houses and 
not enough of them. I want each head of a family to remove on to his own plot of land, 
and in fact live like white people. There are some better houses being built now on 
the Coutcheching Reserve, and I trust it will be the case generally before very long. 

Mr. Inspector McColl visited this agency on the 23rd of June last. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

F. C. CORNISH, 

Indian Agent. 



Savanne Agency, Treaty No. 3, 

Fort William, 24th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for the 
year ended 30th June, 1891. 

Lac des Mille Lacs. 

I left Fort William on the 3rd July and met my assistant, Mr. Tait, on the follow^- 
ing day at Savanne. On the 6th I paid the Indians of the Lac des Mille Lacs Band 
their annuities, examined all supplies furnished and found them of full quantity, in good 
order and up to the samples. The Indians were perfectly satisfied with everything sup- 
plied. The cattle were in good condition, but the gardens backward. Doctor Hanson 
accompanied us to this reserve and vaccinated all those Indians who had not been oper 
ated upon during the last seven years. He also vaccinated a number of children. 

Sturgeon Lake. 

I paid this band on the 10th July, after examining supplies and distributing the 
same. This band has made no improvement since last year. They have no cattle or 
50 . [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



gardens, but have a plentiful supply of game and fish. I furnished them with potatoes 
and seeds. I inspected the goods offered for sale by the Hudson's Bay Company and 
found them satisfactory. 

Wabigoon. 

I arrived on this reserve on the 16th, inspected the supplies and paid annuities. 
The gardens werfe looking well and the cattle in good condition. I examined the school ; 
there were twenty-five children present. There is a marked improvement since my visit 
on the 24th March last. They have a better knowledge of the English language, and 
their writing and arithmetic are particularly good. The parents seem to take greater 
interest in the education of the children and manifest it by making them attend school 
more regularly. The Chief and Council were informed that the school teacher wished to 
build an addition to his house and required their assistance. They were willing to help, 
also to bring sufficient firewood for the school for the winter. 

Eagle Lake. 

On the 18th we reached this reserve and after examining and distributing supplies, 
I paid the annuities. On this reserve the houses are better built and the gardens better 
laid out and cultivated, and the people themselves neater and better clad than on any 
of the other reserves. The chief's house in particular will compare favourably with 
many farm houses in Manitoba. 

Lac Seul. 

We reached Frenchman's Head on this reserve on the 21st and inspected the school. 
There were forty-seven children present. They are making good progress in the various 
studies, and sang the national anthem in the Indian language in a very creditable 
manner. The gardens and cattle were looking well. 

0*1 reaching Lac Seul we found the Indians awaiting us, and were saluted by them. 
Messrs. Pritchard and Prewer held prayers at night, which were well attended. Rev. 
Pather Allard was also at Lac Seul. 

Early the next morning (the 22nd) the Indians assembled for the distribution of 
provisions, which were examined and found in good order, but owing to rain the greater 
part of the day the distribution was postponed ; about 5 o'clock, p.m., it cleared up, and 
the flour and the bacon were divided. The goods exposed for sale by the Hudson's Bay 
Company were examined, and such as were not in accordance with the provisions of the 
license were ordered to be removed, which was done. In the morning the remainder of 
the supplies were divided, after which I paid annuities until 9.30, p.m. Next morning 
I paid the balance of the annuities, finishing by noon ; after which a council was held, 
at which a number of petty grievances were discussed and amicably settled. Mr. 
Pritchard married three couples here to-day. 

I examined the school at Lac Seul on my return from Grassy Narrows ; there were 
thirty-five children present, and I noticed quite an improvement since my visit to this 
school in March last. 

The gardens were looking well, and the cattle are in excellent condition. The 
dwellings were clean and neat, and a general air of thriftiness prevailed the settlement, 

Wahuskang. 

We arrived at this reserve on the 27th, examined and distributed supplies, and 
paid annuities. I examined the school and was much pleased with the pr'ogress made 
by the children, especially in the English language. Mr. Wood has them under perfect 
control, and his methods of imparting instruction are admirable. 

The gardens are well advanced, and we had lettuce, radishes and potatoes furnished 
from them. We held a council, at which the Indians expressed themselves satisfied 
with everything furnished them, and had no complaints to make. 

Grassy Narrows. 
On the 30th we arrived at this reserve, and found supplies in good order and of 
full quantity ; after they were distributed, we paid annuities. The gardens here are 

[part i] 51 

U-4J 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



looking well, especially the potatoes, of which there should be a good crop. I inspected 
the school ; the present teacher had only been in charge two weeks. The Rev. Father 
Cahill is building a new schoolhouse, which will be very comfortable when completed. 
In conclusion, I would say that the physical comforts of the Indians under my 
supervision may be considered assured for the next winter. The crops promise well, 
the cattle are in good order, and the game and fish may be estimated as being fully up 
to the standard product. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

JOHN McINTYRE, 

Indian Agent. 



Indian Agent's Office, 

Touchwood Hills, 26th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for the year ended 30th June, 
1891, accompanied by the tabular statement and an inventory of all Government pro- 
perty under my charge at that date. 

The crops on Poor Man's and George Gordon's Reserves turned out fairly well both 
as to yield and quality. The following quantities were threshed out : — 



Bands. 


Wheat. 


Barley. 


Oats. 


Rye. 


Total. 

• 


Poor Man's . . ... 

Day Star's 

Muscowequan's . 


Bush. 

1,214 
422 
321 

1,134 


Bush. 
222 
148 
160 
247 


Bush. 
100 


Bush. 
20 


Bush. 
1,556 
570 


362 

48 


584 


843 




l,487i 




Totals 


3,091 


777 


510 


m 


4,4564 



\ 



The Indians of George Gordon's and Poor Man's Bands kept themselves in flour 
the most of the winter, having about three hundred and fifty sacks between them. The 
fact of the distance of the mill from the reserves, viz. : fifty-five and sixty-six miles, is 
much to be regretted ; it is a long way to haul grain during the cold, severe weather. The 
Indians make their own sleighs for this purpose, carry hay with them, camp out during 
the coldest weather and undergo considerable hardships, but never complain, so glad 
are they to see the fruits of their labours in the shape of flour. 

Hay was very plentiful ; one thousand and seventy tons were stacked on the different 
reserves, which was more than was required for the cattle. Nearly two hundred and 
fifty tons were kept over for the following year. 

On the whole we have had fair luck with the cattle, the increase since last year 
was one hundred and twenty-three calves from one hundred and sixty-six cows, and 
many of our oldest cows went farrow. 

During the winter the Indians busy themselves, in addition to feeding and attend- 
ing to their cattle, in making such articles as rush mats, baskets, brooms, hay fork and 
axe handles, ox collars, harness, sleighs, besides hand-sawing boards for building pur- 
poses. The women dress all the beef hides for leather for moccasins. 
52 [part i] 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



The following areas were sown as indicated on the different reserves, and, up to the 
time I w^rite, the crops, both grain and root, look very promising indeed : — 



Bands. 



Day Star's . . 

Poor Man's 

George Gordon's 
Muscowequan's . 
Yellow Quill's. . . 



Totals 262i 



Acres 



133 
30 



Acres 

11 

8 

19i 
19 



m 



Acres Acres 

3 

6 

13 

21 



43 



n 



. 






cS 


% 


'T3 








O 


D 


'^ 


&H 


H 


o 


Acres 


Acres 


Acres 


5 


3 


2 


4 


2 


2 


n 


3 


3 


6i 


4 


3 


7 


1 




294 


13 


10 



Totals. 

Acres. 

24 

1561 

144| 

83| 

8 

416f 



This is a smaller aggregate area than last year. The Indians are improving a good 
deal in their method of farming, and summer-fallow half of their cultivated lands nearly 
every year. 

The Indians burnt a kiln of lime for plastering and sanitary purposes. 

A good deal of butter has been made ; the Indians are commencing to see what a 
help this is to them. With any money they get they appear anxious to buy such articles 
as milk pans, pails and churns. 

I am glad to be able to report that since the establishment of schools, and owing to the 
work of some of the instructresses, a great change for the better has taken place, and is very 
noticeable in the Indians' houses, also on their persons ; they keep themselves and their 
houses very much cleaner and tidier than before. With the lumber they saw them- 
selves they make some rough furniture and cupboards, all of which make their places 
look more snug and home-like. 

The health of the Indians has only been fairly good. An epidemic of measles broke 
out last winter amongst the children : medical assistance was procured, and no cases of 
this terminated fatally. There have been thirty -five births and forty-two deaths during 
the year. Indians take much more care of themselves than they did, but there is room 
for a deal of improvement yet. Carelessness still causes many cases of consumption. 
Cod liver oil has been used pretty freely by such as are suffering from lung trouble, with 
the best of results. 

Treaty payments took place on the 18th July, and passed off in the usual quiet 
way. 

In conclusion let me add that it is pleasing to notice the sure and steady improve- 
ment amongst the Indians, who on account of the unfavourable seasons, absence of a 
market for disposal of farm produce, hay, wood, etc., ha\e many discouraging things to 
contend with ; and I also take pleasure in testifying to the cheerful and earnest manner 
the employes of this district have fulfilled their respective duties. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

HILTON KEITH, 

Indian Agent. 



[part i] 



53 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Treaty No. 4, 

Muscowpetung's Agency, 29th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my report for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

The Indians of this agency are steadily advancing in civilization and becoming 
more independent every year, thereby reducing the assistance required from the Depart 
ment. The returns from the harvest were very good, and some Indians are still using 
their own flour. 

Pasquash's Band were almost entirely self-supporting from October to April. 
During the winter the}- were kept busy selling firewood at Fort Qu'Appelle. Muscow- 
petung's and Piapot's Bands also supported themselves for several months, but they have 
not had the advantage of the sale of wood during the winter on account of the distance 
from their reserves to the towns. 

During the year we sold and delivered at Regina and other points five hundred tons 
of hay. 

The individual earnings of the three bands, viz. : — Piapot's, Muscowpetung's and 
Pasquah's, for the year, amount to $6,021, an increase of $804 over last year. 

The general health of the Indi&,ns has been very good ; they are visited monthly by 
Dr. Seymour, the medical officer. 

The prejudice against education is fast dying out, as will be seen by the number of 
children attending the industrial schools : Fort Qu'Appelle, fifty-one, Regina, twenty-six. 
The Muscowpetung Boarding School, managed by the Presbyterian Church and removed 
from the old site to the Qu'Appelle Valley, north of Pasquah's Reserve, has not been a 
success, and the children have been transferred to the Regina Industrial School. 

Two churches are in course of erection on Pasquah's Reserve, one by the Roman 
Catholic Mission and the other by the Presbyterian Church. 

The old farmhouse on Pasquah's Reserve has been turned into a storehouse and 
granary, and a new house has been built for the farmer. 

Our Indians made a very good display at the Regina Exhibition last fall, and carried 
off a number of prizes. 

The stock wintered well, and the increase this year is quite satisfactory. 

The supply of fish was plentiful, and large quantities of ducks were taken during 
the season. 

The Sioux (Standing Buffalo's Band) continue to support themselves by working off' 
the reserve. This year they have increased the acreage under crop. 

The attendance of scholars at the boarding and day school combined has been much 
larger than in past years. 

The crops this year are the best we have ever had ; the harvest commenced on the 
22nd instant and it is hoped that the returns .will ba very large. 

My staff have ably assisted me in carrying, on the work. 

Tabular statement and inventory of all Government property under my charge are 
enclosed herewith. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. B. LASH, 

Indian Agent. 

BiRTLE, Man., 16th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs. 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for the year ended 30th June 
last, together with a tabular statement and inventory of all Government property under 
my charge. 
54 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The Bird Tail Sioux Band, No. 57, have this season two hundred and ninety-one 
acres of wheat, fifty-three acres of oats, seven acres of rye, nine acres of potatoes, six 
acres of corn, and about three acres of turnips and garden stuff, all of which at present 
gives promise of a good return, excepting a field of early sown oats. Moses Bunn has this 
season the largest individual crop, he having put in about forty-five acres of wheat ; but 
he is closely followed by Simka-Ho-Dah'on, who has forty acres under wheat. Part 
of this reserve was, as you know, divided into eighty-acre lots five years ago, since 
which time I have been gradually getting them to square up their fields to the 
surveyed lines. Simka-Ho-Dah'on has now about seventy-five acres of his lot broken, 
the remaining five acres he has retained for his buildings and a pasture field that 
he has fenced in for his working oxen ; and others are each season improving the appear- 
ance of their farms by ploughing up odd corners of new land, thereby squaring their 
fields. Several progressive ones are this season building storehouses for their grain and 
sheds for their implements. They have one hundred head of cattle in good order and 
are now putting up hay for them for next winter. 

The Sioux at Oak River Reserve, No. 58, have broken this season over four 
hundred acres of new land, and have four hundred and seventy-one acres of wheat, four 
acres of oats, twenty-two acres of potatoes, seven acres of corn, and four acres of turnips 
and garden stuff. The turnips were a failure in most instances, but all other crops, 
from present appearances, will turn out well. They have one hundred and fifty head of 
cattle in good shape, and are putting up sufficient hay for next winter. 

The Oak Lake Band of Sioux, No. 59, are each year showing progress. Waoke 
has this season broken about thirty acres of new land, and did it well. He has twenty 
acres under wheat and about an acre of potatoes and corn. There is a total of fifty-eight 
acres of wheat sown on this reserve, and I saw no better grain this season than that of 
the Indians of this reserve. They have now good stables, and seem to be interested in 
their cattle. 

The Turtle Mountain Sioux Band, No. 60, remain about as they were. No visible 
progress has been made during the past few years. They have now twenty head of cat- 
tle, and have sown about five acres of oats, and have three acres of potatoes, corn and 
garden stuff. 

Kee-see-ko-Wenin's Band, No. 61, Riding Mountain, have this season sown ten 
acres of wheat, eighteen acres of oats, twenty acres of barley, six acres of potatoes and 
over an acre of turnips and garden stuff, all of which at present promises a fair return. 
They have fifty-nine head of cattle in good order, for which they have provided 
good stables and are now putting up hay for the winter. This band will have some 
difficulty in getting sufficient hay this season, part of their meadows being low and flat 
and having been partly flooded by heavy rains. Part of this band yet follow fishing 
and hunting for a livelihood, and do not seem to favour the idea of settling down to 
farming. 

Way-way-see-cappo Band, No. 62, yet depend too much on the Government for 
assistance instead of relying on their own exertions for a livelihood. They have some 
fifty acres of wheat, nine acres of oats, thirty-four acres of barley, nine acres of 
potatoes, and two acres of turnips and gardens. The soil of this reserve is very strong 
and is liable, particularly in seasons like the present — with more than an average 
rainfall — to produce too much straw, and as a consequence is late in ripening, but 
this season wheat was fully headed out on the twentieth of July, and I hope to 
see their wheat safely harvested and this band encouraged thereby to do more work 
for themselves in the future. They now have one hundred and nineteen head of 
cattle, for which they provide fairly good shelter and sufficient food. 

At the Silver Creek Reserve, No. 63, — late Gambler's — there are only four farming 
heads of families, several having gone over to Way-way-see-cappo's several years ago, 
and one removed to the Crooked Lake Agency last spring. The others yet reside at 
Valley River, where they have good buildings and earn a good living by hunting, fishing 
and the sale of dressed pelts made into clothing, foot wear, etc. Those on the reserve 

[part I J 55 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



have about seventy acres under crop this season, which will yield fairly well, and all 
have good houses and stables. 

John Tanner of this reserve has a bank stable sufficiently large to hold thirty 
head of cattle, with a horse stable jDartitioned off to hold three horses, a good root cellar, 
milk house, a large implement shed in which he has his grain binder, ploughs, harrows, 
harness, mower and rake, all carefully stored and all procured by his own exertions, 
excepting the plough and harrow which were loaned to him by the Department. 

The Rolling River Band, at Reserve No. 67, have remained on this reserve during 
the past year much better than formerly. Two members of the band have sown 
eighteen acres of wheat, and besides this they have about five acres of potatoes, turnips 
and garden stuff. 

SCHOOLS. 

There are two day schools on reserves within this agency, one at Riding Mountain 
of the Presbyterian Mission, under the charge of Miss M. S. Cameron, and one at the 
Oak River Sioux Reserve of the Episcopalian, taught by Mr. H. Hartland. At the 
former the atttendance has been fairly good and regular. A great deal of credit for 
this is due to the teacher who appears to have the skill to make the school room attrac- 
tive to the children, and more of a pleasure for them to attend than a duty. The 
children now appear at school tidy in their dress and personal appearance, and the 
school room at all my visits was neatly and cleanly kept. I am sorry to report that 
little or no interest is taken in the school by the parents of the children at Oak River. 
The attendance has not been regular or as large as it should have been. 

The Boarding School at Butte has done good work for a number of children who 
have attended from Way-way-see-cappo, Riding Mountain, Bird Tail Sioux and Rolling 
River Reserves. The average attendance has been about twenty. It is under the 
auspices of the Presbyterian Church, with Mr. Geo. G. McLaren as Principal and Miss 
McLaren as Matron. 

A number of Sioux children from this agency are attending the Indian Home School 
at Elkhorn and a. number from the Silver Creek Reserve the Industrial School at Qu'- 
Appelle, both of which, I am led to believe, are improving the minds and manners of the 
Indian youths under their charge. 

The general health of all bands has been fairly good during the past year. 

I regret I cannot report that the conduct of every individual has been above re- 
proach — such a result can hardly be looked for among nearly one thousand Indians ; but 
I think it is a matter for congratulation that so many of the Indians at this agency have 
become largely self-supporting, having only issued twenty-one thousand pounds of flour 
and one thousand and twelve pounds of bacon, being but little more than an average of 
twenty pounds of flour and one pound of bacon to each Indian in the district. 

Before closing my report, I would like to bear testimony to the able assistance 
rendered me by Mr. Dickinson, of this office, whose services have always been cheerfully 
at my command, and whose work has been of the most efficient character. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. A. MARKLE, 

Indian Agent. 



Indian Accent's Office, File Hills, 4th August, 1891. 
The Honourable, 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for the fiscal year ended the 
30th June last, with a tabular statement and inventory of Government property under 
my charge on that date. 

I took charge of this agency on the 17th July, 1890, at which time the annuity 
payments were being made by my predecessor, Mr. Reynolds. 
56 [part i] 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



The Indians have clone fairly well during the past year. They have received from 
their crop fifty-four thousand five hundred and fifty-five pounds of flour and eighteen 
tons of bran and shorts. The Department assisted them to the extent of $437.86 in 
paying for threshing and gristing, and they have sufficient flour on hand to last until 
next November, when I trust they will have this year's crop threshed. 

They have also purchased, by the sale of oats, two sets of bob-sleighs, and from the 
sale of beef three mowers, two horse rakes and one set of bob-sleighs. 

The following is a comparative statement of food supplies furnished this agency by 
the Department during the past two fiscal years, for employes and Indians, viz. : — 



I 



Supplied 

during 

1889-90. 



Supplied 

during- 
1890-91. 



Lbs. 



Bacon 
Beef., 
riour. 



Lbs. 



Decrease 

for 
1890-91 



Lbs. 



15,591 i 


14,856 


735 


24,042 


13,951 


10,091 


60,100 ! 


27,500 


32,600 



And there is every prospect at the present time that the decrease in the expendi- 
ture for the fiscal year 1891-92 will be much larger. 

The crops on Peepeekeesis Reserve, which were owned in common by Okanees and 
Peepeekeesis Bands, were fairly good. The hay crop on all the reserves was very 
heavy. We finished seeding on the 27th April last, being about two weeks earlier than 
the previous year. All the crops are now looking well, and there is every prospect of a good 
barvest. Owing to the past two months being very wet, a large number of our best hay 
sloughs are now covered with water : but I think we will have sufficient even if they do 
not dry up. 

The following is a statement of the crops under cultivation this year viz : — 

Acres. 

Wheat 150 

Oats 31 

Spring Rye 10 

Potatoes ; 29 

Turnips 6 

Carrots 2 J 

Corn 21 

Onions 1 J 

Gardens 3J 

We have been very fortunate regarding prairie fires, there not having been one on 
these reserves during last summer and fall. One ran over Peepeekeesis Reserve this 
spring, but as it was early in the season very little, if any, damage was done. 

The stock on the different reserves came through the winter in excellent condition, 
and the increase of Indian cattle has been very large. The calves dropped this spring- 
numbered one hundred and fourteen, with a number of cows yet to calve. There are 
now on these reserves four hundred and sixty-eight head of cattle and seventy-seven 
ponies in charge of Indians, and three cows and two calves in charge of agent. 
The following statement gives the description of Indian cattle : — 

Oxen 67 

Bulls 5 

Cows 137 

Heifers 41 

Steers 104 

Bull calves 58 

Heifer calves 56 

Total 468 

[part i] 57 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



As we can get a sale for cream at the creamery at Fort Qu'Appelle, we propose 
devoting more attention to stock raising and selling cream, than to farming in future ; 
but as it is necessary to have ice and proper milkhouses, I do not expect to do more than 
make a start this year. But I intend this winter to have everything ready to go into this 
industry on a large scale next spring, and trust that in my next annual report I shall 
be able to give satisfactory results regarding this industry. 

The general health of the Indians has been fairly good during the year. There have been 
eleven births, and seventeen deaths, being thirty deaths less than the previous year. 
The principal cause of death was consumption. It was thought at one time last winter 
that small pox had broken out in the boarding school here, and every precaution was 
taken to prevent its spreading, by quarantining the school and premises and vaccinating 
all the Indians, but fortunately it proved to be only a severe form of chicken pox. 

The attendance at the Presbyterian Boarding School here, has been better during 
the past six months than it has ever been before, and the jDrogress made by the pupils 
is very encouraging. 

There are fifty-five children of school age belonging to these reserves, thirty-five of 
whom are attending school : Twenty-six at Qu'Appelle Industrial School ; one 
at the Regina Industrial School ; and eight at the Presbyterian Boarding School here. 

Chief Star Blanket and his Councillors will not allow their children or any children 
in the band to go to school. 

My stafi", consisting of R. McConnell, farmer, and Peter Hourie, interpreter and 
issuer, has given every satisfaction in the performance of their duties and I have always 
found them very efficient and trustworthy officials. 

I have the honour to be. Sir 

Your obedient servant, 

JNO. P. WRIGHT, 

Acting Indian Agent. 



Indian Agent's Office, 

AssiNiBOiNE Agency, 12th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report, tabular statement and inven- 
tory of Government property under my charge, for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 1891. 

The Indians in this agency are doing remarkably well. The progress made since 
my last report is most encouraging. Thej worked extremely well in putting in their 
crops last spring, doing it willingly. All wheat land was prepared last fall and 
all the work was done by the Indians, as we keep no white labourer on this reserve. 
I have taught many of the young men to sow wheat by hand. They do the work 
fairly well. Some of the young Indians are good ploughmen and take pride in compet- 
ing with each other. They are able to do this kind of work as well as many white men. 

The following grain and roots were harvested last fall in good condition and stored 
for winter use : — Wheat, nine hundred and forty-three bushels ; potatoes, one thousand 
one hundred and fifty bushels ; turnips, three thousand one hundred and sixty-eight 
bushels ; beets, seventy-five bushels ; carrots, fifty-four bushels ; onions, twenty-five 
bushels. There were also a large quantity of potatoes and other roots consumed during 
the summer months. 

Theselndiansexhibitedfarmand garden produce at the Regina Agricultural Show last 
October, and also at Indian Head. The "Indian women sent a quantity of knitting and 
other domestic work, and were very successful in taking prizes at both exhibitions. 
This encourages them to cultivate their land and take more interest in their crops, and 
it encourages the women to renewed effiirt in acquiring a knowledge of domestic pursuits. 

I am pleased to be able to report that these Indians are steadily improving in all 
their farming operations and in many other industrious habits. 
58 [part i] 



I 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The grain and roots raised were a great help to them last fall and winter, as 
well as to the Department, as it was found unnecessary to issue rations generally to- 
them for about three months, as well as to old men, widows and orphans who were des- 
titute ; there are always a few of this class who must be helped. 

All Indians who had wheat threshed, paid for it out of their crop and stored with 
me a sufficient supply for seed. The remainder was ground into flour. The cost of 
grinding was paid in wheat. Some took my advice and paid for grinding in firewood. 
This left them the full benefit of their crop. 

The Indians are employed during winter, chopping rails and firewood for their own 
use. Some chop cordwood, haul it to the mill and take flour in payment. This is a great 
benefit to such as have no flour of their own. I do all in my power to keep this market 
for this class of Indians, and make others who have flour lend their oxen to these during 
winter time, which helps them very much and keeps all employed. 

Other Indians are nearly all the time busy attending to cattle and sheep, and keep- 
ing stables in proper order. The Indian women knit socks, comforters and mitts, and 
sell large numbers of those articles to white settlers. The women are kept busy at this 
work and making moccasins during winter time, while some card and spin wool, and do 
the work fairly well. 

All Indians who have no wheat to harvest of their own, go out to work for white 
men during harvest time, returning to take up their potatoes and other roots in the fall. 
This leaves those who have wheat to harvest short-handed in many cases, but we wish 
each Indian to do his own work and be independent of others. These Indians put up 
last fall four hundred and twenty-five tons of hay in good condition, and secured it by 
ploughing a double fire-guard and burning the grass in the centre to protect it from prairie 
fires. The cattle on this reserve were well wintered, being stabled, watered and fed 
regularly. The increase last spring of both calves and lambs was most satisfactory. 
The month of May is early enough for Indian cattle to have their young, and the 
chances of loss is lessened by a late season. 

The health of the Indians has been fairly good during the past year, there having 
been no contagious diseases among them. Every precaution is taken in the spring time 
to avoid sickness. All Indians who have tents move out of their houses, and all refuse 
is then raked up and burnt, and the houses are then whitewashed inside and out. This 
keeps them healthy to return to in the winter. 

I am sorry to have to report the death of Chief Jack, which took place last April. 
He had been in poor health for some time, but he took influenza last winter and was so 
weak from other sickness that he never got over it. He will not be easily replaced. 
He was always ready to give good advice to the young men, and to assist me in carrying 
out the wishes of the Department. 

I have, with the assistance of the Indians, put up two log buildings, one to be used 
as a carpenter's shop, and the other as a blacksmith's shop. These buildings are to 
enable the Indians to make sleighs and other things during winter time. A large root 
house has also been built to keep seed potatoes in during winter for Indians, as it has 
been found that they cannot be trusted to keep them over winter themselves. 

All this work has been done by Indians without any cost to the Department, 
except the rations issued to them while doing it. 

The following crops of grain and roots were planted last spring : — Wheat, one 
hundred and thirty-six acres ; turnips, fifteen acres ; oats, fifteen acres ; potatoes, fifteen 
acres ; carrots, five acres ; onions and other garden seeds, nine acres. All the land was 
well prepared and the seed put in at the proper time. 

These Indians are improving in hoeing and thinning out their root crops. It is a 
hard matter to make them understand this very necessary work, and much trouble must 
be taken to compel them to do it properly, as they think it a loss to thin out onions, 
carrots and turnips to the proper distances ; but they will be convinced of this in time. 

This spring a thoroughbred polled- Angus bull was purchased by order of the Commis- 
sioner for the purpose of improving the cattle on the reserve. The Indians think a 
great deal of this bull. They will be more likely to take extra care of all next spring's 

[part i] 5^ 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



calves on this account. They say he looks like a buffalo without horns, that his hide 
would make a good coat. 

The Individual earnings of these Indians during the past year was $833.60. This 
money was spent in the following manner : Some purchased lumber to floor their houses 
with, and others purchased blankets, stoves and clothing ; a few purchased beef, tea and 
tobacco. One man paid for a waggon out of his own earnings during last fall and early 
part of winter. 

Some children were sent from this reserve last spring to the Industrial School at 
Regina ; they are doing well. Their parents visited them during the past month, and 
on their return they expressed themselves as being much pleased with the treatment the 
children are receiving. There are also a few children from this reserve at the Qu'Ap- 
pelle Industrial School, who are doing well. They often write to me, stating how they 
are treated ; they seem thankful for the kindness they receive. 

The supplies received for the Indians are of good quality and are equal to 
samples. The behaviour of the Indians during the past year has been very good. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. S. GRANT, 

Indian Agent. 



Indian Agent's Office — Treaty No. 4, 

Cote, Assa., 24th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for the fiscal year 1890-91, 
with tabular statement and inventory of Government property. 

The agency buildings on Cote Reserve were finished last fall, when I removed from 
Fort Pelly, and have since occupied them ; this brings me much closer to the larger part 
of my outside work. 

Potatoes, turnips and carrots gave us a very fair return, and I believe that we will 
•do well to give our w^hole attention to the growing of root crops and the raising of cattle. 
The cattle are doing exceedingly well, the increase is good, and, having three thoroughbred 
bulls, the grade is markedly improved. The hunt has greatly diminished ; small game 
has totally disappeared ; still two hundred and twenty-five Indians are supporting them- 
selves, one hundred and fifty of whom live at Lake Winnipegoosis, where they get plenty 
of fish. 

The schools, four in number, are doing fairly well. The children are most 
intelligent and anxious to learn, and their attendance is regular. On Cote Reserve there 
is a boarding school under the auspices of the Presbyterian Church. Rev. Mr. Laird is 
Principal. The average attendance is forty-five. This includes children from the other 
reserves. The day schools in operation in this agency are : — On Kisickouse Reserve, Roman 
Catholic, Mr. Jordens, teacher ; average attendance, eight. On Keys Reserve, Church 
of England, Rev. Mr. Cunlifte, teacher ; average attendance, eight. At Shoal River 
(Lake Winnipegoosis), Church of England, Mr. Bassing, teacher ; average attendance, 
fifteen. 

The health of the Indians has not been so good as usual. We Ijad an epidemic of 
influenza last spring. The deaths have been twenty-eight and births seven, a decrease 
of twenty-one. 

Man;y of the Indians have worked industriously and are trying to help themselves ; 
they fully understand that the Department cannot always continue to help them as it 
has done. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. E. JONES, 

Indian Agent. 
60 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892" 



District of Assiniboia, N. W. T. 
Crooked Lake Agency, Treaty No. 4, 12th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you my annual report, with tabular state 
ment, and inventory of all Government property under my charge, up to the 30th June,. 
1891. 

The last year's crop was the best w^e have had since these Indians commenced 
farming. We threshed out five thousand nine hundred and thirty-two bushels of wheat,, 
six hundred and thirty-seven of oats, two hundred and eighty-six of rye, ninety-eight of 
pease and thirty of barley. Of roots we got two thousand four hundred and sixty-one 
bushels of potatoes, one thousand three hundred and twenty-five of turnips, one hundred 
and eighty-six of carrots, and four hundred and eighty-three of garden stuff. In addition 
to this the farmers raised four hundred and sixty bushels of oats for use of farm teams ; 
and I harvested two hundred and twenty for the agency team. 

The Indians sold during the winter, four thousand and fifty-eight bushels of w^heat,, 
realizing the sum of $2,000, which was expended in the purchase of provisions, principal- 
ly flour. One thousand bushels were sown this spring, two hundred are still on hand, 
a few bushels were gristed at our mill, and the balance, which was tailings, was fed to 
stock and poultry. 

Of the root crop, two hundred and sixty bushels of potatoes were sold, and eight 
hundred planted this spring, the balance, with garden stuff and carrots, was consumed 
by the Indians, as well as some of the turnips,»which were also fed to stock. 

The provision returns show a saving of $2,124 during this year as compared with 
the previous one. 

The hay crop was much better than last year, but owing to unfavourable weather 
there was not much made for sale. 

The stock got through the winter in good condition. The following is the number 
of cattle in the hands of the Indians : — 

Under Gov. control. Private Property. 

Oxen 103 7 

Cows 109 59 

Bulls 2 

Young cattle 210 83 

Total 424 149 



In adddition to the above private property of the Indians, there are four Canadian 
horses (two geldings and two brood mares) held by Indians on Reserve No. 73, Cowes- 
ess' Band ; and throughout the agency there are one hundred and seventy-one native 
ponies, some improved by crossing with Canadian horses. 

The pedigree bull supplied this agency by the Department has already shown, by 
the calves dropped this spring, a decided improvement in stock. 

The individual earnings of each band respectively, amounted to : 

Ochapowace's Band, Reserve No. 71 $ 834 35 

Kah-ke-wistahaw Band, Reserve No. 72 1,275 19 

Cowesess " " " 73 1,426 33 

Sakimay's " " " 74 1,088 57 

Total $4,624 44 

being an increase of $1,812.18 over last year. 

There was very little realized from furs during last winter on account of some 
of the old trappers being obliged to remain at home and attend to their stock. 

[part i] 61 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Seeding commenced on the 7th of April, one week earlier than last spring, and all 
the work was finished by the 20th of May. 

The area under crop on the several reserves is as follows :— 

Acres. 

Ochapowace's Reserve, No. 71 145 

Kahkewistahaw " " 72 120 

Cowesess " " 73 251 

Sakimay's " " 74 122 

Total. . 638 

distributed in the following manner : — ' 

Acres. 

Wheat 494 

Oats 50 

Pease 5^ 

Potatoes 36 

Turnips 8 

Rye 22 

Corn 41 

Barley 4 

Chicory 3| 

Gardens lOJ 



Total 638 



In addition to the above, thirty acres were put under oats by myself and the 
farmers for the use of the Government teams, and one acre in potatoes. 

The spring work was commenced with spirit and continued so until all the seed 
was in the ground, immediately after which the Indians turned their attention to the 
repairing of old and the making of new fences, after which, for two weeks, all those who could 
spare the time went to collect " seniga," or snake root, realizing the sum of $600, and 
benefiting by the change from farm work to camp life. 

In the month of June one hundred and sixty-three acres were summer-fallowed, 
and one hundred and twelve acres of new land were broken. 

As I write I am glad to be able to report favourably on the appearance of the crops 
throughout the agency. It is hoped that the returns of the wheat crop will not be less 
than twenty bushels to the acre. 

The Indians still continue to keep their fences in good order, in proof of which no 
cattle have broken into their crops. 

A marked improvement has also been made in some of their houses ; a large amount 
of their individual earnings has been devoted to the purchase of lumber for flooring, 
windows, stoves, chairs, etc. 

Several Indians have taken up their farms in accordance with the surveys, or sub- 
divisions, made by Mr. Nelson last year, the benefits of which they are commencing to 
appreciate. 

The number of children attending school on the 30th of June was as follows : — 
Qu'Appelle Industrial School, thirty-three ; the Round Lake Indian Boarding School, 
twenty-five, being eleven less than shown in last report, six having gone to the Qu'Ap- 
pelle Industrial School, and five to Regina. 

Since my last report a grist mill has been erected at this agency, thirty inch 
burrs, with bolt, smutter, etc., complete. The power in use is the steam engine sup- 
plied to this agency, with the separator, four years ago. The buildings are of hewed 
logs, supplied and put up by the Indians assisted by the farmers. The machinery was 
put in position by Farmer Sutherland assisted by the other employes. Sutherland 
attends now to the milling, and Farmer Pollock, whom I got in place of Farmer Nicol 
62 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



(the latter having been transferred to Muscowpetung's Agency) attends to the engine, 
by which arrangement there is no extra cost in working the mill. The Indians have to 
pay in wheat bran or cordwood, at the rate of eight cents a bushel, for grinding, to cover 
the cost of working expenses, and settlers will be charged twelve and a half cents, if we 
have time to do their work. The amount expended by the Department on the mill is 
$1,301.55, and the labour of Indians and employes amounts to $300, which makes the 
value of the mill as it stands, without the engine, $1,601.55. The advantages the 
Indians will derive from this mill will be very great should fair crops ensue. 

The payments of annuities were held from the 16th to 21st July, both days 
inclusive. Ochapowaces and Kahkewistahaw's Bands, Reserves Nos. 71 and 72, were paid 
together. Cowesess' Band, Reserve No. 73, was paid at my office, whilst Yellow Calf's 
and She Sheep's parties received their annuities on their respective reserves. The 
number of Indians paid was six hundred and eight, the annuities amounting to $3,230 
and arrears to $315— total, $3,545. 

The general behaviour of the Indians under my charge has been very good. I have 
no complaint to make as to the conduct of any individual. 

A few of the Indians exhibited cereals and roots at the agricultural shows held at 
Whitewood, Broadview, Grenfell and Regina, and were very successful, even in compe- 
tition with settlers. 

The health of the Indians was much better than during the previous year. There 
were thirty-two births and twenty-six deaths, showing a increase of six. 

The agency and reserve were thoroughly inspected during the year by Mr. Wads- 
worth. Whilst inspecting the agency books every assistance was given to him by Mr. 
Pierce, the agency clerk. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

A. McDonald, 

Indian Agent.- 



\ 



Moose Mountain Indian Agency — Treaty No. 4, 

28th July, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report and accompanying tabular 
statement for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

Early in July last the agency headquarters were removed from the Striped Blanket's 
Reserve to a point thirty-four miles distant, on the south-eastern part of White Bear's 
Reserve, rendering it possible to give to that band the amount of supervision which it 
required without an increase of staff and increasing the convenience of the manage- 
ment of the whole agency. 

The agency office having been raised on beams attached to the axles of waggons, 
was drawn safely by the Indians' oxen to its new situation ; and the storehouse having 
been taken down, was removed in waggons and re-erected. 

The house occupied by Mr. Farmer Lawford having been turned into a granary 
for Pheasant Rump's and Striped Blanket's Bands, the old agency house was devoted to 
his use (its position being very convenient for the oversight of the bands just mentioned), 
and an agency house was erected at the new headquarters. A house was also built for 
the agency clerk, for whom there had been previously only makeshift accommodation, 
and a stable for the agency was built of logs with a shingle roof. 

These buildings were all erected by day labour, and the result, as compared with 
contract work, is entirely satisfactory ; better material having been used, more thorough 
workmanship secured, much more Indian labour employed, and the cost to the Depart- 
ment Jiaving been, I believe, some hundreds of dollars less. 

The advantages expected from the removal of the agency to its present situation 
..are, I think, being realized, and as one instance, I may mention that, between the seed- 

[PART i] 63 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



ing and haying seasons this summer, in addition to ploughing summer fallows, fencing 
pasture and breaking new fields, the Indians have earned by freighting between Mooso- 
min and Cannington Manor over $500, which employment I would not have obtained 
and could not have superintended if resident at the old headquarters. 
The area of land in crop last season was as follows : — 

. Acres. 

Wheat 194 

Oats 47 

Flax 1 

Rye 13 

Potatoes 6 

Turnips 12 

Gardens 4 

Total 277 



The yield was seven hundred and thirty-one bushels of wheat, two hundred and 
fifteen bushels of oats, three hundred and seventy-one bushels of potatoes, seven hun- 
dred and nineteen bushels of turnips and ten bushels of rye. 

Pheasant Rump's and Striped Blanket's Indians have under crop this year one 
hundred and ten acres of wheat, eighteen acres of oats, five acres of potatoes, eight acres 
of turnips, which are all looking as well as possible, the season having been most favour- 
able. They have ploughed ninety-five acres of summer fallow, and are looking forward 
hopefully to harvest time. 

It having been decided to abandon all the fields under cultivation on White Bear's- 
Reserve, and to break new fields on the south-eastern part of the reserve (near the 
agency) which was sub-divided by Mr. Nelson last summer, no grain was sown by that 
band, but eight and a half acres of potatoes and turnips were sown and eight small fields 
were broken. 

Two hundred and ninety tons of hay were put up by the Indians last summer, 
which provided sufficiently for their own stock and enabled them to earn money by win- 
tering twenty-one cattle for white farmers, and, owing to the mildness of the winter, left 
a surplus for sale. 

The cattle of all the bands are well cared for, and are increasing satisfactorily, there 
being now one hundred and eighty-three head, of which number thirty-eight are spring 
calves. Many of the Indians have returned all the loaned cattle to the Government, and 
were, able to sell last fall beef to the value of $434, in addition to some carcasses re- 
tained for their own consumption. The practice of milking the cows is steadily gaining 
ground, and the quality of the butter made is improving. 

The principal industries of the Indians, besides farming, are freighting, tanning 
cow skins, at which the women are skilful, cutting and drawing firewood, &c., and fish- 
ing. The firewood selling industry was only adopted after some years of urging, but, 
since the removal of the agency it has become the principal means of support during the 
winter. A number of the women have learned to scrub and to wash clothes so 
well that they obtain a good deal of employment in the neighbouring settlement. 
There was an abundance of wild fruit last summer, the gathering and sale of which 
profitably employed the women and children. 

The individual earnings of the Indians during the year aggregated about $2,200 ; and 
and they have been better off", have lived more comfortably and with less assistance in 
provisions from the Government than during any previous year since I have been 
stationed here. 

The fatal after effects of "la grippe " on constitutions weakened by scrofula increased 
the death rate in Pheasant Rump's and Striped Blanket's Bands, but there has not been 
much general sickness. A caSe of measles occurred on White Bear's Reserve last summer, 
but the spread of this disease, so fatal to the Indians, was prevented by the enforcement 
of strict quarantine regulations. There are at present a number of cases of whooping 
64 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



cough among the children, which are receiving medical attention. The Indians were 
visited on several occasions during the year by Dr. Hardy, who informed me that 
chronic diseases of scrofulous and syphilitic origin are so common among them that it 
is strange that more deaths do not occur. 

All sanitary precautions, such as the cleanliness of house and premises, the free use 
of lime wash on buildings and the frequent moving of tents to fresh camping grounds, 
are attended to, and every effort is made to cultivate cleanly habits, and discourage the 
use of paint on the persons of the Indians. 

Some more children have been sent to the Qu'Appelle Industrial School, and, owing 
to the small number left on any one of the reserves, it is improbable that a day school 
will be established. 

During last month about one hundred Sioux, who had been living in Manitoba, but 
who had not been settled on a reserve, were sent to this agency. 

They ploughed and fenced a field on White Bear's Reserve, and planted potatoes and 
and turnips, and have since been engaged in fishing. No definite arrangement has been 
made regarding them, pending a visit from the Indian Commissioner. 

The excitement arising from the " Messiah Craze " troubles in the United States 
caused no corresponding feeling among these Indians, and the alarm felt by the settlers 
in the district near to the reserves was caused by rumours either false or exaggerated. 

In conclusion, I beg to testify to the industry and efficiency of Mr. Graham, the 
agency clerk, who also acts as agency storekeeper and ration-issuer to White Bear's Band ; 
of Mr. Lawford, the farmer in charge of Pheasant Rump's and Striped Blanket's Bands, 
who, now that he has a blacksmith's outfit, does a great deal of repairing ; and of Mr. 
Buchanan, the agency interpreter, who is a handy carpenter. Mrs. Lawford gives the 
women of the bands under her husband's supervision instruction in knitting, butter- 
making, etc., and visits the sick. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. J. CAMPBELL, 

Indian Agent. 



OoNiKUP, The Pas, Treaty No. 5, 

Cumberland, N.W.T., 6th July, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — In accordance with instructions, dated the 10th of April last, I have the 
honour to submit my eighth annual report on Indian affairs in this agency, together with 
the accompanying tabular statement and list of Government property, for the fiscal year 
ended the 30th of June, 1891. 

In taking a general glance at the various reserves under my charge in this agency, 
the thought naturally occurs to the mind — would that the Indians advanced in the 
industries of civilization as they do in years, and as the latter rapidly roll on ; but as 
the sun rises and sets, and the beasts of prey rove through the forests seeking their meat 
from God, and then when satisfied return to their slumbers, so, in measure, it is to be 
feared, the established wanderer whiles away the term of life until the silver cord is 
loosed, and golden opportunities for improvement in the things of this world are things 
of the past. The natural resources of the country entirely at his disposal, and the 
assistance he receives from the Department and others, in various ways and at various 
times throughout the year, affords the Indian ample means for advancement, and give 
sufficient reason to his benefactors to look for decided steps in that direction. But to 
state in this report that one is satisfied with the progress made during the past year 
would be to give an unfaithful testimony, and calculated to produce a false impression. 
Still, it is a matter for thankfulness on my part that despite the innate propensities and 
established modes of living derived from their forefathers, and still generally adhered to, 

[part i] 65 

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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



there are among these sons of the forest some who have evinced, smce my last annual 
report, manifest signs of industry and a tendency to more settled habits in exchange for 
those of a nomadic character. But that which gives considerable interest and encourage- 
ment in seeking to raise these once benighted people is the decided advance made among 
the rising generation. The schools in operation are doing well, the monthly examina- 
tions have had good effect and the teachers are hard at work. But more of this in due 
course. 

I will now review the reserves in order. 

Grand Rapids, situated at the mouth of the Saskatchewan, some hundred and thirty- 
five miles from my office, is well supplied with fish from Lake Winnipeg. Here the 
Indians earn fair wages by working for the fishing and steamboat companies. The band 
generally is therefore in fair circumstances. They have done a little farming ; but 
when not hired they appear to prefer hunting to steady working with the grub hoe. 

The school on this reserve is, I think, the most important branch of the work. The 
teacher, Mr. James Settee, jr., has taken the children thoroughly in hand, and they on 
their part appear to appreciate his services, for the school has the largest average attend- 
ance (over thirty) of any in this agency. I cannot speak too highly of Mr. Settee's 
indefatigable labours on this reserve, not only among the rising generation at the school, 
but also in giving good advice to the Chief, and in writing his letters, as well as assisting 
me in any matter on the reserve where his services are valuable. Mr. Settee, knowing 
thoroughly the Cree language and having a fair knowledge of English, is thus in a posi- 
tion to reach the intellects of his pupils and of the Indians generally. Such teachers do 
well in a district like this. 

The next Reserve, Chemawawin, is situated on the north-western shore of Cedar 
Lake, and is some eighty miles from the office. The Indians here are now in better 
circumstances than formerly, owing to the Hudson's Bay Company having removed their 
fort from Moose Lake to this point. An energetic Hudson's Bay Company officer keeps 
them employed to some extent both in winter and summer. The number of musk 
rats killed by this band during the past season has enabled those who worked well to 
supply themselves and families with the necessaries of life, while they had, in addition, the 
fine sturgeon, usually plentiful in Cedar Lake. Lack of energy, however, stands much in 
the way of these Indians. Still there is hope for future prosperity, but it probably lies in 
Chemawawin School. It is both interesting and encouraging to examine Mr. Robert 
Bear's orderly pupils. Though young himself, he conducts his school with a decorum 
and gravity not often found in a man of his age. The children, naturally backward 
and slow, are nevertheless making fair progress under his tuition, and by the numbers 
in attendance show their appreciation of his valuable services. 

The soil on this reserve, though rocky, is excellent for root crops. Potatoes, are 
cultivated to some extent, but not sufficiently to meet the requirements. Still, as a whole, 
I consider this band in better circumstances than formerly. 

Moose Lake Reserve comes next, and is situated about east from the office. It can 
be approached either by the river and Moose Lake proper, a distance of some eighty 
miles, or via Clear Water Lake, where it is probably sixty miles from the office. Moose 
Lake itself is an excellent water for fish nearly all the year round. The Indians, there- 
fore, at this point do not exert themselves to any great extent to cultivate the soil. 
During the past year they have been in fair circumstances, as the muskrat has been 
numerous ; but they are tardy in adopting habits of civilization. 

The soil on this reserve is good for root crops and some potatoes are cultivated, but 
not sufficient to meet the actual requirements. 

The school at present is not in operation. But of all the bands in this agency who 
have opportunities for improvement I have no hesitation in saying that the Pas stands 
first. The Church Missionary Society has its headquarters in this district at this reserve, 
and much is done by its agency for the spiritual and temporal welfare of these Indians. 
Again, there are two schools here conducted by Messrs. Hart and Pritchard, the former 
of whom is noted for his educational abilities and the latter for his indefatigable energy 
of spirit, carrying him altogether beyond his bodily powers. The attendance at these 

66 [PART i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



schools is fair, but not what might be expected, especially at the Eddy. This is o wing- 
to the fact that a number of the parents do not winter on the reserve, owing to the poor 
fishing thereon during the cold season. IS'o doubt the comparatively limited attendance 
is very detrimentaf to the permanent success of the school. Still, notwithstanding all 
the disadvantages the teachers certainly have to contend with, a fair show of progress is 
made. I consider that the writing and arithmetic of some of the pupils at the Eddy and 
the Pas would compare well with some English schools of pupils of the same age. If the 
l^arents do not remove their children from the advantages of education I anticipate a 
fair show of intellect from the rising generation of the Pas Indians. 

Again, these Indians have the advantage of an important trading post belonging to 
the Hudson's Bay Company, where they can (but not invariably) obtain the necessaries 
'Of life in exchange for furs and work of various kinds. 

And, lastly, the Pas Band has the advantage of frequent visits of the agent, so that 
if they do not profit by all the machinery at work for their benefit the fault probably lies 
with themselves. 

On this reserve agricultural operations are becoming more general and are prose- 
cuted with more fervour than formerly, notwithstanding the many difficulties met with 
in very stony land. 

Another sign of progress is the building of new and better houses by some of the 
chief ones of the band. It is also so far satisfactory to see a few leaving the low, marshy 
parts and selecting sites on high and healthy ground. I have noticed, too, of late, that 
in a few cases small stockade fences have now superseded the former rude protection 
around the gardens. Perhaps, therefore, it is not in vain that the Pas Band possess 
advantages for progress beyond any of the other Indians in this agency. 

Leaving the Pas, and ascending the Carrot River, we come to the two fragments of 
this band settled at the foot of the Pas Mountain. Shoal Lake Reserve lies south-west 
of the office at a distance of some eighty-five miles, while Red Earth is situated about 
fifteen miles farther up the river. The Indians at these two places are, strange to say, 
characterized by opposite tendencies ; for while the Shoal Lake Band makes but little 
progress in cultivating the soil or in general improvement, the Red Earth Indians are 
thrifty, have a good supply of potatoes for food in winter and summer and for seed in 
spring, and present at the agent's visit of inspection tidy houses and premises generally. 
It is remarkable what these Indians have done, so far removed from the outside world. 
There is no school as yet at the Pas Mountain. 

The next in order is Birch River Reserve ; but it still remains as last year — 
unoccupied. 

The last band visited, and probably the last in advancement on the reserve, is 
Cumberland. There is, however, an excellent Chief there ; but his Indians for the most 
part are established wanderers, living almost entirely by means of the net, the trap and 
the gun. This band is much smaller than it was formerly, owing to those who had a 
desire to farm having been allowed to remove to a more fertile reserve at La Corne. 
Save the Chief and a few others, those remaining do but little on the reserve, spending 
most of the year in hunting pursuits. There is, therefore, no school on this reserve. 

I am thankful to be able to report that the sick and destitute have been cared for 
both by the Department and the Missionaries. Medicines have been dispensed by those 
appointed for that purpose, and there has been no serious calamity throughout the year. 

It should also be reported that the visit paid by Dr. Orton last fall to the various 
bands within easy access was quite an event, and his valuable services were highly 
appeciated. The operation the doctor performed on one of the school children was 
successful. Mrs. Hines, who dispenses the medicines at the Pas, carefully attended the 
child from the time the operation took place until its recovery. The child was also well 
supplied with nourishing food by the Department, and is now, I am thankful to report, 
again attending school. 

Lastly, it- is a matter of encouragement to be able to report that the sanitary 
instructions of the Department have made themselves felt, and the Indians are gradually 
awaking to the fact that such measures are for their benefit. But repeated drilling has 

[part i] 67 

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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



been the order of the day ere the bands could be persuaded to adopt the principle that 
"prevention is better than cure." These Indians are, however, by no means perfect — 
far from it in fact. But I am persuaded that a beginning has b^en made. Piles of 
rubbish have been given to the flames, and premises, generally, are assuming a more tidy 
appearance. It is much wished that the Indians themselves may become really 
interested in this matter, perceive that they are the gainers, and that by the observance 
of cleanly habits they are, in a measure, warding off disease, and thus preventing the 
too frequent sorrows of bereavement. 

Since the summer commenced I have visited all the bands (except Grand Rapids 
and Cumberland — the two termini) in the agency for the purpose of enforcing the 
sanitary instructions just referred to, and trust it has not been without good effect. 

This brief report which began somewhat discouragingly closes with hope for the 
future ; while it is the writer's earnest wish and prayer that the latent faculties of these 
sons of the forest may be so aroused and cultivated, at least in the rising generation, 
that not a few may in the near future rise to till important positions in this vast 
Dominion. Above all, may these once benighted people enjoy the light of the gospel of 
the Grace of God, find Eternal Life in Christ, and eternally enjoy all the fruits of an 
Eternal Redemption ! 

This report is most respectfully submitted. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. READER, 

Indian Agent. 



Berens River Indian Agency, 23rd July, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — T have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for the- 
year ended 30th June, 1891. 

As circumstances prevented my usual winter visits to some of the bands under my 
supervision, I took the earliest opportunity of inspecting the schools and reserves as 
soon as navigation opened. 

I am happy to state that notwithstanding the severe winter I found almost all the 
Indians doing fairly well, some had their gardens planted and others were hard at work 
when I saw them. Seed had been supplied to a number of the bands, which was much 
appreciated. 

Progress in farming, or even in planting, is kept .back very much on account of the 
wooded and rocky nature of this part of the country as well as by the cold lingering 
springs. But if the land was once cleared and brought to a state for cultivation, I doubt 
not that the Indians would take more interest in it, and plant more than they do at 
present. Although self-supporting — excepting the small supply of provisions allow^ed to 
the sick, and destitute widows — some of the bands are, at times, badly off during winter, 
especially if the fur hunt turns out badly, as it did last winter, and the fishing in the 
southern part of the agency nearly a failure. The Indians in this agency are much 
pleased to hear that the Government is likely to exclude certain portions of the lake and 
ri'^ers from the operations of practical fishermen. 

The health of the Indians was generally good during the last winter. Medicines 
are supplied to almost all the bands. 

The increase of the population in this agency during the last year is about two per 
cent. 

Notwithstanding the nomadic habits of the Indians, especially some of the bands, 
the day schools are doing much good, and progressing favourably ; but the Indians object 
to senxiing their children to industrial schools situated a great distance from their reserves. 

The bands are becoming more observant of the sanitai-y regulations established by 
the Department. 
68 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The cattle on the different reserves were looking very well. Some of the bands are 
very anxious to increase their stock. 

Although their agricultural implements are now better taken care of, they are, at 
some of the reserves, becoming worn out and useless. 

As the number in each band does not vary much, and as there is little change in 
building, etc., on the reserves, I do not give statistics in this as I did in my last report. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

A. MACKAY, 

Indian Agent. 



Indian Agent's Office, Treaty No. 6, 

Duck Lake, 18th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my fourth annual report for the year ended the 
30th of June, 1891, with accompanying tabular statement and inventory of Government 
property under my charge. 

The prospects of an abundant harvest, with which the last fiscal year closed, I regret 
to say, were not realized, yet after threshing, the following returns, in bushels, were 
produced : wheat, two thousand nine hundred and twenty-nine ; oats, seven hundred 
and eighty-three ; pease, ten ; barley, nine hundred ; turnips, seven hundred and two ; 
and potatoes, one thousand two hundred and sixty-nine bushels : an increase over the 
previous year of : wheat, one thousand six hundred and sixty-nine ; oats, four hundred 
and fifteen ; pease, three ; barley, six hundred and thirty ; turnips, seven hundred and 
two ; and potatoes, five hundred bushels. The Indians managed to supply themselves 
with tea, tobacco and a little clothing out of the proceeds, while from the flour made the 
majority of One Arrow's, Okemassi's, Beardy's and John Smith's bands supported them- 
selves for from four to six months, thereby reducing the rations very materially during 
the winter months. Hopes of a good harvest this year are entertained. 

It is gratifying to be able to report favourably of the condition and increase of the 
live stock. In spite of the prevalence of anthrax in the early part of the year, which 
caused considerable loss in this neighbourhood, the increase in this agency amounts to the 
handsome figure of one hundred and two animals since my last report. The Indians cer- 
tainly show a great deal of zeal in the raising of cattle, and during the winter, be it said 
to their credit or otherwise, seem to concern themselves more about the comfort of their 
stock than of their own. Mild weather favoured them in the early part of the winter, but 
w^hen severe weather set in and the stock had to be stabled, watering and feeding was 
regularly attended to, and the condition in which the animals were brought out in the 
spring reflects great credit both on the Indians and the farmers in charge, it being con- 
siderably better than that of the stock of their neighbours. 

An ample supply of hay was put up last summer, of which the surplus was sold to 
white settlers this spring whose supply was exhausted. I may add that the Indians 
worked hard in putting up hay for themselves as well as for the agency, and the energy 
they displayed in preserving their stacks from destruction by prairie fires, indicates their 
desire to preserve what their labour has gained them, and I think shows that consider- 
able progress has been made in this direction, some of the white settlers having lost 
heavily, while the Indians suffered comparatively little. 

The present indication is that we will have a good crop of hay this year, but recent- 
ly, skunk or spear grass seems to overrun the hay fields, which I am afraid will materi- 
ally damage the quality as well as lessen the quantity. 

Some of the most industrious of the Indians occupied themselves during the winter 
n getting out building logs and several good houses are in course of erection. The 
energy shown by two or three is really a pleasure to see and every asssitance at my dis- 

fPART il 69 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892' 



posal is cheerfully given them. A few hunting Indians had moderate success, while 
others fared badly. 

The health of the Indians is fairly good, there being very little sickness beyond a 
few cases of consumption and scrofula. Some four hundred and fifty-one persons were 
vaccinated during treaty payments, the majority proving successful. 

Sanitary precautions receive careful attention and the keeping of the houses and 
surroundings clean is insisted upon. 

The practice of painting the face, which I consider is one of the causes of disease 
and sore eyes, is, I am pleased to say, fast disappearing as well as most of their former 
habits. 

The school at One Arrow's Reserve has not yet proved a success. The majority of 
the Indians, being pagans, are averse to the school, but I hope soon to succeed in ' sur- 
mounting the difficulty. The school at Beardy's and Okemassi's, I am 2:)leased to say, 
has made good progress and the Indians are taking much greater interest in it than 
heretofore. 

The school on John Smith's reserve is advancing well and I am pleased to say that 
the teacher. Miss M. Wilson, takes a great interest in her work and is doing her utmost 
to make it a success. 

The progress of the school on James Smith's reserve is not as satisfactory as could 
be desired, on account of the Indians of this band being of such an erratic disposition, 
still Mr. Parker the teacher is very painstaking and hopes ultimately to secure a better 
attendance. 

In January the Rev. Thomas Clark, accompanied by myself, visited John Smith's, 
James Smith's and the Cumberland Reserves, and were successful in getting seventeen 
children for the industrial school at Battleford. 

Mr. Inspector McGibbon made a thorough inspection of this agency in August and 
seemed surprised to see how far advanced the Indians of this district were. I may add 
that I derived much benefit from the Inspector's visit, especially in matters connected 
with the office and the storehouse. 

In January the Indian Commissioner paid the agency a visit, which, though a short 
one, had its usually good influence, as the Indians are always glad to see him. 

In October Mr. School Inspector Betournay and in November Mr. School Inspector 
Macrae paid their annual visit to the schools. The former I did not see, being absent at 
Fort a la Corne. The latter I accompanied to John and James Smith's Reserves, and he 
appeared satisfied with the progress made, more especially at John Smith's. 

On the 6th of October our annual harvest home was held at the agency and prov- 
ed a great success at little expense. Races and other athletic amusements were indulged 
in and prizes distributed to the amount of $85, provided by private subscription. 
Good humor pervaded the whole assembly and the day closed midst evidences of satis- 
faction from all present. 

Treaty payments commenced on the eighth and closed on the eighteenth of October, 
and passed off quietly. 

Mr. Louis Marion, farmer at One Arrow's Reserve, works hard to advance the 
Indians of that band, and is a man suited to his work. Mr. Lawrence Lovell, farmer at 
Okemassi's and Beardy's Reserve, is an energetic, hardworking and painstaking man and 
gets on well with the Indians. 

Mr. Justus Wilson, at John Smith's Reserve, deserves credit for the manner in 
which he has advanced this band since he has been in charge. 

My interpreter, Sandy Thomas, although an Indian, deserves special mention as- 
being a good man, both honest and trustworthy. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

R. S. McKENZIE, 

Indian Agent. 



PART I 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 18D2 



Indian Agent's Office, Treaty No. 6, 

Battleford, 17th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith my report for the year ended 30th of 
June, 1891, together with tabular statement and inventory of all Government property 
under my charge. 

I am pleased to be able to make, on the whole, a favourable report of the general 
prosperity of the Indians of this agency, although the crops of the past year did not 
turn out so well as was expected, but, notwithstanding that, many of the reserves sup- 
plied their own flour for half of the year, and the Indians of Moosemin Reserve, which 
have by far the best grain producing reserve in the district, will supply their own flour 
until the new crop comes in. 

This spring being an exceptionally early one, the Indians set to work with renewed 
vigor to put in their crops, and by the first of May had finished seeding. The vegeta- 
tion being rapid the grain, in many cases, covered the ground as early as the tenth of 
the month. 

With the steady increase of cattle, which now number one thousand head, the 
question of supplying hay for them becomes a serious one. 

Last winter being a mild one and hay being plentiful we experienced no difficulty 
in bringing the stock through in prime condition. I have sent the Indians to the 
Turtle Lake country where they have put up eight hundred tons of hay, and will build 
stables in that locality to winter. 

The schools, eight in number, are doing fairly well. The trouble heretofore in 
getting the children to attend has, to a great extent, been overcome, and a regular 
attendance may be seen on every reserve. Two new schools have been erected lately 
and some useful repairs done on the school on Sweet Grass Reserve, The new school 
on Little Pine's is under the auspices of the Episcopalians, and the school on Thunder- 
child's is under the Roman Catholics. The school on the Stoney Reserve was closed 
last fall and has not since been opened ; the cause was the resignation of the teacher. 

The sanitary condition of the Indians on the different reserves has, on the whole, 
been good, no serious diseases having visited either the children or adult population. 
"La grippe" carried off" a few children but not to any alarming extent. 

The desire on the part of the Indians to help themselves and become independent 
is quite apparent. Last year and the year before, the Indians clubbed together and 
subscribed sufficient money to pay for a sixteen -horse power engine and separator ; and 
the last crop was threshed and stored for the first time in this agency in proper order. 

The staff" of employes continue the same as last year, and they vie with each other 
in striving to show the best results. 

A. J. McNeill is the agency clerk, and the value of his services to the Department 
may be estimated by the correctness of the agency work. 

S. T. Macadam, M.D., is still in charge of the sanitary branch of the agency and 
industrial school, and is a most painstaking and efficient officer. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

P. J. WILLIAMS. 

Indian Agent. 



I 



[part i] 71 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Onion Lake Agency, 

Saskatchewan, 1st July, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — 1 have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement, with 
inventory of Government property, for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

Onion Lake Reserve 

Composed of See-kas-kootch Band, 119; Wee-mis-ti-coo-see-ah-wasis Band, 1 20 ; Oo-nee- 
pow-hayos Band, 121 ; Pus-kee-ah-kee-wins Band, 122 ; Kee-hee-wins Band, 123. 

Since my report of 30th June last the bands of Indians under my charge are making 
noticeable advancement towards civilization. In no former year have I noticed such an 
improvement. The blanket of former years has been abandoned, and both men and women 
make it an object to dress as respectably as their limited means allow. 

As I had occasion to mention in my last annual report that none of my Indians 
attended a thirst dance held by non-treaty Indians in this district a year ago, I have 
pleasure in again being able to inform you that although they received many invitations 
from the same quarter this year to attend a similar gathering, none responded to the 
call or even asked permission to go. 

The health of the bands under my charge has been extremely good during the past 
year. Vital statistics show eleven deaths and thirty-two births recorded during the year. 
Five deaths were of children from natural causes ; the remainder died from scrofula and 
consumption of long standing. The Indian women, I am happy to say, take particular 
pains to keep their dwellings neat and clean ; this, in a great measure, accounts for the 
good health enjoyed by the Onion Lake Indians. 

The services of the medical officer were not required during the year, the simple 
remedies provided by the Department having proved quite sufficient for the treatment 
of the maladies prevailing. 

At the round-up, a short time ago, of the reserve cattle, the total number of animals 
was 248. The majority of the Indians take particularly good care of their animals and 
do not abuse them in any way. During the winter months they feed and water them 
regularly ; this accounts for the steady increase, and the Indian understands it is to his 
advantage to care well for his stock. 

The Indians are fully alive to the benefit they will derive from the grist and saw 
mill which has been erected on the Onion Lake Reserve by the Department. Four fami- 
lies saved sufficient barley to make flour enough for their own use for twelve months, 
and, in addition to this quantity, sold 120 bushels to the Department. I will not par- 
ticularize any further cases, but would respectfully point out that the contract for flour 
was reduced from 1,070 sacks in 1889-90 to 600 sacks in 1890-91. There would have 
been a much greater reduction had the crops been better. 

The flour made from the barley is of a dark colour. The Indians at first did not 
like it, chiefly because they did not understand properly how to cook it ; however, after 
a few lessons they overcame this difficulty and they now like it very well. Only a few 
days ago one of the Indians told me he liked the barley bread equally as well as the 
wheat flour bread. It is certainly a good wholesome article. The grist mill will, I trust, 
soon repay the sum which was expended on it by the Department. 

The Indians are particularly well pleased at having a saw mill, so much so, indeed, 
that every man turned out last winter and helped to cut and haul to the mill one thousand 
seven hundred fine logs for lumber. All the families are desirous of improving their 
dwellings, in fact, one man has already had his house shingled, and I venture to say that 
in a few years thatched houses will be a thing of the past. 

The spirit of competition manifested during the spring, in getting their seeding 
done, is to be commended. Greater care was taken, and the work was never done so 
well by the Indians as it was during the spring of 1891, every man being anxious 
to do better than his neighbour. 
72 [part i] 



5) Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The schools on Onion Lake Reserve were fairly well attended during the year, but 
owing to the innate bashfulness of the Cree children, it is almost impossible to get one 
'of them to speak in the English language even words that they understand. 

All the reserve Indians attend their places of worship twice every Sunday. 

Owing to the isolated situation of the reserve there is no outside labour for the 
Indians. Many of the families make butter and sell it to the few surrounding settlers. 

Chippewayan, Band 124-, Beaver River, Cold Lake. 

This band of Indians received very little assistance from the Department during the 
year, and anything given them was paid for by the recipients in making shingles for the 
Department. These Indians have now a fine herd of cattle, numbering one hundred and 
ninety-seven head, also forty-two native horses, all their own property. They purchased 
several head of cattle during the year and fourteen horses. As this band live chiefly by 
the chase and cattle raising, they take no interest in farming, and consequently have 
put down no grain this year. They, however, planted a few acres of turnips and potatoes. 

Generally the health of this band is very good, although there are several cases of 
scrofula and consumption amongst them. 

The clean and neat appearance of the dwellings on this reserve show that the 

Indians have not neglected the many lessons on cleanliness given them. They 'lave also 

followed the example of the Crees at Onion Lake in having their houses whitewashed 

inside and out. They dress entirely in civilized costume, bought with their own money. 

i The births are in excess of deaths. 

Hf* Since this school was opened (almost eight months ago) the progress made by the 

children in speaking English is extraordinary. They are all anxious to learn and pay 
great attention to their teacher. They are not at all ashamed. If the present rate of 
progress continues it will not be long before all the young members of the band will be 
able to converse in the English language. 

All the members of this band belong to the Roman Catholic Church, and all attend 

I the services regularly. 
Onion Lake Agency. 
During the year the herd was augmented by the purchase of fifty-nine three-year 
old cows and one bull by the Department. The herd now numbers one hundred and 
ninety-five animals and eighty-five calves. I will be able to reduce the 1892-93 beef con- 
tract to a minimum, and the following year, if everything goes well, no contract beef 
will be required. The animals are all in good condition. 
A grist and saw-mill was erected during the year, also a blacksmiths' and carpenters' 
workshop, all frame buildings. Various other improvements were made at the agency 
during the year, all the work being performed by Indians. 
I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

GEO. G. MANN, 

Lndian Agent. 



Indian Agent's Office, Saddle Lake, Alberta, 

Treaty No. 6, 30th June, 1891. 
,. 'The Honourable 
, The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
ij. Sir, — I have the honour to transmit herewith my report for the fiscal year just 

■ended, together with tabular statement and inventory of all Government property under 
my charge. 

»As I did not enter into full charge until the month of May, 1890, I was unable, 
within the limited period that intervened, to become sufiiciently conversant with the 
working and details of this agency, to give, when I had the honour to submit my former 
\ I'eport to you, more than a general outline. 

[part i] 73 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892" 



Band No. 125^ Saddle Lake Reserve. 

The Indians of this reserve, as well as those of Blue Quill's and the Whitefish Lake 
Reserves, appeared to have thought that they should be regularly rationed, not in pro- 
portion to their industry, but because they resided on these reserves. On my first arri- 
val here I informed all the Indians that I was outhorized to assist — excepting the old, 
the incapable and the sick — those only who showed a disposition to assist themselves, 
and that the object of the Department was to raise them to'a self-supporting condition 
similar to the position of the white man, and to which they could only hope to attain by 
cultivating frugal and industrious habits. When the Indian Commissioner visited this 
agency in July last, in talking to the bands, he sustained what I had said to them and 
with happy results, and the majority of them are making creditable efforts in laying a 
foundation for future independence. 

I found that the Indians of this reserve were constantly entertaining a horde of 
visitors, and in consequence, though the issues were ample, they were continually in 
want. I remedied this by ordering all strangers off the reserves, and the result is that 
few demands have since been made for any beyond the normal issues allowed to working- 
Indians. 

The acreage under crop on this reserve is in excess of that put in last spring. The 
yield of barley and roots was very fair. I found the cultivated lands very dirty, and 
they can be brought to a fit condition to raise crops only by a continued and systematic 
course of summer fallowing, which I am now endeavouring to carry out. 

These Indians are excellent stock men. They take every possible care of their 
cattle and give them all the attention that white men would do. I have seen them early 
in the season, wrap the young calves in blankets, take them into their houses and keep 
them there till they had gained sufficient strength and vitality to withstand the rigor of 
the weather, and I am of opinion that stock raising will become the principal industry 
of the Indian bands of this and the other reserves in this agency. 

Band I^o. 126, Wahsatanoiv. 

This reserve lies fifty-seven miles west from Saddle Lake and at present numbers 
twenty-eight souls. I found this band in no very flourishing condition, as, owing to its 
limited number, a farmer could not be placed in charge. I regularly visited the reserve 
fortnightly and issued rations to them at these intervals. During the past year I have 
been constantly urging them to remove to Saddle Lake but met with continued opposition 
from Bear's Ears, the Chief and the other old people, who are averse from leaving their 
old hunting grounds. I have succeeded in partially breaking up the band by the removal 
of three of its families to Saddle Lake Reserve, and I hope during the autum to induce 
the remainder to remove thither, where they can be properly looked after, as the majority 
of the males are simply cripples and unfit for any hard or sustained labour. These Indians, 
too, pay particular attention to their cattle. 

Band jYo. 127, Blue QuilVs. 

This band last year numbered only twenty-seven souls, but by the transfer of several 
Roman Catholic families from Thos. Hunter's Reserve at Saddle Lake, it gains a con- 
siderable increase and now numbers sixty-four souls, fifty-nine of whom belong to the 
Roman Catholic Church. The area under cultivation will be very much increased next 
year, and four good new dwelling houses will be completed this summer. The houses and 
farms formerly occupied, on Saddle Lake Reserve, by the families transferred to this 
band, I propose to hand over to the families from Wahsatanow when they leave their 
present reserve. 

Band No. 128, Whitefish Lake. 

This reserve is forty miles west from Saddle Lake and is the chief one in the agency, 
as the band numbers three hundred and ten persons and the only chief, Pakan, resides 
there. This reserve, commencing on the south end of Goodfish Lake, runs along its 
74 [part I J 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



easterly shore, thence along Whitefish Lake to its northerly end and has a frontage of 
about ten miles. Owing to the nature of the land on the reserve, which is both hilly 
and rocky, the cultivation of the ground is difficult and the area under crop is comprised 
in a succession of small patches, extending from one end of the reserve to the other. 
Last autumn both barley and roots were successfully harvested and the yield of both was 
satisfactory. This year a much larger crop was put in, and on my last visit, a few days 
ago, I found the crops looking so well that an abundant return may be looked for. 

There are excellent workshops on this reserve, and Mr. Farmer Ingram instructs his 
Indians in blacksmith and carpenter work, and he is making many of them passable 
mechanics. The livestock on this reserve, of which, including native ponies, there are 
about three-hundred and seventy-five head, are well attended, and the band has still in 
stack forty-five tons of hay cut last summer. 

Bo^nd No. 129, Lake Labiche. 

Almost all the members of this band have been discharged from treaty, and it com- 
prises now fourteen souls only, of whom the majority are children. 

Band No. 130, Chipi^ewayans. 

These Indians reside at Heart Lake, a place about one hundred and twenty miles 
north-east from Saddle Lake. They are expert hunters and live chiefly by trapping, 
hunting and fishing. They are industrious, better clothed, and appear much farther 
advanced than any of the outlying bands. Their farming operations do not extend 
beyond the cultivation of potatoes and garden seeds. I saw the band twice during the 
year, once when paying them their annuities, and a second time when they visited the 
agency in February. They came with their dog-trains for provisions, and, as the fishing 
during the winter had been a partial failure and the trapping poor, I issued them 
eighteen sacks of flour and a little ammunition to carry them through the remainder of 
the winter. These Indians are good cattle men, and they have been increasing their 
herd by purchase. 

Band No. 131, Beaver Lake. 

These Indians live at a point about half way between Whitefish Lake and Heart 
Lake, and, like the Chippewayans, subsist on the product of the chase. They belong in 
the fullest sense to the hunter class and as such recoil from the restraints of a life passed 
on a settled reserve. When paying them their annuities, I attempted to induce them 
to move into Saddle Lake to begin a more settled and industrious life, but to no effect. 
I visited the band a second time in February They were in a condition of actual want, 
as the fishing was poor and trapping, in comparison with previous years, unprofitable. I 
shipped to P. Pruden, -who is employed by the Department every spring to look after 
these Indians and to see that they plant potatoes and garden seeds, sixteen sacks of flour 
and ammunition, for weekly issue to the destitute among them until spring opened and 
the wild fowl arrived. Pruden succeeded not only in tiding them over the winter with 
this supply but has also sufficient flour over to feed them during the haying season. 
These Indians will cling to their idle, nomadic life till destitution forces them to begin a 
more active life. 

As the majority of the cattle, when they were handed over to me by the previous 
agent, were without the Department's brand, as soon after they were stabled for the 
winter as possible 1 commenced branding and met with but little opposition from the 
Indians after I had explained the objects in view, and I induced them to have all their 
private stock similarly branded, but on the hip opposite to that on which those under 
the control of the Department were stamped "I. D.," and the Indians now understand 
that they can neither kill nor trade oflf even their own private cattle so long as they 
receive support from the Department, without first obtaining the consent of the agent 
to do so ; and they are aware that before sale the " I. D." on the animal they desire to 
sell must be vented by the farmer. I have pointed out to the Indians that there is more 
profit to be derived from raising beef cattle than milch cows. As these Indians possess 

[part i] 75 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



quite a large number of private animals, many of them, if restrained from killing off the 
young stock, ought in a few years to be comparatively well off. 

The health of the Indians on the reserves has been fitful. In some months there 
would be little or no sickness, while in others there would be a great deal, but none at 
all of a serious nature. A few are suffering from pulmonary complaints and others are 
affected with the irrepressible scrofula. During the year the death rate has been three 
per cent., and the births show an increase of 5 per cent. 

There are four day schools on this agency, one at Saddle Lake, two at Whitefish 
Lake and one at Lake Labiche, the latter Roman Catholic and the other three Methodist 
schools. The average daily attendance at the latter has not been so good as could b^ 
desired ; but as the Chief and headmen have taken the matter in hand and are forming 
a local board of education with a view to compulsory attendance of all children of a fit 
age, better attendance may, in the future, be expected. 

Altogether I have every reason to be satisfied with the general conduct of the Indians 
of this agency. During the winter they got out and prepared the materials for a large 
warehouse. This is now on the ground, and I purpose to put them to work this winter 
at its erection. An equal quantity of material was prepared at Whitefish Lake for 
stables and an implement house. It, too, is on the ground, and these buildings will be 
erected this winter. I secured for my Indians the contract for bridging Whitemud 
River, between Saddle Lake and Victoria. The grant was one hundred dollars which 
was supplemented by forty — twenty dollars from His Lordship Bishop Grandin and 
twenty dollars from the Hudson's Bay Company. The work was completed this month, 
and the structure is well built and substantial. 

The following changes have, during the year, been made in the staff of agency : 
Mr. T. O'Brien, clerk, transferred to Onion Lake Agency ; Mr. Farmer Grasse, trans- 
ferred to Sarcee Agency. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

JOHN ROSS, 

Acting Indian Agent. 



Indian Agent's Office, 

Peace Hills, 28th September, 189L 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — ^I have the honour to submit for your consideration my first annual report 
and tabular statement, together with inventory of all Government property under my 
charge, and approximate value of same, for the year ended 30th June, 189L 

Although I have only been in charge since December last, I have had an intimate 
knowledge of the working of the agency during the whole year, as previous to my taking- 
over the entire supervision, I was in charge of the farms at Bears Hills as instructor, 
and will therefore be able to furnish you with a report of the agency for the whole year ; 
and I am glad to be able to report progress in a few particulars, and furnish you with 
such information as will prove to you that the Indians are making rapid strides towards 
becoming self-supporting. 

During the year Sampson's, Ermineskin's and Louis Bull's Indians have done a good 
deal towards supporting themselves, besides engaging in farming operations more 
extensively than ever before. During the present fiscal year these three bands have used 
less provisions furnished by the Government than in the previous years by three hun- 
dred and eighty-seven sacks of flour, ninety-five hundred and fifty-six pounds of bacon 
and five thousand and ninety-eight pounds of beef, thus saving the Government $3,172.60 ; 
and from the present appearance of their crops I am satisfied that they will do much 
better during the succeeding year, so that I confidently hope that, with the same energy 
displayed by them, in about two years from now to see this agency self-supporting. 
76 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Last November the Commissioner closed up farm 18c, Sharphead's Reserve. These 
Indians (the Stonies) had dwindled down to a mere handful, and as they were doing very 
little in the way of farming it was much wiser to do so, as it will be a large annual 
saving to the Department, and a benefit to the Indians themselves. There were not 
children enough in the band to make it an object to keep a school in operation ; this 
and other advantages they will have when they locate themselves elsewhere. As yet, they 
have not settled down, but since the reserve has been closed, they have made their own 
living, fishing and hunting ; at times, however, they have received a little aid from this 
agency. 

Sampson's, Ermineskin's and Louis Bull's have each purchased a combined seeder 
and drill, the three cost $240 in Calgary, besides this they have purchased three cows 
and one steer ; they also purchased thirty beef hides, nails and shingles for two houses, 
and still have f 235, which amount they have placed in my hands, asking me to purchase 
some more machinery for them next year. The hides were tanned and the leather made 
into moccasins for themselves. 

The drills they purchased have done them good service this season, as they planted 
the grain two or three inches deep, thus enabling it to find moisture enough to keep it 
growing during the two very dry months of May and June. Had these crops been sown 
broadcast, they would have been a failure. 

A great deal of the land is very dirty ; there have been one hundred and fifty-five 
acres broken and summer fallowed, which will place them in a better position for crops 
next season than ever before. " La grippe " spread over this agency during the months 
of April and May, which retarded somewhat the farming operations, two deaths occur- 
red during this time, but both patients were consumptive. Aside from this epidemic, 
they have been fairly healthy. 

During the present year a log building thirty by twenty, formerly attached to the 
agency house and used as a kitchen, was removed to a more convenient site, and put in 
order for the agency clerk ; it has been boarded throughout on the inside and parti- 
tioned at the small cost of $250. 

Chief Sampson's house has been completed, floors, w^indows and doors having been 
put in. Two new houses have been erected on Ermineskin's Reserve and covered with 
good shingle roofs. 

There are three Missionaries and two teachers in this agency. Rev. C. E. Somerset- 
is in charge of Louis Bull's Reserve and also teaches the school, which all the children 
attend. Mr. Somerset has great influence with his Indians, and takes an interest in their 
temporal as well as in their spiritual welfare ; whenever he sees any of them neglect- 
ing their work, he at once remonstrates with them, and they look to him as their adviser 
in all matters. 

Rev. Father Gabillon is Missionary to the Indians of Ermineskin's Band, and what 
I have just said regarding Mr. Somerset is true also in his case. His influence with his 
Indians, not only makes the work of the instructor easy, but is leading them on to pros- 
perity in temporal as well as spiritual matters. 

Rev. E. B. Glass is Missionary to the Indians of Sampson's Band. 

Miss LaTulippe is teacher on Ermineskin's Reserve. She is much liked by the 
children, and a decided improvement in the school has taken place under her manage- 
ment. The attendance is fair. 

Miss DeGraff is teacher of Sampson's school. She is much beloved by the children, 
and I no longer require to speak to them about neglecting to attend ; they are learning- 
very fast, especially to speak the English language. 

The cattle are not of a good grade, inferior bulls have been used for years past ; but 
this year four pure bred pedigreed bulls have been purchased, which will make an im- 
provement in the stock. There are three hundred and seventy-seven head of cattle in 
the agency ; the crop of calves this season is fairly good, and the cattle are healthy and 
in good order. 

Among the employes there have been some changes. After the Wolf Creek Reserve 
(Farm 18c) was closed, Farmer Robertson was placed in charge of Farm 18a., but it was- 

[part i] 77 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



soon thought advisable to make a change, and Gilbert Whitford, the Interpreter, was 
placed in charge. He is doing well ; his wages are $30 per month, with rations for him- 
self and wife. Previous to this year the wages paid at this farm was $95 per month, 
and five and a half rations. The Department thus efi*ects a saving of $65 and three and 
a half rations per month. 

Donald Whitford, Agency Interpreter, was being paid $40 per month and rations 
for five and a half. I reduced his wages and rations, and he resigned. His place has been 
filled by Alfred Whitford at $25 per month and rations for two. The Government 
thus effects a saving by these changes, in wages and rations, of about $115.50 per 
month, and the work has in no way suffered or been retarded thereby. 

Mr. Sanders, who has been a long time in the service, and is thoroughly master of 
his work in the office, also issues the rations to Sampson's Band, and assists me in what- 
ever way he can in outside affairs at the agency, so much so, that I am able to s|)end 
nearly all my time with the Indians while they are engaged at work on their reserves. 

A part of the agency has been sub-divided into forty-acre lots. The Calgary and 
Edmonton Railway has passed through it. 

The Indian Commissioner visited the agency twice during the year. 
I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

D. L. CLINK. 

Actifig Indian Agent. 

Edmonton Agency, 9th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to present my annual report, tabular statement and inven- 
tory of Government property, for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 1891. 

There are at the present time five reserves within this agency, which I will proceed 
to deal with individually, touching on such points as appertain to the progress made by 
the Indians. 

Enoch^s Band. 

This band harvested close upon five hundred bushels of wheat. The barley crop 
yielded nearly eight hundred bushels and was very good grain. The potatoes and 
turnips were also a success. The Indians have broken seventy-one acres since last fall ; 
have fenced thirty acres, and seeded a total acreage this spring of one hundred and 
ninety-eight acres, which at the present time promises a bountiful harvest. They have 
also put up nine dwelling houses, five stables, and dug six wells. During the winter 
months they sawed about five thousand feet of lumber and made five thousand shingles, 
besides hauling and squaring a number of logs, two hundred and fifty of which were for 
the agency. It should also be stated that they ploughed sixteen acres of land at the 
latter place. When it is remembered that this band is mainly made up of women, 
many of whom are very old and decrepit, I think it will be conceded that the amount 
of work performed during the year is by no means inconsiderable. There are a few 
suffering from ill-health, but other than this can hardly be expected, owing to the large 
percentage of the aged and infirm. The stock of this band are well attended to, and 
show a good natural increase. The schools continue to have a fair attendance. 

MicheVs Band. 

This band has but few members, all of whom are well advanced in farming. The 
barley and potatoes both were good crops. The seeding done this spring consists of 
thirty-six acres of wheat, forty of oats, fifty of barley and seven of garden produce. In 
the winter they cut and hauled a quantity of logs. The earnings by the sale of furs 
have been small, owing to the scarcity of the fur-bearing animals in the vicinity of this 
reserve. The stock belonging to this band are healthy and in good condition. 
78 [part i] 



^5 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Alexander's Band. 

This band is under the direct supervision of Mr. Farmer O'Donnell and to him no 
doubt is attributable in a great measure the work performed by it in the past twelve 
months. The Indians worked energetically at their seeding this spring, putting in fifty 
acres of wheat, fifteen of oats and one hundred and twenty-three of barley, eight of 
jDotatoes, two of turnips and two acres of gardens, which, although not looking so well 
as the crops on Enoch's Reserve, still will give them a fair reward for their labour under 
favourable weather. They have also erected seven dwelling houses, six stables, one 
root-house, and have made three wells, besides cutting and hauling logs and rails and 
fencing three hundred and twenty-five acres of land. The catch of furs has been about 
the average, the earnings derived therefrom being for the most part spent in clothing 
and provisions. The cattle are in good order, and the pigs given by the Government 
this spring are well looked after, and show a natural increase of twelve. The health of 
the Indians is, and has been very good. The schools on this reserve are doing satisfac- 
tory work. 

Alexis' Band. 

The old Chief Alexis has been replaced by Yos^, who received his appointment in 
April last. He makes a very good chief, being intelligent and industrious. This band, 
although considered a hunting one, has managed to get through a fair amount of work. 
The acreage put under crop this spring equals twenty-seven acres, consisting of three of 
wheat, eighteen of barley, three of potatoes and three of garden produce. Several 
dwelling houses and stables have been erected, and sixty-five acres of land fenced. The 
cattle in the hands of this band are looking well. A school has been opened on this 
reserve, under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church, and is a great success. The 
teacher is an Indian, having been formerly a pupil of the St. Albert Industrial School. 
This band has suffered but little from ill-health. 

PauVs Reserve. 

This band, formerly known as Ironhead's, is a detachment of Alexis' Band, and is 
located at White Whale Lake. Its number of members has been considerably 
augmented by the reception of some of Sharphead's Band (in the Peace Hills Agency) 
which is to be done formally as soon as the reserve is surveyed. The barley and pota- 
toes gave a fair yield. Twenty-nine acres of crop were put in this spring, which bids 
fair to give a good yield. The stock are all in first rate order and are well attended to. 
The mortality in this band has been very small, very little sickness having visited the 
reserve. 

*S'^. Albert's Industrial School. 

This institution deserves special mention, as it is doing most excellent work. It is 
very well kept by the Sisters of Charity, who are untiring in their efforts to advance 
the general welfare of the school. The premises are kept scrupulously clean, and would 
be a credit to any institution. The boys, apart from the ordinary scholastic duties, are 
taught farming, and the girls sewing and other useful domestic duties. 

In connection with the work at the agency, which is by no means inconsiderable, 
it may be stated that it has all been done by the employment of Indian labour, includ- 
ing the carrying of the mail, thus reducing very materially the cost in connection there- 
with. 

It may also be a matter of interest to the Department to learn that the trees sent 
last year from the Experimental Farm at Ottawa have proved a success to the extent of 
about 75 JDer cent. The maple and ash sown this spring have grown very well, the 
former being nearly two feet high and the latter one. 

In conclusion, I may say that the Indians throughout this agency appear to be 
happy and contented, and are much more amenable to advice and authority than for- 
merly. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

CHAS. DE CAZES, 

Indian Agent. 
[part i] 79 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Carlton Agency, 1st August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to forward my annual report, together with tabular state- 
ment and inventory of Government property, for the year ended 30th June, 1891. 

The usual contract supplies for the destitute and for the different schools of the 
agency were rendered here in the course of the summer in good order and condition. 

The first treaty payments were made at Green Lake on the 4th September, 1890, 
and were satisfactorily conducted. The Indians were greatly elated at receiving two 
years' arrears of annuity. 

On my way back from Green Lake I met the Pelican and Stony Lake Indians at 
the Devil's Lake, where they were paid on the 8th of the same month. Seventy of the 
former band were not paid. These still make a living by hunting and have not yet 
availed themselves of any of their privileges under the treaty. 

The Sturgeon Lake Band (101) were paid on the 17th, and those of the Mistawasis,, 
Atakakoop and Petequakey on the 9th, 10th and 11th of October. 

The wheat when ground produced fiour of inferior quality, but by mixing it with 
good flour it was made eatable, and no complaints were made by the Indians of its fit- 
ness for consumption. 

Our millwright did a good deal of gristing for the Duck Lake Indians, as well as for 
several of the settlers in the vicinity of Carlton. The wheat received as toll from these 
latter was issued to the Indians for seed grain in spring. The millwright was ordered 
to Onion Lake and took his departure from this agency on the 7th February. 

Seeding this spring was completed at a much earlier date than usual. The grain 
crops are very heavy and regular in growth, and their appearance gives promise of an 
abundant harvest. 

The cattle of this agency were well fed and cared for during the winter, with the 
result that they were turned out in capital condition in the spring, and the number of 
calves has been unusually large. 

The schools of the agency have been conducted in such a manner as to reflect credit 
on the teachers. The health of the children, who appear to be happy and contented at 
their work, has been good, and their attendance regular. The school rooms are kept 
clean and tidy. 

Although the winter was favourable for hunting fur and larger game, none but the 
Stony Lake Band (106) were successful in killing the latter, the Pelican Lake Band 
depending mostly on fish for their livelihood. 

I have to state that the Indians are becoming more attentive than heretofore to 
sanitary measures, even Indians living north of the settled reserves show a good deal of 
improvement in this respect, their houses, such as they are, being clean. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. FINLAYSON, 

Indian Agent. 



Sarcee Agency, Treaty No. 7, 17th August, 1891.. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I beg to submit my annual report for the year ended 30th June, 1891, 
together with tabular statement and inventory of Government property. 

I took charge of this agency in February, in compliance with instructions received 
from the Indian Commissioner, relieving Mr. Swinford, who had been previously in 
charge. 
80 [dART i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A 1892 



I found everything connected with the agency in good order, and the Indians healthy 
and contented. 

The spring opened early. Farming commenced in March on the Sarcee Reserve, and 
in April on the Stony. A good crop was seeded on both reserves. The crop was put in 
well and in good season, the Indians working willingly. A large acreage of potatoes 
and turnips was sown. The weather during the spring and summer has been extremely 
dry, and the crop prospect is not at present encouraging. 

The winter was comparatively mild and without snow. Stock on the Sarcee Reserve 
wintered well. The Stony cattle were poor, but the increase better than usual. 

As soon as the seeding was over, the Sarcees left the reserve to visit their relations 
amongst th€ Blackfeet, Bloods and Piegans. The Stonys left for their summer hunting 
grounds ; but a sufficient number of Indians were left on both reserves to attend to the 
growing crops. 

The school attendance is not large, and is very irregular, the parents taking their 
children with them when they go hunting or visiting. 

I have not yet visited the McDougall Orphanage ; but it is evidently doing good 
work, as the pujDJls whom I meet sjDeak English fluently and without hesitation. 

The Sarcees earn a considerable amount by their labour among the settlers in the 
vicinity, but their earnings do not contribute greatly to their support. 

The Stonys, whose chief dependence is hunting, did not have as successful a season 
as usual. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

SAMUEL B. LUCAS, 

Indian Agent. 



Blood Agency, 

District of Alberta, 22nd July, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to present the following report for the fiscal year ended 
30th June, 1891. 

The hay crop was poor, still good work was done by a few Indians. I succeeded 
in securing a contract to put up forty tons of hay for the Mounted Police detachment 
at Stand Off, Chief Old Moon, eldest son of Red Crow, undertaking to fill the contract, 
which he finished in October. Other Indians, notably Eagle Shoe and Heavy Gun, cut hay 
on shares with white settlers, the latter supplying mowing machines, rakes and, in some 
instances, horses for the machines. The Indians sold their hay at a fair price. They 
worked well, this being the first attempt at this industry. As these Indians did so well, 
I am in hopes that others will follow the good example next season. 

The payments, as is the usual custom now, were conducted in an orderly manner, 
and even though a great reduction was made in the number paid, there was very little 
grumbling. It has been tedious work getting the Indians down to their present number, 
occupying several years of close scrutiny. I am satisfied that we have now a correct 
census. Mr. Assistant Commissioner Forget visited this agency during the payments. 

On visiting Macleod the day after the payments were completed, I noticed the 
Indians were purchasing mostly staple goods, scarcely any money being spent in paint 
or jewellery. 

Thanks to the precautions taken by Major Steele of the Mounted Police, little or 
no whiskey was sold to the Indians during their annual trade, nor was there a single 
case of drunkenness brought to my notice. 

I am pleased to be able to report that during the "Messiah" craze south of the 
boundary line these Indians remained quiet, and stated again and again to me that the 
trouble was in a different country and was none of their business, that the Sioux were 
their enemies, and that they would have nothing to say to it, 

[part i] 81 

14—6 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



I saw it stated that Sioux visited the Bloods with a view to enlisting their sympa- 
thies. I can assure you that there was absolutely no truth in the reports. No Sioux 
or foreign Indians visited this reserve during the trouble. 

These Indians are working out more during the year than formerly, many finding 
employment with the Mormons and other white settlers, and giving satisfaction. 

Until. Christmas the weather was fine, enabling Indians to work outside, building 
houses, repairing and so forth. The new houses built during the last twelve months by 
the Indians are a great improvement on those of former years, being larger, higher in 
the walls, and in many cases board or slab roofs are taking the place of poles and \n\id. 
Day Chief, White Calf, Mike and Chief Old Moon have each built houses with 
shingled roofs. Two of them have partitioned their houses into sleeping and living 
rooms. About thirty new houses were built of pine logs, replacing the old cotton wood 
log houses. 

Red Crow's (Head Chief) house is kept scrupulously clean and neat. I was much 
surprised to see clean white sheets and pillow cases on his bed on one of my visits last 
winter. The Department jDresented him with a bed room set, of which he was inor- 
dinately proud. 

The early months of the year were stormy, and though we did not experience any 
extreme cold the winter was severe for several weeks. 

Spring being exceptionally late we were unable to commence ploughing until the 
9th of April. After that date the reserve presented a busy appearance. The Indians 
turned to with renewed vigour, ploughing the land deeper and better than at any pre- 
vious time. They have entirely got over their fear of the oxen, and handle them well. 
Many of the Indians used their own ponies in putting in the crops. It is very gratify- 
ing to be able to report that during the spring work not a rod of land was ploughed by 
hired help. Indeed the ploughing was as well done as that of the average white settler. 
The land under crop this season consists of the following, : Oats, ninety-six acres ; 
pease, four acres ; potatoes, thirty-two acres ; carrots, turnips, onions and beets, twenty- 
three and one-half acres. The rains were plentiful during June, and the prospects of a 
bountiful harvest are, I hope, assured. The oat crop was somewhat damaged by the 
cut-worm in the early part of the season, but has, I think, recovered to a great extent. 
Potatoes will, from present appearances, be the best crop for years. 

For the greater part of the year four schools were in operation ; two Church of 
England, respectively at Bull's Horn and Red Cow's villages ; Roman Catholic near 
the Upper Agency, and Methodist at the Lower Agency. The last named finally 
closed its doors in November for lack of scholars. I am unable to report much pro- 
gress ; this is mainly owing to the very irregular attendance of the scholars. 
In some instances j^rogress has been notable. The teachers are apparently inde- 
fatigable in their efforts to secure regular attendance. The Department supplies beef, 
biscuits and rice for a midday meal, yet a regular attendance cannot be assured. I have 
spoken repeatedly to the parents urging them to send their children, they promise to do 
so but say the children run off". I have noticed on my monthly visits to the school that 
some of the children are particularly bright and, for a time, industrious, getting on 
rapidly, then for some inexplicable reason, perhaps some imaginary cause of complaint, 
they are not seen at school for days and weeks, when they have forgotten all they had 
been taught. 

In July last the coal seam on the St. Mary's River was opened up by a practical 
miner. The coal for use at the agency was procured from that source. Several Indians 
have moved to this point with a view to getting out coal. One named Heavy Gun 
mined and delivered a few tons for the Church of England Missionary here, doing his 
work capitally. I anticipate working this industry considerably this year. The wood 
on the river is scarce, which will necessitate the use of coal. 

Reviewing the conduct of the Indians during the year, it has greatly improved. 
There have been fewer known cases of cattle killing, and not an instance of a single 
horse having been stolen from the south. The older Indians have assisted in bringing 
wrong-doers to justice on more than one occasion. The Mounted Police patrols have 

82 [PAHT l] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



been of the greatest possible assistance in putting down horse stealing and cattle killing. 
I have received much assistance and courtesy from the officers, non-commissioned officers 
and men in this and the Lethbridge district. Attached to the Stand Off detachment are 
some half dozen Indian scouts ; these have done good service. To give an instance about 
barter, an Indian named " Medicine White Horses " had been arrested by scout " Owl 
Child" for having killed a calf ; one " Good Young Man" by name attempted to rescue 
the prisoner, in which he succeeded, when the scout promptly arrested " Good Young 
Man," and he now languishes in the guard room at Macleod, undergoing a six months' 
sentence for interfering with the scout while in the execution of his duty. 

Two whiskey runners were captured on the reserve with whiskey in their possession, 
by the Indians, and both were convicted. 

I have to report a good deal of sickness during the winter among the children, a 
mild form of bronchitis being the trouble, also a few cases of influenza, all of which 
were well cared for l^y Dr. Girard. During the year there were forty-seven birth and 
fifty-three deaths. 

My staff has given me every assistance in carrying out the work of the agency. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient serv^ant, 

W. POCKLINGTON, 

Indian Agent. 



I 



Blackfoot Agency, District of Alberta, 22nd July, 1891. 
The Honourable, 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith my tabular statement, and inventory of 
Government property under my charge in this agency, for the year ending the 30th June, 
1891. 

Three Bulls, brother of the late Chief Crowfoot, is now head chief of the lower 
reserve. He seems desirous of carrying out the instructions of the Department. When a 
minor chief dies, no one is appointed in his place, so eventually there will be only the 
two head chiefs, which will be sufficient. 

A new house has been built by the Department for Chief Old Sun on the north 
reserve ; the work was done by one of the High River Industrial School scholars, who is 
a fair carpenter, and is now employed by the Department as agency carpenter. 

The farmer at the North Reserve has attended to all his duties, assisted only by 
Indians who help to ration, and any other necessary work. The farmer and issuers are 
the only white men at the Lower Reserve, they being assisted by Indians, the employ- 
ment of Indian labour being taken advantage of in all cases as much as possible. All my 
assistants have given good satisfaction. 

We have opened a new drift in the coal mine, and it is now in good working order, 
having a track and a coal car and coal house covered in. Having received eight yoke of oxen, 
we are in a position to supply more coal, and of a better quality, to the industrial school, 
and other points. The Indians receive considerable money for driving oxen and working 
in the mine, which they expend in clothes, baking powder, tea and sugar, and other useful 
articles. I find the young Indians more willing to work every year. 

The health of the Indians has been generally good, but consumption and scrofula is 
prevalent amongst them, and cause a decrease in their numbers. They have been attended 
regularly by Dr. N. J. Lindsay, and seem to have considerable confidence in him. 

Last July during the sun dance the Indians were preparing to have some braves 
made in the usual way by torture. When the Rev. Mr. Tinis and myself arrived on the 
ground, I explained to the chiefs thiat it was against the wishes of the Department to 
have anything of that kind done and asked them to do away with that part of the per- 
formance, which they agreed to at once. As this is one of the principal attractions of the 

[part i] 83 

14-61 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



sun dance they will not take much interest in it in the future, and the dance itself will 
gradually die out. 

Treaty pa^mients passed off in an orderly manner, there being a decrease in the 
number paid. 

There are four day schools on the reserve. I cannot notice much improvement in the 
scholars, as they do not attend regularly during the whole year. The Indians move away 
from the -vicinity of .the houses part of the summer for change of feed for their horses. 
The teachers are all painstaking, and do the best they can. A boarding school is also started 
at the North Reserve, under the supervision of the Eev. Mr. Tinis, the English Church 
Missionary, which I have little doubt will be a success in the future. During the year a 
good number of Blackfoot children have been sent to the High River Industrial School, 
where they will receive a good useful training. 

The reserve was visited at different times during the year by Indian Commissioner 
Reed, Assistant Commissioner Forget, and by Inspector McGibbon, who made his usual 
rigorous annual inspection. 

The Indians have built two small villages across the river, both at the North and 
South Reserves, and have new" land broken and fenced at those points. All the Indians 
worked exceedingly well. They have white-washed their houses, which present a neat 
appearance, and they also keep the premises clean. Altogether they have continued to 
improve in different ways. Some of them now wish to keep cows, but it will be well 
for them to purchase them by selling some of their ponies, as by doing so they will better 
understand their value, and so take more care of them. 

The farmers' wives have been teaching the Indian women to knit, make bread, and 
other useful work, and they are very quick in learning. 

A supply of house logs and rails was received from the Stony Reserve, The Indians 
here are much pleased to get good timber to work with, and it will make a great improve- 
ment in the general appearance of the reserve. Any Indian who breaks five or ten 
acres of land has sufficient logs given to him to build a house on it. 

The accompanying tabular statement will give all the necessary information in 
reference to the number of houses built, land broken and fenced, and other matters in 
connection with the reserve. 

The conduct of the Indians has been good, 'only a couple of cases requiring the 
interference of the law, and they were not serious The Indians are endeavouring to 
improve, and paying more attention every year to advice from the Commissioner and 
myself. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

MAGNUS BEGG, 

Indian Agent. 



PiEGAN Agency, Macleod, 5th July, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The SuperintendentGeneral of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to make the following report for the fiscal year ended 
30th June, 1891. 

Matters on the reserve generally can again be reported to be in a satisfactory con- 
dition. Bnt little -crime has occurred during the twelve months among the Indians, who 
have shewn themselves tractable and in many cases industrious. 

It is to be regretted that the crops were not good ; oats in the district were almost 
an entire failure, while potatoes were by no means a full crop. The agency field was 
worked by an Indian on shares, but unfortunately the growth was so unsatisfactory 
that the crop was only cut for hay. Undismayed, however, the same Indian again this 
spring made a similar arrangement and has ploughed and sown the field ; he is to have 
his payment in portion of the crop. Up to the date of writing the growth this spring 
84 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



has been satisfactory. There have been heavy rains and, with the exception of gardens 
which v/ere much damaged by cut-worms, all crops look promising. The rain has made 
the grass on the prairie exceptionally abundant, and there will doubtless be a good hay 
crop. Considerable summer-fallowing is this season being done by those Indians who 
take a real interest in their iields. 

It is gratifying to be able to say that the Indian herd of cattle has kept in good 
health. The increase has been most satisfactory ; practically no losses occurred during 
the winter. The increase in calves this spring all through the district is the largest 
known for several years. The Walrond Ranche Company have supplied the Indians 
with beef during the year ; the beef supplied was of the best quality. 

Tlie treaty payments took place during the month of October and passed off quietly 
and with no disputes. The number paid was ten less than in the previous year. 

A new house has been erected on the reserve for the agent, and is a comfortable 
and well-built residence. Indians hauled the lumber from Macleod, and the Depart- 
ment's own carpenter, with the assistance of one man, did all the work. The site chosen 
is considerably higher than that of the other agency buildings, and from it a fine view, 
both east and west, is obtained. 

Many new Indian houses have also been erected, all of pine logs cut and hauled from 
the Porcupine Hills, and the building of stables and hay and stock, corrals now give 
many of the Indian dwellings more of the appearance of farms than they formerly had. 
I am glad to say that these Indians as a whole keep both the inside and outside of their 
houses much cleaner than they used to do. 

Three Indians last autumn under the supervision of the Department's foreman on 
the reserve built a lime-kiln as an experiment. There is an abundance of limestone at a 
convenient distance, and the small kiln burnt proved a success. Each of the Indians took 
a quarter of the lime burnt as his share and I took a quarter to repay the Government 
for the foreman's time spent on the work and for other small assistance rendered. 

The bridge now being built by the Government over the Old Man's River a", 
lyiacleod will be of great service to us here on the reserve. At present, during times of 
high water, in order to ci'oss, it is necessary to go several miles out of the way and then 
cross on a ferry. 

A good deal of hay was put up by Indians last summer, some for themselves and 
some for sale. One Indian took a contract to supply a livery stable in Macleod and put 
up seventy tons, while another took a small contract for the police. There will be a 
greater number of mowers at work this summer. Three waggons, one mower and fifteen 
heifers were purchased by Indians from the proceeds of killing steers for beef on the 
reserve during the year, and in addition two heifers and a mower and rake were purchased 
with money obtained from the sale of ponies. 

I regret to say that the Indians at times obtain liquor from wdiite men and half- 
breeds in Macleod and Pincher Creek, especially at treaty time ; and although, several 
arrests have been made, it has proved very hard to secure evidence sufficient for a 
conviction. 

There are three chiefs on this reserve, one head chief and two minor chiefs. No 
elections have been held to fill the vacancies caused by the death of North Axe and 
Morning Plume. 

The attendance of children at the schools has not been what could be wished. It 
was thought, however, that the establishment of a boarding school by the Rev. Mr. 
Bourne would bring together the children whose homes were too far off to allow them 
to attend daily. The experiment is too new yet to allow one to speak of its probable 
success. Two boys, brother and son of the late Chief North Axe, were sent down to the 
Mohawk Institute at Brantford, and the latest accounts rejDort their doing well. North 
Axe, who had visited the Institute on his trip to the east some years ago, expressed a 
wish just before his death that this should be done. 

The health of the Indians has been very fair throughout the year, although the 
dfeaths outnumber the births. I regret to say that Takes-the-gun-last, our most advanced 

[part i] 85 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Indian, succumbed to consumption in April, and that his loss is much felt, his industry 
and general conduct having aiforded an excellent example to all around him. 

In conclusion I may say that the employes on the reserve have worked willingly 
and well in the Department's interests throughout the year and given satisfaction. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

A. R. SPRINGETT, 

Indian Agent. 



Duck Lake Agency, 26th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my sixth annual report of my inspection of 
Indian Agencies and Reserves in the North- West Territories. 

My last report ended with Battleford Agency and Battleford Industrial School. I 
then proceeded to Onion Lake, arriving there on the 22nd October, 1890. Mr. G. G. 
Mann is agent, Mr. McFeeters, clerk, and Mr. Baudreau, interpreter. The agency con- 
sists of Band No. 119, population, four hundred and forty-six ; and Band 124 (Chipe- 
wayan), population, one hundred and fifty-three. 

The following improvements have taken place since last inspection : A very sub- 
stantial building, 40 by 18, shingled roof, to be used as a carpenter and blacksmith shop. 
The foundation and logs are laid for an addition to the agent's dwelling. The labour in 
connection with these buildings has been performed by the Indians under the direction 
of the agent. A grist and saw-mill was about being completed. The mill proper is 
20 x 25, the engine and boiler-room is 20 x 25, and the saw-mill is 30 x 14, solid 
foundation, frame and shingled roof. 

The crop put in this season, 1890, was : Home farm, twenty-one acres, yielding sixty 
bushels oats, eighteen bushels barley, one hundred bushels potatoes, two hundred bushels 
turnips, fifty bushels carrots, with the usual variety of other garden produce. 

The Indians (Seekaskootch Band, No. 119) had under crop three hundred and 
eighty-five acres, yielding one hundred and sixty-nine bushels wheat, two thousand 
three hundred and twelve bushels barley, nine hundred and sixty-four bushels potatoes, 
six hundred and eighty-seven bushels turnips, besides the garden produce, which was a. 
very good yield. The fields looked clean and neat ; fences were good. The cattle were 
in fine condition. Seekaskootch's Band (No. 119) has a total of two hundred and 
three head, besides a number of pigs and ponies. 

Kinoosayo's Band (No. 124) has a total of seventy-one head. This band has also, in 
private property, twenty -eight horses, twelve oxen, four bulls, thirty-two cows and thirty-six 
young cattle. The agency herd consists of one hundred and thirty-seven head, also three 
horses, sixteen native horses, nine colts and eleven pigs. One thousand four hundred tons of 
hay has been stacked for winter feed. There was also a good supply of straw. Four 
large stables and three sheds have been built at Long Lake, where the agency herd will 
be wintered. 

Five new houses and six stables have been built by Band No. 119; and a school- 
house, three dwellings and two stables by Band No. 124. The houses were all newly 
whitewashed, and they looked very tidy and comfortable. The houses are of a very good 
class and are comfortably furnished. There are two churches, one Roman Catholic and 
one Episcopalian. It is a very pleasing sight to see, on a Sunday morning, the people 
wending their way from almost every house to their respective churches. There are also 
two schools. 

The grain was threshed at the mill as it was carted from the fields, causing no delay 
or extra labour. Many of the women make butter, the police being supplied by them 
with this article The Indians on this agency are making rapid progress under the able 
d^Q [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



management of Mr. Mann. They are all good workers. The usual audit of the books 
was made and an inventory of supplies taken. 

The births and deaths since last inspection have been r Seekaskootch's Band, No. 
119: Births, twenty-nine; deaths, sixteen. Kinoosayos Band, No. 124: Births, 
eleven ; deaths, twelve — Total, forty births and twenty-eight deaths. 

The whole work of this agency is in splendid shape and the Indians are peaceable 
and contented. The usual detailed report, with statements, were forwarded to the 
Commissioner, at Regina. 

My next point was Saddle Lake, arriving there on the 28th October, Mr. John 
Ross, acting agent, Mr. O'Brien, clerk. 

The agency consists of — 

Band No. 125, Saddle Lake; population, one hundred and sixteen. 

Band No. 127, Blue Quill; population, thirty-six. 

Band No. 128, Whitefish Lake; population, three hundred and eight. 

Band No. 126, Wah-sat-a-now ; population, forty. 

Band No. 130, Heart Lake ; population,, sixty-six. 

Band No. 131, Beaver Lake ; population, one hundred and fourteen. Total popula- 
tion, six hundred and eighty. 

Saddle Lake and Blue Quill's Reserves are under the charge of Mr. Grasso, farmer. 
The crop put in on these two reserves was eighty-five and one quarter acres. The 
grain was not yet threshed. Potatoes and turnips were very good. The Indians 
had a good supply of vegetables during the season. The fields were tidy and free from 
weeds. Fences were good. The houses are of a good class, and seemed to be cleanly 
kept, they had been all newly whitewashed. , They are fairly well furnished with bed- 
steads, tables, stoves, etc. The girls are making good progress in knitting and sewing ; 
and many of them can make their own dresses. It is not uncommon to notice in the 
houses, cooking stoves, tables, clocks, lamps, dishes, brooms and the usual small things 
about a kitchen. Some very good bob-sleighs were noticed, made by the Indians. The 
stables and corrals were very good. Signs of thrift and advancement could be seen all 
around, especially among the younger men. Five hundred tons of hay were stacked 
at different points for winter feed. 

A new Roman Catholic Church has been built on Blue Quill's Reserve. A new 
house has been built in connection with the Methodist Mission. Religious services are 
held every Sunday in the schoolhouse, the Rev. Mr. German, Methodist Missionary, 
preaching in Cree ; the attendance is very good and many of the Indians take- part in 
the services ; the singing is hearty. An English service is held every Sunday evening 
in the Agent's house. Some of the Indians attend this service also. 

Saddle Lake Band, No. 125, has thirty-five head of cattle under Government control, 
and in private stock sixty-four head, nineteen iiorses and colts. 

Blue Quill Band, No. 127, has twei^ty-two head of cattle, and in private property 
eight horses and colts. This band purchased a new mower and paid for it out of 
treaty money and what was earned by carrying the mail. 

Band No. 125, contracted to supply hay for the telegraph company to the amount 
of a hundred dollars. This sum was left in the hands of the agent to purchase a new 
mower and horse-rake. 

White Fish Lake, Chief Pakan, is under the charge of J. E. Ingram, farmer. The 
reserve is forty miles from the agency. The houses are of a good class, they were newly 
whitewashed and had a tidy appearance. Some of the women were knitting, others 
making- moccasins. Some make butter and bake bread. Very good hay-racks and 
bob-sleighs were noticed of their own make, also some sets of harness. They make their 
own canoes for fishing purposes. The crop put in on this reserve was one hundred and 
twelve acres. The grain was in stack ready to be threshed, the potato crop was very 
good. The fields on this reserve are chiefly small. Six hundred tons of hay were 
stacked ready for winter feed, the stacks were well made and strongly fenced. The 
cattle were in fine condition. This band have sixty-eight head under Government con- 
trol, and in private stock eighty-four head and one hundred and twenty-one horses and 

[part i] 87 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



colts. There is a blacksmith and carpenter shop in connection with the farm buikangs. 
Everything about the place was exceedingly tidy and neat, and the best possible care 
seemed to be taken of tools and imj^lements. The Indians on this reserve are advancing 
rapidly, as a jDroof, two of the band subscribe for the Montreal Witness and the 
Edmonton Bulletin. 

A new mission house was built during the year, and regular services are held every 
Sunday by the Rev. Mr. Steinht^ur. The mission is under control of the Methodist 
Church. I was told that the Indians were very regular in attending the various ser- 
vices. Rev. Mr. Steinhaur is one of the band. 

Wah-sat-a-now Reserve, No. 126, is half way between the agency and Edmonton. 
Only a few families live here. Thirteen and one-quarter acres, were under crop. The band 
has eighteen head of stock, and in priv^ate property ten horses and colts. 

The agency and farm books were audited and inventories taken of supplies on 
hand. Mr. Ross is working hard to get all his Indians interested in the general im- 
provement of the agency, and he is meeting with encouraging success. The Indians 
on this agency seem to be above the average in intelligence, not an idle man could be 
noticed. Mr. Ross does not spare himself any labour or trouble whereby he can advance 
those under him. 

The usual detailed report and inventories and statements were forwarded to Re- 
gina. 

I now proceeded to Edmonton Agency, arriving there on the 18th November. Mr. 
Charles de Cazes is agent, J. Y. Kildahl is clerk, Henry Blanc is interpreter. 

The agency consists of : — 

Band No. 132, Michel, Sturgeon River; population thirty-seven. 

Band No. 133, Alexis Lac, Ste. Anne; population one hundred and eighty -five. 

Band No. 134, Alexander, Sandy Lake; population two hundred. 

Band No. 135, Enoch, Stony Plain; population one hundred and sixty. 

Total population five hundred and eighty-two. 

The agent's house has been repaired during the year, and it is now a very com- 
fortable dwelling. The whole of the agency buildings, excepting the office, were in the 
best possible order. The agent had a splendid garden in which all kinds of vegetables 
in abundance were raised. The agent supj)lied the Indians with cabbage plants, en- 
abling them also to raise a good supply, for their own use. The gardens were kept free 
from weeds. No. 135, Enoch, is under the immediate care of the agent. There is a 
Presbyterian Mission and boarding school here. There is also a Roman Catholic Mis- 
sion and day school. 

The Indian houses are of a very good class, and ♦many of them have shingled i'ooh. A 
good many new houses and stables have been put up during the year, and most of them 
were newly whitewashed. 

The crop put in on this reserve was one hundred and thirty-one acres, being thirty- 
three and one-half more than in the previous year. The yield was very fair ; root crops 
were particularly good. The grain was in stack ready for the thresher. The fields looked 
as if well cared for. 

A number of the old women who usually lived in tepees have now nice little cabins. 
The agent had these built and he also gave each one a garden and prepared it ready 
for a crop. So these old women can now raise a few potatoes and vegetables for them- 
selves, and the cabins will be more comfortable than tepees to live in during the winter. 
Every one has to do something on this agency ; no idlers are assisted in the. way of 
getting rations. 

Two hundred and thirty tons of hay have been stacked on this reserve, which, with 
the straw, will be ample for winter feed. The herd number sixty-four, all in good con- 
dition. The band has also in private stock fifty ponies, three cows and three young 
beasts. It was pleasing to notice in going through the houses that many of the 
women were making moccasins, mending clothes, and washing could be seen at many 
of the homesteads hung on the fences and on clothes lines to dry. This shows a tendency 
88 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



k) cleanliness. The Presbyterian Mission distributes a good deal of clothing to the 
children, which is sent for the purpose by ladies and societies in Ontario. 

Reserve No, 132, Michel, was next visited. This band consists of a few families, 
in all thirty-seven souls. They are well-to-do. They have nice houses and out-buildings, 
and some had good stack yards well filled with grain, ready to be threshed. Some have 
milk-houses, hen-houses and piggeries. The women make butter. 

I met here some boys and girls who had been at the High River Industrial School, 
and it could easily be seen that the training the girls got was put to good use in their 
homes. One boy who had learned carpentry was to follow his trade on the reserve, and 
to enable him to do this the agent supplied him with the necessary tools ; another boy 
was helping his father on the farm. JBoth boys and girls spoke English. 

Altogether, this band is in a most conjfortable position. The crop jDut in was lifty- 
seven acres ; the yield was very fair. The herd numbers thirty-three, and twelve 
pigs. In private property they have sixteen horses, seven cows and fifteen young cattle. 
They make their own hay-racks, bob-sleighs, fork handles and harness. Chief Michel 
has a mower, horse-rake and a reaper. Two hundred tons of hay were stacked for 
winter feed. The houses were all whitewashed. 

The next reserve visited was Alexander's, No. 134. Mr. O. Donnell being farmer in 
charge. 

The farm buildings here are commodious and were tidy and in good order. A new 
implement shed had been put up during the year. They had under crop one hundred 
and ninety-eight acres, fairly good yield. The fields were in good shape and the fences 
were good. The herd numbers forty-seven. Three hundred tons of hay for Indian 
cattle and fifty tons for the farm stock were stacked ready for winter use. Sixty acres 
of new land were broken and seventy-five acres of fall ploughing was done. Four new 
houses and nine stables were built during the year, also five small store houses for hold- 
ing implements and tools. • 

The women were making good progress inknitting and sewing, and some of them make 
butter. Mrs. O'Donnell, wife of the farmer, gives lessons twice a week to the Indian 
women and young girls. Mr. O'Donnell has his reserve and his work in splendid shape. 

The crop put in at Alexis Reserve, (No. 133) was thirty and one-half acres ; 
yield fair. The herd numbers eighteen. The usual audit of the farm and agency books 
was made and inventories taken. The warehouse is kept in good order and the goods 
carefully placed. The flour and bacon were up to the standard. 

Mr. DeCazes has entered on his work with great energy, and has an intelligent 
idea of the work required to be done, namely, to elevate the Indians and bring them a,s 
fast as possible to the point of being self-supporting. He is very kind in his dealings 
with the Indians ; at the same time he is very firm and insists on his orders being strictly 
carried out in every particular. He has already won the confidence and respect of the 
Indians, and they do not hesitate to go to him for advice when they feel they need it. 
I have pleasure in informing you that a great improvement is observable in this agency, 
and that the work is going on systematically and peaceably. 

The births and deaths since last inspection have been : Enochs : births, four ; 
deaths, twelve. Alexander : births, twelve ; deaths, six. Alexis : births, eleven ; 
deaths, nine. Michel : births, 1 ; deaths, naught. Total births, twenty-eight. Total 
deaths, twenty-seven. 

The usual detailed report, with inventories and statements, was forwarded to the 
Indian Commissioner, Regina. 

The next Agency reached was Peace Hills, arriving there on the 8th December. 
S. B. Lucas, agent ; C. W. W. Sanders, clerk ; Donald Whitford, interpreter. 

Since last inspection the horse stable has been roofed and shingled, a new hen- 
house has been but up, .the outbuildings have been whitewashed and the house and 
kitchen painted, the fence around the buildings has been repaired ; the whole place was 
exceedingly tidy and neat. 

[part i] 89 



5) Victoria. j^^essional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



No, 141, Sharphead, population eighty-six. Very little crop was put in by 
this band — seven acres in all. They all have potatoes enough for their own use. 
The herd numbers thirty-one, all in good order. Forty-five tons of hay were stacked. 

No. 140, Louis Bull, population sixty-six, was the next reserve visited, Mr. 
D. L. Clink being the farmer in charge. This band had thirty-two acres under crop. 
The yield was satisfactory. One hundred tons of hay were stacked for winter use. 
Twenty-six acres of new land were broken and most of the fall ploughing had been com- 
pleted. The herd numbers sixty-three, an increase of nineteen since last inspection. 
These Indians are making very good progress ; they are capital workers. 

The next reserve visited was Erminskin's, No. 137, also under the charge of Mr. 
Clink ; population one hundred and twenty-six. ^The, houses are of a good class and 
were tidily kept. Thirty-seven acres of new land were broken during the season. Some 
summer fallowing and most of the fall ploughing had been completed. The crop put in 
was forty-two acres — yield very fair. One hundred and fifty tons of hay were stacked 
for winter use. The stables were in good order. The herd numbers eighty-one as against 
sixty-four last inspection. This reserve is in very good shape. 

The last reserve inspected was "Sampson's," No. 138, population two hundred and 
seventy-four. This reserve is under the immediate care of the agent. 

The crop put in here, is one hundred and and sixty-seven acres — yield fair. 
The temporary stables put up in 1889 have been replaced with very substantial 
buildings. One stable is one hundred feet long, twenty -two feet wide ; it is divided into 
tine compartments, two wings, each fifty by twenty two, and a square in the centre. The 
whole w^ill afford accommodation for two hundred head of cattle. A sufficient quantity 
of hay was stacked near the stables as well as at other points in the reserve. The herd 
numbers one hundred and forty-nine against one hundred and twenty-one at last inspec- 
tion. This band has made good progress during the past year. The warehouse is 
kept in good shape. The bacon was of choice quaMty and the flour was equal to 
sample. The usual audit of the farm and agency books was made. The agency 
books are neatly and correctly kept and reflect credit on the clerk, Mr. Sanders. 
As Mr. Lucas was being transferred to the Sarcee Agency, I handed the agency 
over to Mr. Clink, who accepted the inventories and statements as correct. The births 
since last inspection a year ago were twenty-three, and the deaths during the same 
period nineteen. The total population is five hundred and fifty-two. Total number of 
cattle, three hundred and thirty, being an increase of forty-six in the year. Detailed 
report, with inventories and statements, was sent to the Commissioner, Regina. 

I then drove to Calgary and inspected the Sarcee Agency, arriving there on 26th 
December. Mr, S. Swinford, acting agent ; Mr. A. K. Tynte, agency clerk. 

The agency premises have been improved during the year by being enclosed with a 
wire-fence. The old root-house has been re-roofed. The crop put in was seventy-two 
acres, giving a fair yield. A new schoolhouse has been built at the upper village, 
and logs were on the ground for two new houses. Two new^ houses were built at the 
lower village. The Indians supplied twenty-five tons of hay to the police in Calgary, 
for which they received $10 a ton delivered ; seventy-five tons of hay were stacked for 
winter use. 

Two of the band are employed as scouts under the control of the police. They 
receive $25 a month each, also rations for themselves and oats for their horses. These 
scouts are doing a good work, and there is less heard now of cattle being killed and 
stolen by Indians, when the guilty parties were found in every case to be white people. 

The total population of this band is two hundred and eighty. The births during 
the year have been eleven, and the deaths, eighteen. Dr. Lindsay, of Calgary, visits 
these Indians once a month regularly, and oftener when specially required. The beef 
supplied by the contractors, Messrs. Hull Brothers, was of good quality. 

The total number of animals killed during the year was one hundred and sixty- 
eight ; average weight of the four quarters, after removing the offal, was six hundred 
and twenty-five pounds ; average percentage of offal, 7*41. 
90 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Mr. Tyiite is doing his best to have things in good shape. Mr. Swinford's 
experience at the Blood Agency serves him in his present position as acting agent here. 
He is ah^eady well informed, and is familiar with the working of the agency. 

I now proceeded to Morley to inspect the Stony Reserve, which forms part of 
the Sarcee Agency. 

Mr, William Graham is farmer in charge here. Everything was found in splendid 
shape. Since last inspection the ration-house has been completed, excepting the shingl- 
ing of the roof. A new root house has been put up affording a safe place to store the 
seed potatoes. The walls of a new house for the former were put up. Twenty acres of 
new land have been broken. Ten tons of hay were stacked for the farm houses. The crop 
put in was ninety acres, chiefly oats, potatoes and turnips. The results were fairly 
satisfactory. Seventy-five tons of hay made from oats cut green and seventy-five tons 
of grass hay were stacked for winter use. Twenty new houses have been built during 
the year and some old ones removed and rebuilt. The Indians are spreading over the 
reserve more and more. The Indians get out logs and rails for the Blackfoot Agency. 
They were shipping a lot of dry timber to be sold in Calgary as firewood. There was an 
air of comfort about all the houses which was pleasing. 

The total population is five hundred and seventy. The births for the past year 
were fourteen, and the deaths twenty-seven. The beef supplied by Messrs, Leeson &, 
Scott, contractors, was of good quality and was well butchered. The total number of 
animals killed from 1st January to 31st December, 1890, was one hundred and fifty- 
four ; average weight of the four quarters, six hundred and ninety-three pounds ; aver- 
age percentage of the offal, 7. 43 J. 

I visited the new McDougall Orphanage, They have now thirty-three head of 
cattle, besides four Government work oxen. Seventy loads of oat hay, and thirty-one 
loads of grass hay, were secured for winter feed. _ The crop put in gave a fair yield. The 
new building is a very handsome one. It is well built and well laid out ; the main portion 
is thirty-eight by forty-four, with a wing eighteen by twenty-four. This is divided into 
girls' and boys' dormitories, dining room, school room, sewing room, kitchen, bed rooms for 
employees, bath-room, cellar and recreation room, stone foundation. It is heated with hot 
air ; the furnaces were working very well at the time of my visit, 2nd and 3rd January, 
1891. Good care has been taken in regard to proper ventilation. There is accommoda- 
tion for forty pupils. The old building is now used as a workshop for the boys. 

I audited the farm and agency books, and took inventories of all supplies, which 
forwarded to Regina, along with detailed reports. 

I next drove to the St. Joseph Industrial School, High River, arriving there on 
the 6th Jjinuary, 1891. The Rev. Father Naissens is acting Principal, Rev, Father 
Claude having left for France in November. Mr. Charles Denneky is teachf^r and 
attends to the office work, Andrew Pigeon is carpenter, Edward Pigeon is farmer. Sister 
Superior Cleary is matron, Sister Kelly, teacher for the girls, Sister Sicard is cook, Sister 
Damitilda, assistant cook, Sister St. Mathurian is seamstress. 

The main building has been veneered with brick since last inspection, a neat cot- 
tage has been put up as quarters for the men, a new roof has been put on the root-h,ouse, 
and a windmill has been put up to pump water into the house. The tank in the house con- 
tains one thousand one hundred gallons. Ten acres of new land were broken during the 
year. The; crop was twenty-five acres, giving a fair yield of oats, wheat, barley, pease, 
potatoes, turnips and mangold, besides a plentiful supply of vegetables for the use of 
the house. The herd now' numbers thirty head and thirty-nine sheep. Seventy-five 
tons of hay are stacked on the prairie and wdll be hauled in as required. The coal used 
here is from the Blackfoot mine, and it burns very well. The Indians make some money 
in hauling it. Five of the boys are learning carpentry and are making good progress. 
Three of the boys were sent to work on the McDougall building at Morley, and they 
gave great satisfaction. They were good workers and were well behaved. Six are 
learning harness and shoe-making. The balance, except the very young ones, are learn- 
ing farming. The total number of pupils on 6th of January, 1891, was fifty -four 
— thirty-six boys and eighteen girls. There was no sickness at the time of my visit. 

[part i] 91 



55 Victoria. {Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Most of the worn-out articles of clothing are used in mending and patching others. , 
This is not only economy in behalf of the house, but it is teaching the girls habits of 
thrift in houselceeping which will be useful to them in after life when they have houses 
of their own to look after. An inventory of all supplies on hand wa^ taken, including 
household effects. The books were carefully audited and >vere found well kept 
and very correct. This, with detailed report, was sent to the Commissioner. 
The acting Principal is taking an active interest in the school and it cannot but 
succeed under his able management. Sister Superior Cleary continues to oversee the 
house with her usual ability, and I have great pleasure in stating that the work is going 
on in a most satisfactory manner. 

My next point was the Blackfoot Agency, arriving on the 15th January, 1891. 
Mr. Magnus Begg, Agent ; Mr. W. S. Richardson, Clerk ; Mr. J. L'Heureux, 
Interpreter. 

The agency buildings a,re in the best possible order, everything in and around the 
premises being tidy and arranged with taste.. 

The North Reserve was the first visited, Mr. W. M. Baker being the farmer in 
charge. The buildings here were also in good order, and all the tools, implements and 
machinery were carefully stored away for the winter. 

The crop put in was nine and three-quarter acres, results fair ; fifteen acres ol new 
land were broken and twenty acres were summer-fallowed. A new house was under 
way for chief Old Sun. 

The new building for a boarding-school, under the control of the Reverend Mr. 
Tims, has been completed. It is 20 x 30, but can be enlarged when more room is re- 
quired. A number of new houses have been put up by the Indians on both sides of the 
Bow River. A number of new fields were opened last season. The Indians are spreading 
out over the reserve. One new village, ." Many-shot-at," consists of fifteen houses, a very 
pretty village, and the houses v/ere neat and tidy ; another, " Running Martin," has six 
houses. Piles of wood could be seen at almost every house. A marked improvement 
is their general tidiness as compared with former years. In some can be noticed tables, 
chairs, bedsteads (factory-made), box and cooking stoves, cupboards, dishes, and looking- 
glasses. In some the beds are enclosed in print curtains. Some have almanacs hung 
up, with the days crossed out as they pass, and pictures on the walls. In one house I noticed 
a splendid photograph of Sir John A. Macdonald. Some have clocks. Their cellars .were 
well filled with potatoes, and altogether there was an air of comfort and contentedness 
about the whole of them. Four of the Indians worked mowers for the Canadian Coal, 
Colonization and Agricultural Company, for which they were paid at the rate of $2.50 a 
week each, with partial board. One man saved enough to buy boards and shingles to 
roof his house. The number of ponies and colts belonging to the Indians is six hundred. 
The Indians, men, women and children are warmly and comfortably clad. The women 
were busy making moccasins ; they were exceedingly pleasant and friendly, and they had 
no complaints. The beef supplied by Messrs. MacHugh Bros, was of good quality and 
delivered in good style. The total number of animals killed here from 1st December, 
1889, to 31st December, 1890, was four hundred and twenty-six ; average weight of the 
four quarters^ seven hundred and fourteen pounds ; average percentage of offal, 8.95. 
Mr. Baker is a very careful man and he does his work in a business like way. 

I now went to the South Reserve ; J. H. Wheatly, farmer ; T. B. Lander, issuer. 
The house occupied by Mr. Lander has had a back kitchen added to it. The work was 
done by the boys from High River School, and could not have* been better done by white 
men. All the buildings had been whitewashed and everything was in apple-pie order. 
A new root house had been made and it was well filled with potatoes. The crop put in 
here was one hundred and fifty-four and one-half acres, the results being five hundred and 
twenty -five Vmshels oats, three thousand six hundred and ninety -five bushels potatoes, 
and one hundred and thirty bushels turnips. The fields looked very well, and the 
ploughing was neatly done, fences were good and straight Mr. Wheatly allows nothing 
of a slip-shod style to go on. Mrs. Wheatly is teaching the women and girls to knit 
and sew. 
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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Some new villages have been started up the river, and a number of new houses put 
up. At Running Rabbit village there are seven new houses. Eagle Ribs is a very 
pretty village, on the banks of the Bow River ; eighteen houses are in this village. 
The crops were very •good at this point. The houses are small but comfortable, not a 
particle of dust is allowed to lie around the houses, a practice that might with profit be 
imitated by many white people. 

Three Bulls, who succeeded Crowfoot, lives about live miles south-east of the farm 
buildings. This is where Chief Crowfoot resided ; his house is now occupied by Weasel 
Calf, a very sensible man. He talked very nicely, and said he was doing his best to 
carry out the orders given him by Chief Crowfoot from his dying bed. There are twenty 
houses in this village, and I visited every one of them ; many of them had just been 
scrubbed ; this was not done for effect either, as none of them knew of my visit until I 
went there. They expres^d themselves as pleased so see that the Government took 
such an interest in them as to send one to see them. I told them that my duty was to 
report how they were getting on, and that the Department was always pleased to hear 
of the welfare of the Indians, and that they were carrying out the instructions of the 
agents. Piles of wood could be seen at nearly every house. I saw the late Chief 
Crowfoot's mother, now over ninety-five years of age ; the poor old lady wept like a 
child when speaking of her son. Three Bulls, the present chief and brother of Crow- 
foot, seems a sensible man ; being in mourning for two of his sons, who had lately died, 
he was very quiet. His wife was on top of a hill near the village, crying for the death 
of her two sons — the most sorrowful expression of sorrow one could listen to. In going 
through this village one passes the grave of Chief Crowfoot. It is situated on the top 
of the highest hill in the place. 

Eighty tons of hay have been stacked about eight miles from the farm buildings 
for winter feed. Thirty acres of land were summer fallowed. The beef supplied by 
McHugh Bros, was of good quality and was well butchered. The total number of 
animals killed from 1st December, 1889, to 31st December, 1890, was four hundred and 
eighty-five ; average weight of the four quarters, seven hundred and ninety-six pounds ; 
average percentage of ofial, 8.51. The number of ponies on the reserve is nine hundred 
and thirty. 

The births from October, 1889, to October, 1890, were seventy-three. The deaths 
during the same period were fifty-six. 

The agency and farm-books were carefully audited and inventories taken of all 
supplies, which, with detailed report, were sent to the Commissioner, Regina. 

The x\.gent, Mr. Begg, continues to discharge his duties with care and discretion, 
and deservedly enjoys the confidence and respect of the Indians, as well as the respect 
and good will of the settlers and residents in the vicinity generally. I left my team and 
company outfit here for the winter, and I have to thank Mr. Begg for taking good care 
of my horses. 

I now proceeded to the Blood Agency, going via Dunsmore and Lethbridge, 
arriving at the agency on the 27th January, 1891. 

W. S. Pocklington, agent ; S. Swinford, clerk (at present acting agent at the Sarcee 
Agency) ; F. X, Girard, physician ; Dave Mills, interpreter ; James Wilson, farmer ; F. 
D. Freeman, issuer ; T. B. Watson, cook ; C. H. Clarke, labourer ; M. Hughes, labourer ; 
Charles Delaney, labourer. 

The following improvements have been made since last inspection at the lower 
agency. The flour store has been renewed, the walls straightened and strengthened 
with iron bars, and a new shingled roof put on. The building is now a dry and safe 
place, in which flour or other articles can be- stored. A stable has been built in rear of 
the agent's house. 

The crop put in on the home farm was thirty-six acres, oats, barley and garden 
produce. The Indian crop was two hundred and twenty-two acres, an increase of 
twenty-four acres over 1889. Owing to exceptionally dry weather in this district the 
yield was not so satisfactory as usual. One hundred and twenty-five tons of hay have 
been stacked for winter feed, and forty tons were supplied by the Indians to the Police, 

[part i] 93 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



for which they received $12 a ton delivered. The Indians have also stacked some hay 
for the use of their ponies. Twenty-eight acres of new land have been broken during 
the year, and fifty acres have been fenced. Sixteen new fields were started by new 
beginners during the season. * 

I attended the slaughtering of cattle on several occasions and the work was well 
done. The killing, dressing, cutting up and issuing being performed in a business-like 
manner. The quality of the beef was first class. The total, number of animals killed 
at the lower agency from 1st November, 1889, to 31st January, 1891, was four hundred 
and forty-eight, two hundred and ninety-seven steers and one hundred and fifty-seven 
cows. Average w^eight of the four quarters after being dressed and hung up for thirty 
minutes is eight hundred and twenty-one pounds ; average percentage of offal, 8.90. 
The total number of the upper agency during the same period was six hundred 
and eighty-two ; one hundred and twenty-nine steers and five hundred and fifty-three 
cows ; average weight of the four quarters, six hundred and fifty-six and one-half 
pounds ; average percentage of offal, 10.26. The greatest care is taken in receiving 
and in issuing the beef. 

Twenty-five new houses have been built during the year and some old ones repaired 
and enlarged. Many of the new houses are well furnished with beds, stoves, tables, &c., 
and at nearly every house a good pile of wood could be seen. The surroundings were in 
the best possible order, no dirt being allowed to accumulate. One man. Dead Sarcee, 
who earns fifty cents a day when butchering and who works for Mr. Pace, the trader, 
occasionally, has built himself a very nice house. He has also a nice field neatly fenced. 
He purchased a stove for $1 2, pipes and zinc for $8, and he has also a black walnut bedstead 
and bureau which cost |14. In the house I noticed bracket lamps, looking glasses, 
pictures, tables, quilts for the bed, the floor had been lately scrubbed and everything 
was as tidy as possible. Not having any time to whitewash, he paid $5 for cotton to 
cover the walls. This is but a sample of many more. The Indians are now putting 
their earnings to good use, and few of them spend money now on paint and beads. They 
have good warm blankets, and appear very comfortably situated. 

Chief lied Crow has a good house and it was in perfect order^ a fine iron bed- 
stead with brass mountings, the sheets, pillows-slips, quilts, as white as snow. The Chief 
was very friendly. He said he was sorry to hear that the people in the east were talking 
about them giving trouble. He said many of the Indians on the South Piegans (American 
side) were friends of theirs and they often visited each other, but that they had no reason 
to give trouble, as they were well satisfied with the treatment they were receiving. He 
said in former years they went to war with the Crees, and sometimes fought amongst 
themselves ; but he added " these days are past and we have settled down and wish to do 
as white men do." Bulls Horn and about fifteen other minor chiefs were present. 
Bulls Horn said they paid no attention to any bad news from the other side. They 
expressed themselves well pleased with the quality of the beef and flour. Tea and tobacco 
were also good, only they did not get enough of them. 

A coal mine has been opened on the reserve, it is about twenty miles from the 
agency. One hundred and forty tons were. taken out to supply the agency and the schools. 

Thunder Child called and wished to talk ; he said the flour was not black nor 
was it white. I told him the flour they were getting was much more wholesome for them 
than the very white flour. I asked him what about the beef. He said half of it was good, 
and the other half was not so good. I told him that the beef they were getting was 
better than seven-eighths of the people of the country generally were getting, and that the 
flour was better than many white people used, and that white people had to pay taxes in 
order to furnish funds to pay the rations for the Indians. He shook hands and said he 
was quite satisfied. The number of Indian ponies branded by the agent is one thousand 
five hundred and thirty-seven, and there are still some to be branded. 

The register for births and deaths shows the following : Births from 1st November 
1889 to 31st January 1891, seventy: Deaths during same period one hundred and 
thirteen. The total population, as per last pay-sheets, is one thousand seven hundred 
and three. 
94 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The beef registers were carefully checked and everything was found to be in order. 
The agency and farm books were audited and not an error was detected, reflecting 
credit on the clerk, Mr. Swinford. An inventory was taken of all supplies, copy of 
which, with detailed report, was sent to the Commissioner, at Regina. 

The agency as a whole is in splendid shape. The Indians are peaceable and con- 
tented. The agent, Mr. Pocklington, has the Indians well under control, and he has a 
watchful eye on all that is going on in the agency generally, the result being that no 
omissions or errors could be discovered. 

My next and last agency to inspect was the Piegans, Mr. Pocklington kindly 
driving me to that point. I arrived at the agency on the 5th of February — A. R. 
Springett, agent ; G. F. Maxfield, clerk and issuer ; J. W. Smith, farmer ; E. Larkin, 
cook and assistant issuer. 

The agency buildings have been improved by the addition of a new corral for the 
cattle, with a shed for shelter on one side, also a new hay corral. The whole of the 
buildings are fenced in, so that the cattle cannot roam about. All the buildings were 
tidy and in good order. A new dwelling has been put up for the agent since last 
inspection. It is on the beach, a little north of the farm buildings. It is frame, and 
contains a sitting and a dining room, kitchen and pantries down stairs ; there is also a 
good cellar. There are four bed rooms upstairs. The house is well built and is very 
warm and comfortable, with coal and wood sheds and closets attached. There is a verandah 
on the front, an(i a very good well with plenty of water at the foot of the bank in front 
of the house. One stove heats the whole building, besides the cook stove. The crop 
put in on the Indian fields was one hundred and sixty and one-half acres ; results, owing 
*to dry weather, poor. One hundred and fi.fty tons of hay were cut and stacked by the 
Indians, out of which they fllled some contracts and otherwise sold to parties in Macleod. 
Forty-five tons are stacked for the agency stock. 

The Indian fields looked clean and neat ; fences were good. Some have very good 
corrals and stables. A large number of new houses have been put up during the year. 
These are in connection with the small villages along the banks of the river. The 
Walrond Ranche Company (Dr. McEachren) gives annually $25 for prize money for the 
best houses, and the competition for the prizes has had a good effect. First, second and 
third prizes were given, and this year the competition was so close that the third prize 
was divided among three or four, who were equal. " Crow Eagle," who is Chief, got first 
prize this year; "Commodore's" house got second prize. It is a double house, with a 
covered passage leading from one side to the other. One end was very tidy, it contained 
two bedsteads (factory made), looking glasses, pictures, clock, tables, on which there 
were covers, washstands, chairs, lamps,, sieve for sifting flour, curtains on the 
windows, cupboards with curtains hanging on front. The other end is used as a kitchen, 
in which there is a large double " Three Rivers " stove. He has also a large new stable 
which will accommodate thirty ponies. He had a good crop of potatoes, and was 
selling some at $2 a bag. Piles of wood could be seen at many of the houses. Big 
Swan has a new house, 22 feet x 25, not yet floored, but it was comfortable. Big 
Swan had a small hay contract from the police, which yielded him $40. 

The village of " Takes-the-gun-last" was the last inspected. This man has a fine herd 
of cattle, ninety-five head ; he has two stallions and some horses and ponies, thirteen cows 
give milk regularly, and butter is made and sold in Macleod. He has a very nice milk- 
house. He cut hay and filled a contract in Macleod which yielded him $210. 

The total number of new houses put up during the year is twenty-five, and a num- 
ber of stables. General improvement could be noticed all along the line. 

The crops, of course, were deficient, but through no fault of the agent or the 
Indians. 

The cattle looked well. The herd in March, 1888, numbered eighty-eight ; in 
December, 1890, the total was one hundred and ninety, or an increase of one hundred 
and two in three years. This is a favourable showing, and is a proof that cattle-raising 
is a safe and profitable industry when properly managed, 

[part i] 95 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



During the year thirteen head of cattle were killed for beef, and these Avere replaced 
by younger beasts, generally heifers, and the difference in value given to the Indians, 
with which they purchased for themselves two waggons, one .=:tallion colt, one set new 
harness and a mowing machine, half the cost of the latter to be paid next year. 

The beef supplied by the Walrond Ranche Company is of the best quality, and is 
delivered according to contract. The total number of animals killed from 1st 
December, 1889, to 31st January, 1891, was five hundred and seventy-seven; three 
hundred and forty-three steers, two hundred and thirty-four cows ; average weight of 
the four-quarters, seven hundred and five pounds ; average percentage of ofFal, 8*65. 

The births during fourteen months ending 31st January, 1891, were twenty-nine, 
and the deaths during same period were thirty-four. The total population is nine 
hundred and fourteen. Dr. Girard is regular in his attendance both here and on the 
Blood Reserve. ' 

A number of the Indians were at the timber limits getting out logs and some whip- 
sawing boards to fix and build houses. An effort was made to burn lime on the reserve 
and will be continued on a larger scale. The Indians here have a very good reputation 
for morality ; when they visit Macleod, they seldom stay over night. They are comfortably 
clad. Their treaty money is spent in purchasing blankets and house utensils such as 
tin w^are, pots, pans, etc. 

The usual audit of the books was made, inventories taken and sent to the Commis- 
sioner. 

I have pleasure in reporting general progress in the whole agency, and Mr. Springett 
is to be commended for the splendid shape in which the agency stands to-day. He is 
untiring in his desire to see the Indians advance in general prosperity. 

This concluded my inspection of Treaties Six and Seven. Mr. Springett drove me 
to Macleod and Mr. Packling drove me to Leithbridge, where I took the train for Regina, 
arriving there on the morning of the 19 th February. 

On the 7th of March I proceeded to Winnipeg to select standard samples for 1891-92. 
After returning to Regina, I audited the warehouse books and took an inventory of the 
contents of the warehouse, balancing all the accounts, etc. 

On the 1 2th of May I left for Calgary to attend to some special matters at Red Deer 
in connection with the new industrial school about to be built there. I also visited 
Morley Reserve, Sarcee Agency and High River schools and Blackfoot Agency. Special 
reports on all these points being sent to the Commissioner. 

I returned to Regina on the 5th of June, since which time I have been occupied in 
receiving and inspecting supplies, which have been very tardy in coming in this season. 

On the 22nd of August I left Regina for treaty No. 6, having sent on my team 
ahead with camping outfit to meet me at Duck Lake. 

I inspected Moosewoods Reserve, No. 94, White Caps, on my way out. I visited 
the reserve on Monday the twenty-fourth instant. The reserve is a small one, about 
two square miles. The population is about fifty (Sioux). Mr. Tucker is in charge. The 
Indians have twenty-nine acres under crop. Potatoes were very good, turnips very 
irregular, wheat on the high land — about five acres — was very good, it was cut and was 
in stook. The grain was very plump tind of good colour. The wheat on the bottom was 
not so good. 

The herd numbered fifty head and the cattle were in good order. The 
increase in calves is satisfactory, being fifteen calves from sixteen cows. The 
Indians make good use of the milk and some make butter. I saw some very 
good. One woman has three head of private stock. The band has about thirty ponies. 
The men were busy putting up hay. Seventy tons had been stacked, and they were 
going to increase the quantity to one hundred and twenty tons. The houses are very 
fair and seemed to be comfortably furnished. I only noticed one with a wooden floor, 
but nearly all had raised beds, tables, &c. One new house has been built this year. 
The stables were very good and some new ones were being erected. These Indians 
have the reputation of being thrifty and well behaved. The children attend school 
96 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



very regularly. Mrs. Tucker is the teacher. The band has given up the " Pow-wow " 
dances, formerly so frequently held. The reserve on the whole is in a satisfactory shape. 
I now left for Duck Lake, arriving at the agency on the evening of the twenty- 
fifth, but my report on this agency will appear in next annual report. 

My man, Mr. Martin, continues to give me good satisfaction. He is of the greatest 
use in taking inventories, and copying statements, besides taking care of the horses 
and cooking our meals. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

ALEX. McGIBBON, 

Inspector Indian Agencies. 



\ 



Regina, 21st August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to make my annual report on the inspection of Protestant 
Indian Schools in the North- West Territories, Manitoba and Keewatin, covering the 
period between 12th August, 1890, and the present date. 

During that period four industrial schools, twelve boarding schools and thirty-four 
day schools were inspected ; six weeks were spent in industrial school organiza- 
tion ; progress reports and reports on special subjects were furnished to the Indian 
Commissioner ; and much information was gathered and applied. 

No directions were received to visit the schools in Keewatin or Manitoba, excepting 
seven in the last named province. In this portion of my inspectorate, thirty-one 
schools were not inspected during the year. 

In the North- West Territories, all the schools, numbering forty-five, with exception 
of three not included in the treaties, were inspected. 

In private and spare moments a primer, designed specially for the use of Indian- 
speaking children, was prepared. It is hoped that this will be but one of a series. 

Attached hereto is a statement showing the condition of the schools inspected, 
which, however, does not represent much that is being done in boarding and industrial 
schools, or indicate the treatment or training of pupils in such establishments. The aim 
of institutions of these classes is to remove children from native surroundings and 
influences, and to develop capacity and inclination for the pursuit of such a life as the 
white man leads. 

No very marked line has yet appeared between the boarding and industrial schools. 
The latter have not yet assumed the character that their name suggests. Small children 
of too tender years for industrial training (as such training is coming to be known in 
the world's schools) and children physically unfit for training that requires strength, have 
been taken into these institutions. The consequence is that in m&,ny instances they 
continue to be little more than boarding schools, though supplied with instructors and 
appliances for carrying on industrial work. The Government provides means, directly or 
indirectly, and expects pupils to be trained as artizans or agriculturalists. But the 
Churches control the schools and aim often primarily at the formation of religious 
character, to this end obtaining as pupils children of most tender years. These, fit 
inmates as they are for boarding, are quite unsuitable for industrial schools. The age 
at which the mind is most plastic is not the one best suited for manual training which 
involves physical labour. Observation daily teaches that very young children might be 
boarded at less expensive schools than the industrial, and that these latter to be effective 
should be made more exclusively and distinctively of that type which their appellation 
suggests. 

The treatment of pupils in most of the boarding and industrial schools is, so far as 
their bodily welfare is concerned, good. No instance has been met with in which an 
insufficiency of food was supplied. Good clothing and warm quarters are found to be 

[part i] 97 

14—7 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



the rule. In some instances neglect of hygienic conditions, more or less serious in 
extent, has been noticed and made the subject of reports to the Indian Commissioner, 
who, no doubt, promptly had, or will have, the causes of complaint removed. 

A wider idea of education is commencing to permeate teachers' work, but much 
enlargement of this idea is still needed. Until it is clearly felt that the primary aim is 
to produce a moral, industrious, white character — even unlettered — with a cultivated 
antipathy to that which stands against, and sympathy with that which stands for, 
civilization, rather than a lettered, savage nature with increased capacities for doing, 
but without desire to do and to do well, education of a true sort is not even conceived. 
And until good means are found of achieving this aim the methods of Indian education 
remain imperfect. The teaching that the home and home surroundings give the white 
child must be given in the schools, if our Indian children are to receive it at all. ' 

Generally it may be said that the year has, in some directions, been one of progress ; 
in others of little advancement ; but in none of retrocession. 

An increase of school facilities will be needed before all the children of Indian 
parentage can be brought under training ; and to ensure their education, some measure 
of compulsion will probably be found necessary. 

It is my opinion that some better means of determining the qualifications of 
teachers than those now in use should be adopted. 

Religious controversies have continued to effect educational work in greater or less 
measure, and sectarian control of the schools has become a marked feature of it, making 
the grants more of the nature of subventions to the religious bodies than they formerly 
were. 

The new buildings that have been erected in the course of the year show a great 
improvement on those of former times, and mark a change which puts many facilities at 
the command of teachers that were not before enjoyed. 

Altogether as a result of my inspections a feeling of satisfaction exists, and assur- 
ance is felt that the wise and liberal policy of the Government will ultimately 
attain a very marked success. 

The action of the Indian Comissioner in bringing, in some districts, unwritten laws 
of compulsion to bear upon those parents who do not avail themselves of school privileges, 
shows good results, and has acted without exciting such a sentiment against education 
as would probably have sprung from putting statutory enactments into force with any 
strictness. The principle that acts is the same, viz., that the parent shall lose by neglect 
to have the child educated ; but there appears to be less objection to inflicting this loss 
upon him by witholding gratuities than by fine or imprisonment. 

A gradual diminution of the once general sentiment against the education of their 
chidren is observable in most of the tribes. 

Respectfully submitting this report, and attached statement, 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. ANSDELL MACRAE, 

Inspector of Protestant Indian Schools in Manitoba, 
Keewatin and the North- West Territories. 



98 • [part i] 



55 Victoria. 



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101 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Winnipeg, Man., 17th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Aifairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following, my general report of inspection 
for the fiscal year ending 30th June, 1891. 

Manitowapow Agency. 

I left Winnipeg in the beginning of July in company with Mr. Martineau, Indian 
Agent for the above agency, to visit the Roman Catholic schools therein situated, whilst 
he was making the annual treaty payments. 

Dog Creek Day School, 

This school I inspected on the seventh of July and found eleven pupils present, 
about two-thirds of the possible attendance. Most of the children were Roman Catho- 
lics The average attendance I found rather small on the register, which appeared to be 
well kept. Some complaint about the situation of the school interferred with the 
attendance. The curriculum was followed closely enough, and the examination of 
the pupils resulted in their gaining about sixty per cent, of the possible number of 
marks. The stationery supply was about sufficient. Slight defects in the furniture 
were noticed. The school teacher was found well qualified enough for the position. The 
building used was found satisfactory. 

Dog Creek Boarding School. 

This is kept in connection with the above day school. The progress of the pupils 
was not found very great, and the accommodation rather defective. It has since been 
closed. 

Water Hen Day School. 

I reached this school on the 27th of July and inspected it. I found twenty-four 
children present, including some not belonging to the Treaty. Attendance had been 
satisfactory for several months and the progress was remarkable. Both the English and 
French languages were taught. The course of studies had been closely followed. The 
teacher was found quite competent. The supply of stationery though large, was found 
somewhat defective. It is difficult to have on hand at all times certain necessary 
materials, the school being quite a distance from Winnipeg. The furniture is not of 
the kind that would be desirable. The building is not at all that w;hich could be 
expected for a school that has existed for some time and been progressing very 
much. 

Water Hen Boarding School. 

As in the case of Dog Creek, there is a boarding school in connection with the day 
school. Five girls have been received as boarders ; they have been very well cared for 
in all respects, and their success both in class-work and household duties has been great. 
Mr. Adam and wife, in charge here are, deserving of praise. 

From Water Hen I proceeded to Pine Creek where I arrived on the 31st of July 
and proceeded to inspect the school on the same date. 

Pine Creek Day School. 

I found thirty-nine children present, being treaty and non-treaty children and also 
some from Water Hen Reserve. The attendance had been averaging eighty-five per 
cent, of the child population for the last few months. Although the progress was not 
as marked as at Water Hen it was still very satisfactory. English had been added 
to the programme of studies, and the children were getting on fairly. A fair attempt 
had been made to follow the Department's programme of studies. Rev. Father Dupont 
102 [part i] 



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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



was doing his utmost in this respect. There is no school building as yet, and school is 
taught in the church ; steps have been taken towards building a school. 

As in the case of Water Hen and Dog Creek, a boarding school is kept in connection 
with the day school. 

Phie Creek Boarding School. 

There were twelve boarders kept, and they were doing well, if not quite as well as 
at Water Hen. The boarders all could speak the French and English languages. The 
accommodation was satisfactory and was to be put even on a better footing with time. 

This last inspection completed my voyage on Lakes Manitoba and Winnipegoosis. 
I failed to find water-closets at any of the schools but these have been placed everywhere 
since. I reached Regina on my return on the 15th of August. I again left towards 
the beginning of October and proceeded to the Duck Lake Agency. 

Duck Lake Agency. 

One Arroto Day School. 

I inspected this school on the 13th of October. There were only three pupils present. 
The number of children on the reserve was nineteen ; only four were enrolled. The 
average attendance had not been over three for several months. Only the Roman 
Catholic children, of whom there are only five, attend. The school had only been recently 
opened. The school house is well situated. School was taught at the time in the farm in- 
structor's residence. On account of the little time since school has been opened, there 
was no noticeable progress. The stationery supply was sufficient. There was no furni- 
ture worth speaking of. Mrs. Lafond, the teacher, appeared competent to fill the 
position. 

Beardy and Okemasis Day School. 

On the 15th October I inspected this school. Seven pupils were present. There 
were only seven Catholic childi^n on the reserve. The approximate number of children 
on the reserve is forty. The average attendance was ten, and the number of children 
enrolled, twelve. Some of the parents were opposed to the school. The progress has 
been very satisfactory. The children were in the three first standards. There was a 
sufficient supply of stationery. I detected slight defects in furniture. The teacher, Mr. 
Ladect, is competent enough and has improved in his way of teaching. The build- 
ing is not very good. There has been some trouble with the Indians on account of the 
fuel supply. 

From here I immediately proceeded to the Carlton Agency. 

Carlton Agency. 

Petequakey Day School. 

This was then the only Roman Catholic day school in this agency. There are 
thirteen children on the reserve, all Roman Catholics. They were all enrolled and 
twelve were present for the examination. The attendance is very good and the progress 
satisfactory. The programme of studies has been followed. The furniture was far from 
being what it could have been. There was a sufficient supply of school material. The 
Rev. Father Paquette was teacher, but expected to get somebody to take his place 
before long. The house used for the school belonged to the Rev. Father, but a new 
building was in course of erection for school purposes. 

Petequakey Boarding School. 

This is kept in connection with the day school, and two boys are kept here. They 
have been progressing very satisfactorily. 

I then proceeded to the Battleford Agency. 

Battleford Agency. 
There were at that time two Roman Catholic day schools in this agency, one on 
Poundmaker's, the other on Sweet Grass's Reserve. 

[part i1 103 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Poundmaker' s Day School. 

I inspected this school on the 28th October. Out of eighteen children on the 
reserve sixteen were present for examination. All the children on the reserve are 
Roman Catholics. The average attendance for three months amounted to ten, and might 
have been better, there being no reason why the children should not attend regularly. 
The examination was very satisfactory, the children obtaining an average of about 
seventy per cent, of the whole number of marks that it was possible to gain. The class 
organization I found very good. The stationery supply was sufficient, and the school 
is provided with proper school furniture. Mr. Dandelin is a very good teacher and 
has several times been awarded bonuses given for the best managed schools. The 
schoolhouse is a good log building. 

Sweet-Grass Day School. 

I inspected this on the 29th of October. Out of the total number of children on 
the reserve, twenty-seven, sixteen were present for the examination. They are all 
Roman Catholics, and are all on the school roll. The average attendance is good, but 
the progress not so good, probably on account of the teacher having frequently been 
changed here. There was a good supply of stationery. The furniture was of the proper 
kind. The stove and pipes were found defective, Mr. Pritchard, the teacher, is not a 
very brilliant one, but might be used in a new school like this. 

I then left for Fort Pitt ; arrived there on the 2nd of November, and on the next 
day inspected the Roman Catholic school of Onion Lake, in the Onion Lake agency. 

Onion Lake Agency. 

Onion Lake School. 

Twenty-one children were presented for examination. There are about sixty-five 
Roman Catholic children of school age on the reserve, of whom thirty-seven were on 
the school roll. The average for the preceding quarter had been twenty-three. The 
children were fairly advanced, and were graded in the first four standards, besides 
eight not graded. The attendance is generally good in winter ; in summer, however, on 
account of the hunting season it is much smaller. The class organization was satis- 
factory. The furniture is good enough, although some few things are still wanted. The 
supply of school material is sufficient. The school teacher, Mr. Dodd, does his best, but 
has not, perhaps, all the energy required for his position. The house is not very good, 
but at the time of my visit there was an intention of getting Sisters to keep this school, 
in which case an altogether new building would have to be erected; on that account it 
was not thought advisable to make any great improvement on the old building. There 
is another school in this agency, situated at Cold Lake ; but the roads were reported so 
bad by the Indan Agent that I could not inspect it. It is situated about one hundred 
miles from the seat of the agency. Passing through the Saddle Lake Agency, I expected 
to find a school opened there, but it was not so on account of various difficulties in the 
way, and I left immediately for the Edmonton Agency. 

Edmonton Agency. 

In company with Mr. Indian Agent deCazes I visited the schools of the district, 
three in number, one on Enoch's Reserve, one on Alexander's Reserve, and the St. 
Albert Orphanage at St. Albert. 

Alexander's Day School. 

This school I visited on the 14th of November. Only three pupils were present, 
out of a possible attendance of twenty-seven children enrolled. There are thirty-nine 
children on the reserve, of whom seventeen are Roman Catholics. The Indians here are 
very often away hunting and fishing, and it interferes greatly with the attendance. 
It was proposed to establish a boarding school here, when, in case of absence of the 
parents, the children could be kept as boarders. The examination of the pupils present 
104 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



was satisfactory. The supply of stationery was sufficient. Better furniture was required. 
The teacher, Mr. Yarin, had been there for a short time, and it was expected to have 
Sisters there before long. The school building is the same as it was at prior visit. 

Enoch Lepotac^s School. 

I inspected this school on the 15th November. Eleven children were present. 
There are thirty-eight Roman Catholic pupils on this reserve, of whom twenty -five are 
enrolled. The average attendance was about thirteen. The Department's programme 
of studies was not followed, and the children were not graded accordingly, although 
the progress was satisfactory enough. The school material was sufficient, and the furni- 
ture about what would be desired, The teacher, Mr. Ridsdale, and Rev. Father 
Tessier, were doing their best to promote the success of the school. The building used 
for school purposes is the Roman Catholic Church. 

St. Albert Industrial School. 

This I inspected on the 17th and 18th of November. The progress of the pupils 
w^as very remarkable. Both the French and English languages are taught, and amongst 
various subjects taught I may mention reading in the fifth reader, and all the elements 
of grammar in both languages, free translation at sight from English into French and 
French into English, History of Canada in French and History of England in English, 
geography, arithmetic, composition, correspondence, elements of physiology, &c. The 
pupils are graded as follows : seven in first standard, fifteen in second standard, six in 
third standard, twelve in fourth standard, seven in fifth standard. 

The progress of the pupils in hand-labour has also been very satisfactory. The 
whole of the clothing required at the institution is made there. The absence of 
necessary sewing machines obliges them to do a good deal by hand, when it could be 
done at great economy of time by machinery. The girls are kept busy with household 
work, cleaning, washing, sewing, making butter, etc., whilst the boys are kept on the 
farm or about the buildings doing chores. 

Of the whole number of pupils thirty-four are engaged in class work only, three 
farming, four sewing, t]vvo cooking, one spinning, three spinning, weaving and carding. 
Two of the pupils were sick. 

There are sixty pupils in all at the institution, but only fifty are paid for by the 
Department. The others are old pupils of the Institution who have not been disposed 
of yet, and in the meantime help the reverend Sisters a great deal. The boys are not 
kept here after they are twelve years old, but are transferred to the Roman Catholic 
Mission and employed on the farm. 

The clothes used by the pupils are very good, the diet wholesome and sufficient. 

The health was quite satisfactory. At the worst of the influenza epidemic, there 
was only one case of death. 

The various buildings used for this institution are all very good. The various 
rooms allotted to the pupils, such as dormitories, classes, dining room and recreation 
rooms are all roomy enough and ventilated sufficiently. A large play ground has been 
given to the pupils, the same being surrounded by the bakery, icehouse, carpenter's 
shop, stable, sheds, etc. All the buildings are kept very clean. 

This institution, although receiving a smaller appropriation than the larger Indus 
trial schools can compare in results very favourably with them. 

Returning after this inspection to Edmonton, I shortly afterwards left for the 

Peace Hills Agency, 

where there is one Roman Catholic School on Ermine Skin's Reserve. 

Ermine Skints Day School. 

At the time of my visit most of the Indians were away from the Reserve, and the 
achool was accordingly closed. This school has never been at any time very successful 

[part i] 105 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



on account of the apathy of the Indians. It was hoped that after a certain time 
Sisters would be procured to take charge of it, and it would then probably give better 
results. 

From this Reserve I drove to Calgary, and from there proceeded to the St. Joseph's 
Industrial School, which I inspected during the latter part of November. 

St. Josejyh's Industrial School. 

Some improvement had been made on the main building, but it was far from 
answering the wants of the institution as well as at the Battlef ord and Qu'Appelle In- 
dustrial Schools. The furniture in many instances was found defective. Some of the 
rooms were large enough for the requirements, but others were very inadequate in 
some respect or other, such as the dormitories for boys, girls and Sisters, and the girls' 
class-room. The roof of the building was very bad, leaking during rainy weather. 
The ventilation was generally defective, and in certain rooms the light supply was 
altogether insufficient. 

A new building was at that time contemplated, and the necessity for this was shown 
by the crowded rooms of the old one. 

Besides the main building there were several buildings in the vicinity. An in- 
firmary had just been completed, of good size, and properly fitted for that, and a house 
for the tradesmen employed had also been erected, and the men were just then fitting up 
their quarters. The shops for baker and carpenter were in good condition ; the oven in 
the baker's shop a little damaged. There were besides, a general store, a washing and 
drying room, coalsheds, etc., all more or less adequate to the needs, also stables, sheds 
for carriages, etc. Improvements on several of the above were contemplated. The 
fences about the place were not as good as might have been, and several accidents 
happened, such as cattle breaking into gardens. 

Very little land has been broken for the past year. There had been a satisfactory 
yield of oats and wheat and of garden roots. 

The horses were in poor condition, on the contrary cattle, sheep, pigs, etc., are all 
doing well. 

Fire escapes have been built at several places and the fire protection has been very 
much improved. 

The staff, composed of Reverend Father Naessens, W. M. Pidgeon and Denneby, 
Reverend Sisters Cleary, Sicard, and others, has been giving much satisfaction, as a 
rule. There has been a change in the principalship since a prior visit, and it is quite 
probable that the new principal will be successful. 

The health has been very good ; no serious case of illness has happened. Excepting a 
few cases of scrofula, which is a general disease with the Indians, there is nothing in this 
respect to be complained of. 

The examination was very satisfactory. There were separate classes for the boys 
and girls. 

The boys are graded as follows : — Seven in the fifth standard, four in the fourth 
standard, three in the third standard, eight in the second standard, and five in the first 
standard. This grading was strictly according to the Department's programme. 

The following grading of the girls was also according to the Department's stand- 
ards : — Seven in the fifth standard, two in the third standard, six in the second stand- 
ard, three in the first standard. 

Both with the girls and boys the progress was marked, although during the pre- 
ceding season much of the time had to be devoted to outside labour. 

Amongst the boys there are some who have become very good carpenters and 
farmers. The carpenters in the course of the summer were sent to other places, for the 
purpose of building for the agencies, and they got through their work much to their 
credit. The farmers are of course kept at home, there being a great deal to do on the 
school farm, and in the stables and gardens. The boys have also charge of the bakery, 
having to make the greater part of the bread necessary for the institution, the small 
number of the girls allowing them to do just enough for the sake of learning how to 
106 [part i] 



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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



do it. The girls have to do a great deal of sewing, knitting, mending, making clothes, 
besides household work, cooking and cleaning. All water to be carried in and out is 
attended to by the boys ; and it takes a great deal of time on account of the distance 
where the water is got and the defective system of pipes for the evacuation of foul water. 

On the whole the children are doing very well in these various works, but the 
number is small and class work suffers from the excess of outside work. 

The recruiting of pupils up to the time of my visit had not been attended to very 
extensively by the various agents of the district, and it was coming to a point when the 
oldest pupils would leave the school without being replaced by others, which would 
show a small proportion of competent trade-boys after a time. 

Owing to circumstances in general, the school is doing much better than could be 
expected, considering the difficulty of getting pupils, and sometimes the poor class of 
those that were got. 

Being through with the agency I returned to Calgary and from there went to 
Gleichen, where there is a school on the 

Blackfoot Agency. 

Blackfoot Roman Catholic School. 

This I inspected on the 2nd of December. There were ten children present. Ten 
children are claimed to be Roman Catholics. There are ninety children living in 
the vicinity of the school that could attend. But the attendance is very poor, and 
had averaged twelve for the three previous months. On this account the examination 
was not very satisfactory. The furniture is very good and there is a sufficient supply of 
school stationery. Mr. Robbe, the teacher, has been here for some years and is doing- 
very well. A new room had just been added to the Roman Catholic mission house, and 
it was used as a school house. It was an improvement on the room used in previous 
years. From Gleichen I returned to Calgary, and from there I took the stage to 
Fort McLeod to visit the schools of the Peigan and Blood Agencies. 

Blood Agency. 

Blood Roman Catholic School. 

I visited this school on the 7th of December. There were present twenty-seven 
pupils. There are at least one hundred Roman Catholic pupils in the vicinity of the 
school. Only forty are on the roll and the averasje attendance for the proceeding five 
months was sixteen. The attendance is not regular, but were all the children attending 
that could attend the school room would likely be too small. Although the children are 
not very advanced the examination was very satisfactory owing to the great effi^rts made 
to instruct the children according to the line set forth in the Department's programme. 
The furniture is of a good class, although in small quantity. Mr. Jones had been teacher 
there for some time and had given very much satisfaction. The house recently finished 
was very good and had a nice appearance. 

Peigan Agency. 

Peigan Roifnan Catholic School. 

I visited this school on the 9th of December. Sixteen children were presented for 
examination. There are about thirty children of school age, of whom twenty-five can 
attend. Thirty-three children altogether are enrolled, including some living at a great 
distance from the school. The average attendance for a year was only ten. The attend- 
ance was not very regular. The Indian parents do not care to send the children to 
school, and the children do not care to attend. The examination could not be very 
satisfactory ; enough so, however, under the circumstances. The supply of school material 
was small. The furniture is of the proper kind. The teacher, Reverend Father Foisy, 
is quite competent. The house is very good. 

[part i] 107 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



This inspection concluded my western tour. The next day I left Fort Macleod for 
Lethbridge, and from there to Dunmore and Regina, where I arrived on the 11th of 
December. 

In the early part of the spring I came to St. Boniface to inspect the St. Boniface 
Industrial School for girls and the St. Boniface Industrial School for boys. Although 
these institutions rank as a single one, they are wholly separated and situated at some 
distance from each other. Only a few girls are kept at the boys' school for the purpose 
of helping the reverend Sisters in the household duties and attending an evening class 
for school work. 

The first of these institutions existed some time before the boys' school, and was 
kept in connection with the St. Boniface Orphanage, where a separate building, not quite 
detached, was devoted to the Indian girls. This building contained good class rpoms, 
recreation rooms and dormitories for the girls, well ventilated and lighted. This was 
used temporarily as building funds had not been received from the Department, and 
there is the intention of having a good building erected later on. 

The building for the boys school is one far larger than the one above mentioned, 
built in solid brick, containing large rooms, dormitories which have no rivals in any of 
the larger industrial schools under the whole control of the Department, and very good 
class and recreation rooms. The property had not yet been fenced in, but was shortly 
after my visit. 

Owing to the boys school having been opened some time after the other, the boys 
were not quite as advanced as the girls. 

There were twenty-nine girls and forty-one boys at the time of my visiting these 
institutions. 

The Department's programme of studies had been strictly followed in the classes, 
and in less than a year some of the pupils were fairly in the fifth standard, and the 
examination showed perfect equilibrium between the various branches of the programme. 

As to manual labour, the boys school not yet being provided with shops, it consisted 
for them merely in chopping wood, carrying water and few other chores, whilst in the 
girls school the girls were concerned with all the duties the girls had to do in other 
schools. 

The Government grant for furniture had not been very large at that time, and the 
school was scantily furnished, with very good furniture however. 

As far as the reverend Sisters are concerned, and the school work in its various 
branches, nothing could be more satisfactory, and my visit was decidedly pleasant to 
report. 

Having, on my return, received no further orders the rest of the fiscal year passed 
without any other inspections. 

Hoping that this report will be found satisfactory. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. A. BETOURNAY. 
Inspector of Roman Catholic Industrial Sohools. 



Industrial School, 

Qu'Appelle, 28th September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual reports, for the fiscal year ended 30th 
June, 1891. 

The full number of pupils, viz., one hundred and sixty, provided for in the 
estimates, has been attained, which shows that the Indians appreciate the advantages of 
the education that their children receive here. The decrease in the cost per capita has been 
108 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



in proportion to the increase in the number of pupils. In no other similar institution, 
wholly supported by the Government, has the cost per capita been less than here. We^ 
certainly aim at economy consistent with efficiency. 

The sanitary condition of the establishment has been remarkably good, owing 
undoubtedly to the good care taken of the pupils by the reverend Sisters, the medical 
attendance of Doctor Seymour, the suitable site of the school ; and the abundance of 
vegetables given to the pupils is also a factor to the good health. 

The attendance has been more regular than heretofore, and means are now being 
taken with success to prevent children visiting their homes, and more or less losing the 
habits of cleanliness and industry and the knowledge that we are endeavouring to 
inculcate in them. The visits of parents are less frequent, and , consequently, pupils are 
more attentive to their studies and work. 

The number of girls is in excess of the number of boys. Many parents prefer to 
get a little help from their sons rather than send them to school, while they part more 
willingly with their daughters to procure them a moral education under the reverend 
Sisters, and to keep them away from the reserves until they are married. 

The number of boys being too large, a second teacher was provided for last winter. 
Although there is more outdoor exercise in the summer, it is not often that a large 
number can be occupied outside, and they require as much teaching and overseeing as in 
the school room. Eighty boys, of whom sixty are in the school summer and winter, 
are too many for one teacher, but some parents complain that the smaller boys in the 
lower classes are taught by the more advanced pupils. The pupils of the higher class, 
who have consequently received more teaching from Mr. Dennehy, the teacher, have 
made good progress under his efficient teaching, and compare favourably with white 
scholars of the same age. We endeavour to make them all learn and speak English ; a 
few pupils can now write very fair English compositions. During recreation they play 
cricket and seem to enjoy it thoroughly ; it is now their usual game. 

The condition of the small boys could be considerably improved if they were 
separated from the bigger boys and placed under the care of the reverend Sisters. It 
would be an economy to the Department ; and the health, cleanliness and morality of the 
boys would gain by the change. 

The recreation-room has been re-floored with maple, the old pine floor having been 
completely worn out. 

The trade-boys are receiving a thorough training in the shops and on the farm. 
Each instructor has eight apprentices, but the farmer often takes a larger number of boys. 
The carpenter and his apprentices have put up the following buildings during the 
year, grainery, shed, addition to wash-house, milkhouse and shoemaker's shop, besides 
making furniture and repairs. The blacksmith, besides teaching his apprentices, has been 
ironing sleighs, wagon-boxes, making verandah railings, bedsteads, and many other 
articles, as well as doing all repairs for the institution, besides many for the surround- 
ing reserves. A shoemaker's shop has been fitted up above the blacksmith's shop, and a 
shoemaker was hired last July. The repairing of the boots has proved an economy to 
the institution, and a knowledge of the trade will be of great use to the pupils hereafter. 
New boots will also be made here. 

Mr. Miles, the furnaceman, during the summer was kept busy kalsomining, repair- 
ing and painting buildings, and doing all necessary mason work, and saved the Depart- 
ment much more than his salary. 

The farm is kept in good order, under the able management of our farm instructor, 
Mr. Redmond, and the crop of grain and vegetables is a great credit to the institution, 
which is now well known for the good farm training given to the pupils. Last year we 
sold over five hundred bushels of potatoes, and this year we will at least have all the 
grain and vegetables required for the institution ; all the hay required has been put up 
by the farmer and his boys. 

The office work is increasing with the size of the institution, and it takes a skilful 
man to make the returns and to keep the books and stores in order. 

[part i] 109 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



All the employees have faithfully discharged their duties and are an example to 
the pupils ; none are allowed to give less than ten hours' work a day. 

The girls are making good progress in class and in all sorts of housework. More than 
twenty have been hired out during the year. At present fourteen are out at service earn- 
ing from four to ten dollars a month. I have a few more demands for them. If placed in 
a good family and properly overseen, their stay in service is very useful to them, as they 
have every facility for learning English and house work. 

The cooking, washing, knitting, making of the clothes, and mending, have become 
a large undertaking in such an institution, and still it is all done by the girls and 
reverend Sisters. 

We have visitors to the school almost every day ; the public seem interested in this 
institution. The progress of the children and the good order kept in the school and out- 
side seems to satisfy them that the public money is spent to best advantage. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. HUGONNARD. 
Prii 



Industrial School, 

Regina, 16th September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Aifairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to forward my first official report, together with an inven- 
tory of the Government property under my charge. 

On the beginning of April of this year I reached Regina to take charge of the 
school. In the few subsequent months there is no scope for an extended report of work 
accomplished. 

The Staff. 

I was fortunate in securing as Assistant Principal the services of Mr. C. D. McKen- 
zie, a man of experience in Indian work, and I would here bear testimony to his valua- 
ble services in effecting the organization of the school. There seems a likelihood of Miss 
Walker, of the Portage la Prairie Indian School, being appointed matron. In the mean- 
time Mrs. McLeod is efficiently discharging the duties of that office. 

Pupils. 

Our first pupil was registered on the 15th April, and during the remaining days 
of that month seven more pupils were received. In May we had an addition to our 
numbers of twenty-one, and in June an addition of three, making a total of seventeen boys 
and fifteen girls. The largest number (twenty in all) was received from the reserves to 
the north — Piapot's, Muscowpetung's and Pasquah's. Of the others, seven are Assini- 
boines, and came to us from the Indian Head Reserve. 

The School Room. 

No time was lost in organizing the classes and placing the school on a good work- 
ing basis. We arranged that each pupil, as far as strength permits, should spend at 
least three hours in the school room, and three hours in one of the industrial classes. 
In addition to this, an hour in the evening has been set apart as a study hour. The 
afternoon classes are conducted by Mr. McKenzie, and the forenoon by myself. 

Work. 

The boys under the carpenter and the farm instructor have not shown any great 
aptitude or eagerness for hard work, but under patient and competent instructors, such 
as we now have, we expect to see a steady improvement in all our apprentices. 
110 [part i] 



55 Victoria. > Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The material for a laundry has been placed on the ground, and the building is 
partially constructed. 

The boys have shown themselves very useful in the garden, and in cleaning up the 
grounds of the institutions. The girls have done good work in their special departments. 
In the laundry, the kitchen, and, under the matron's direction, they have shown cheer- 
fulness and a willingness to learn. 

General Remarks. 
In spite of all the comforts provided for them, some of the pupils have shown at 
times an inclination to forego the advantages they here enjoy, and return to the uncivil- 
ized life of the tepee. In every case these runaways have been brought back to us. 
We anticipate no serious trouble from this cause when the children have become a little 
better acquainted with us and with each other. 

The moral and religious training of the pupils is not forgotten, but will receive 
greater prominence when English has become the common speech of the school. 
On the whole we consider the outlook for the coming year full of promise. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

A. J. McLEOD, 

Principal. 



St. Joseph's Industrial School, 

DuNBOw, Alberta, 30th September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report on the affairs of the 
above institution for year ended 30th June, 1891, together with inventory of all Gov- 
ernment property in my care. 

The Principal, Father Claude, having resigned, I took charge of the institution 
towards the end of October, 1890, and found the inmates to number sixty-two, ten 
officers and fifty-two pupils. 

During the year we received thirty-three new pupils. Of this number, twenty-four 
were full blooded Indians of the Blackfoot and Blood tribes, seven half-breed Bloods 
and two Crees. 

Twelve children left the school since last report was made. Four of these were 
here only for a few days when they deserted, and as they were somewhat too old to 
make promising recruits, no efforts were made to recover them. Three boys were 
returned to their parents ; one was partly blind, and his father, who had also lost the 
use of his eyes, needed his help. The parents of the other two had left treaty. Two 
of the others discharged are doing remarkably well ; one died shortly after leaving the 
school ; another is in very poor health ; and one has returned to his Indian habits. 

The health of the pupils has been very good. Speaking generally, they have suffered 
from nothing more serious than colds. This happy state of affairs is due, in a great 
measure, to the care taken of them by Dr. Lindsay, and the matron, the Rev. Sister 
Cleary. 

In January the shoemaker's shop, which was closed in July, 1890, was reopened. 
The apprentices in this shop are progressing favourably under the present instructor, 
Mr. Compain. The following articles were manufactured by the shoemaker and appren- 
tices from January to the end of June : Boots, boys, 67 pairs ; boots, girls, 26 pairs ; 
moccasins, 29 pairs ; leather laces, 1 gross ; bridles, 2 ; halter shanks, 3 ; halters, 25 ; 
martingales, 1; pole straps, 6; surcingles, 6; breeching straps, 6; tie straps, 12; 
tugs for ox collars, 32 ; hames straps, 20 ; ox back straps, 5 ; hobbles, 24 ; calf 
muzzles, 3 ; 20 sets of ox cart harness were doubled in thickness, and average of about 
35 pairs of boots were repaired each month. The value of the above work is estimated 
at $360, exclusive of material. 

[part i] 111 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The carpenter instructor employed when I arrived remained here until beginning 
of May, when Mr. Thibault took his place. The boys in this shop have made good pro- 
gress at their trade, especially the older ones. Three of these boys worked at Blackfoot 
Crossing, and at Morley last year. They now have nice tool chests, sets of tools, and an 
account in the Dominion Post Office Savings Bank. The tools were purchased out of 
their own earnings, of which they also spent a share, and the balance was banked for 
them. The following shows the work performed by apprentices and instructor. The 
new building erected for employees was finished and painted, all the doors and window 
sashes being made here. The carpenters then worked with the plumbers, casing up 
pipes, sheathing closets, &c. Two tables, 2 bedsteads, 2 benches, 1 wash stand, 2 large 
cupboards and one small one were made. Fifteen hundred pickets for garden fence 
were sawn out, and a neat fence valued at $200 built. Twelve combination benches and 
desks were made for the MacDougal Orphanage, The roof of the main building was 
stripped off and reshingled, and addition built to girls' apartments and the whole roof 
painted. The work on the addition and reshingling of roof is estimated at $600, exclu- 
sive of material. Besides this, all the necessary repairs were made to tools, furniture 
and buildings. 

Mr. G. Lacombe, farm instructor, resigned and had left the institution before my 
arrival. His place was taken by Mr. E. Pedgeon, who is a good instructor and a very 
handy man around an institution like this, as he has a slight knowledge of blacksmith- 
ing, &c. Five hundred bushels of potatoes, five hundred and eighteen of turnips and 
one thousand four hundred and twenty-eight pounds of vegetables were put by for winter. 

The following quantities of grain and roots were sown this spring : Twenty-six acres, 
of oats, half-an-acre of wheat, six acres of potatoes, five acres of other roots, such as 
turnips, beets, mangolds, carrots, etc., and one acre of garden seeds. There was no 
growth up to July. We had little or no rain, and high winds prevailed most of the 
time, and the outlook for a fair harvest is poor. Only about one-third of the potatoes; 
sown have come up. The seed rotted in the ground. The farmer and boys broke fifteen 
acres of new land, built a quarter of a mile of new fencing and put up one hundred 
tons of hay. The boys did all the mowing. 

The live stock at the institution consists of the following, which are in good condi- 
tion : four horses, one mare and three geldings, one bull, ten cows, two oxen, and nineteen, 
head of young stock ranging from three years old down. The sheep were transferred to< 
Morley, as they could not be raised with advantage here. 

The girls continue to improve and give satisfaction. In the sewing room, with the- 
seamstress, they have made during the year ninety-one pairs of trowsers, eighty-four 
coats, fifty- one aprons, thirty-seven dresses, ninety-six shirts, eleven chemises, sixty night 
dresses, thirty-six pairs mitts, sixty pairs socks, fifty-eight pairs stockings, forty-eight 
towels, twenty-five garters, thirteen mattresses, eleven pillows, sixteen pairs of drawers,, 
fourteen petticoats, two blouses and two cassocks. The making of these articles, and 
the repairing of their own and the boys' clothing, is estimated at $500, exclusive of 
material. They are also employed at, and receive instruction in cooking, baking, dairy 
and laundry work and all other household duties. In the schoolroom they have advanced 
well under the able tuition of the Reverend Sister Kelly. 

The boys have not had as much schooling as heretofore, as more of the assistants' 
time has been occupied with the officework, stores, and overseeing. Four boys do the 
baking for the institution alone, and for boys they do their work creditably. The boys 
not employed in the shops, bakery, or on the farm, work in the fields, weeding and hoeing. 
They also perform all fatigue duties, such as cutting wood, carrying coal, cleaning up 
around the premises, picking stones off fields and watering garden. 

The main building has been veneered since the last annual report, and a system of 
waterworks has been placed therein. The water is pumped by windmill to a large tank 
in top of house. These improvements have added greatly to the comfort and value of 
the building. 

The infirmary has been raised, a stone foundation placed underneath it, and brick 
veneered. It is now a very comfortable building. 
112 [PART i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



In conclusion, allow me to express my thanks to 'the Agents, Missionaries, and 
others, who have helped us to obtain children, and to the Commissioner and Inspectors, 
who take such an interest iii our work and who have helped us by their kind advice. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

ALB. NAESSENS, 

PrincipaL 



Rupert's Land Indian School, 

MiDDLECHURCH, Man., June 30th, 189L 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Aifairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to report as follows on the work of this school for the year 
ended June 30th, 189L 

When I reported last year, we had been at work barely six months, and it was un- 
certain how far the Indians would be ready to avail themselves of the advantages of 
the school. I am glad to be able to report that any misgivings as regards this have 
been proved groundless. There have been many applications for vacancies, and the 
school could have been filled to its utmost capacity, had we been ready to receive all 
who applied. We have been obliged to reject some because of physical unfitness, or as 
being either under or above school age. We have also kept some vacancies for children 
to come in from distant and rather inaccessible points, as it is desired to make the 
school as widely beneficial as possible. 

At the present date we have 28 boys and 32 girls, ranging between the ages of 9 
and 17 years. In class work and industrial employment they are arranged as shown in 
the accompanying schedule. 

The school was inspected, as to class work especially, by Mr. Ansdell Macrae on 
August 29th and 30th, and his report is no doubt in your hands. At that time we had 
just promoted the pupils to new work as a result of our examination in June. Since 
then the work has gone on in a fairly satisfactory way, and the results of our June 
examination just ended are on the whole encouraging. The study of English has re- 
ceived special attention, but I have felt, with, I have no doubt, all others engaged in 
such work, the need of readers specially adapted to the use of these children. There is 
much in those now in use, to discourage the pupils in their efforts to overcome the 
difiiculties of the English tongue. Many of the subjects treated of in these books cannot 
be understood without a wider knowledge of the world than Indians of any age are 
likely to have. 

The industrial side of the work has been much extended since last June. All the 
boys strong enough for such work have taken turns on the farm. Last year we had 28 
acres of crop, yielding 450 bushels of oats and barley, 700 bushels of potatoes and 416 
bushels of other vegetables. The meadow yielded 50 tons of hay. The dairy supplied 
almost all milk required and 150 lbs. of butter. This season we have 55 acres under 
crop and are breaking up new land. Owing to the ravages of local grasshoppers the 
yield is likely to be very light. 

Considerable labour has been spent in making the grounds attractive, and we have 
again to thank the Director of the Central Experimental Farm for parcels of trees, 
plants and tree seeds. 

The carpenters have been under a skilled instructor since November. They have 
erected the following buildings. A new laundry 18 by 25, an icehouse and refrigerator, 
a fowl house, a set of dry earth closets, a girls' playroom 18 by 20, a barn and implement 
shed, a printing shop with staff rooms combined, and have in addition done a great 
amount of work in finishing and equipping the main building. 

In, addition to the above improvements the Department has by contract erected a 
windmill for pumping and other purposes, and an outside tank for various purposes. 

[part i] 113 

14—8 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



A large tank with hose on each flat has been put in the main building as a safeguard 
against fire, and an artesian well has given an additional supply of water for drinking 
and house use. 

A printing shop was opened in January, which has proved a success in every way. 
A challenge foot press is used and every effort made to send out only first class work. 
We are now printing the Rupert's Land Gleaner, a monthly paper of eight quarto pages, 
and do a considerable amount of job work, comprising letter heads, bill heads, circulars, 
municipal returns, legal forms and pamphlets. Mr. Lawler, the very efficient instructor 
in this branch, reports as follows on the boys' progress in this work : 

" All begin on plain newspaper composition from printed copy, and as soon as pos- 
sible are given manuscript. After this they do composition work on circulars, notices, 
•etc., and next such small job work as their stage of progress warrants. The large boys 
being the only ones physically able to do press work have received some instruction in 
this branch, while the juniors are being taught to wash type, rollers, etc. It is difficult 
to compare the progress of these pupils with those in regular printing offices, owing to 
their imperfect knowledge of English, but there is no doubt that, taking the average 
pupil in both cases, the progress of our pupils is quite as rapid as that of ordinary 
printer-apprentices." 

The blacksmith shop was opened in May, under the efficient management of Wm. 
Ozard. Four boys are engaged in the shop, and have assisted in the construction' of an 
excellent land roller, and many necessary tools, and in the repairing of agricultural 
implements, horse-shoeing and general work. Considerable aptitude is shown for this 
branch of work. 

A small but useful amount of work has been done by the younger boys in the 
repair of shoes. 

The domestic work has afforded ample instruction for the girls, the seniors doing 
the cooking, laundry and heavier house-work, the juniors taking lighter work, and all 
alike receiving instruction in sewing. On the whole the work has been well done, 
though at times those in charge of it are far from satisfied with it. It is not always 
easy to remember that a true estimate of the girls' progress can only be made by 
remembering what they were when they came to us and the character of the surround- 
ings amid which they have been reared. Giving these things due consideration, there is 
much to encourage the Department and ourselves in this important work. 

I have only to add that the health of the children has been exceptionally good. 
Excepting two cases of pneumonia and one of cystites, the few cases of sickness have 
been attributable to hereditary scrofula. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

WM. A. BURMAN, 

Principal. 



Rupert's Land Indian School, 

MiDDLECHURCH, 30th June, 189L 

Standard of Education. 







Class Work. 




Standard 

V. 


Standard 
iv. 


Standard 
iii. 


Standard 
ii. 


Standard 
i. 


Boys 


5 
3 


11 

7 


5 

7 


6 
4 


1 


Girls - 


11 




Total 






8 


18 


12 


10 


12 



114 



"part i] 



65 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Industrial Work of Boys. 

Farm 10 

Printing 5 

Blacksmith 4 

Carpenter 5 

General work 4 

Total 28 



Health Record 1891. 

dumber of cases in year 17 

Scrofula 10 

Pneumonia 2 

Elbow dislocated 1 

Opthahnia .- . .^^^ 4 

Discharged for ill health r7. 2 

Leave of absence on medical certificate 1 

Total 37 



WM. A. BURMAN, 

Principal. 



CowicHAN Agency, Indian Office, 

QuAMiCHAN, B.C., 5th September, 1891. 
To the Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to enclose my annual report, together with tabular state- 
ment, the list of Government property under my charge having been already sent in. 

The death rate has been rather large during the year. Out of a population of 2,047 
Indians the deaths were 78. With the exception of "la grippe" there has been no 
particular epidemic. Several young men have died from the effects of severe colds con- 
tracted by exposure at the Canneries and Hop Fields. Several also have been accident- 
ally drowned, and many children die annually from mesenteric disease. The young men 
between the age of sixteen and thirty seem particularly liable to lung diseases, and from 
the want of proper nursing it often proves fatal with them. 

The census of the agency as a whole shows a decided increase of population, and 
this year the census is a reliable one, having been taken carefully and at once, not 
on occasional visits as formerly. One village shows a decrease of seventy-two, another 
an increase of seventy. But this must not be taken as a proof that deaths exceeded the 
births by seventy-two in the one case, or that births exceeded the deaths by seventy in 
the other. This is not actually the case, but at the time the census was taken the Indians 
were residing at the villages named. Many families own a share in the large ranches in 
different villages, some from the father's side, some from the mother's, and their movable 
■effects not being many, they reside at either place occasionally as the fishing, mill work 
or agricultural pursuits may offer the best inducements, hence the difficulty of classing 
many of the families to a particular band. 

The number of blind people in the agency is large. Medical men account for it by 
the way they have of squatting over pinewood fires, the constant smoke causing ulcer- 
ation of the cornea, ending in total blindness. And in favour of Ithis theory is the fact 
that no new cases occur amongst those who live in houses provided with good chimneys. 

The crops last year were in excess of any previous year. The Cowichan and 
Saanich Bands sold between nine and ten thousand bushels of oats. The former bands 

[part i] 115 

14-81 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



own two threshing machines, and besides threshing their own grain they earn consider- 
able in threshing for neighbouring farmers. Many still, however, lose all their crops 
by being absent at the time the harvesting ought to be done. 

The small Band at Tooke have made quite a start at the improvement of their 
reserve. Two very good frame houses have been erected during the year, and other 
improvements made on the land. When I was there in April I found four of the older 
children attending the provincial public school, and making good progress. 

The Indians at Che-erno are compelled to be fishermen. Their reserve, though large, 
is rocky and only suitable for pasture, hence there is very little attempt at cultivation. 

The Songhees at Victoria and Discovery Island continue to build houses and fence 
in garden patches. Many of the young men find work in the city, and the women com- 
pete with the Chinese in washing and charwork, but forming part of the city it is 
impossible to prevent the introduction of liquor into the village. 

The five Bands on the Saanic Peninsula are as a rule well off, growing a good many 
fruits and grains for sale, and labouring on other farms. Several own spring waggons 
and take their fruit twice a week to Victoria. In May I saw an acre of strawberries 
splendidly cultivated from which the owner expected to realize several hundred dollars. 
There are, of course, many exceptions to the rule, and some young men are idle and 
worthless, while others are destitute through ill-health. 

The different Bands in the Cowichan Valley continue to cultivate a large area, but 
many suffered greatly last winter by the floods, and the running of saw logs down the 
river at that time, by which a large area of beautiful land was carried away, besides barns, 
houses and fencing, for which there appears to be no redress. One man who had 
sown eight hundred pounds of grain lost the result in a few hours by the banks of the 
river and the barn being carried away before the grain was threshed. Many others lost in 
smallerproportion, especially in fences. And I have experienced great difiiculty in persuad- 
ing the Indians not to retaliate by appropriating the stranded saw-logs and converting 
them into fence-rails and firewood. At present there are some fourteen million feet of 
saw-logs awaiting the rise of the river to be sent down ; and, as no attempt has yet been 
made to protect the banks of the river from damage or to prevent large jams forming, it 
is highly probable that very serious loss of property on the reserve will take place. 

Oil the night of the 1 1th of July, during a high wind, a fire broke out in the Lomenos 
village by which all the large ranches were swept away. Very few Indians were at home, 
and the fire was so fierce that, although many white men were soon at the place to give 
assistance, scarcely anything could be saved. Houses, barns, waggons, buggies, tools, 
blankets, rifles, food and cooking utensils were destroyed in an hour, leaving the band, 
which had been possessed of several thousands worth of property, entirely destitute and 
without shelter. The old chief was severely burnt and it is doubtful if he will recover. 
Several little children also were slightly injured but have all recovered. There is little 
doubt that it was the work of an incendiary, and the general belief is that it was started 
by some Chinese living near the reserve who had recently had some trouble with the 
Indians. Several parties have kindly sent in assistance to the sufferers in the form of 
clothing, and one gentleman generously sent $50 towards a fund to assist them in 
rebuilding. 

Owing to the saw-mills at Chemainus being closed for rebuilding these bands have 
found no regular work near home, which has had the effect of making some of them 
think more seriously of cultivating their land. 

In February and March I spent some days in surveying allotments for different, 
families in Oyster Harbour, on some of which considerable cleaning has been done. 

The Kuper Industrial Schools, which were opened last year, have so far been success- 
ful, and under the Rev. Father Douckele's management all seem happy and contented. 
At first there was a tendency to run away on the part of the boys, and to make com- 
plaints on the part of parents, but at present there are more applications for admission 
than we have room for. The girls' branch of the school has just been opened, and as soon 
as the necessary furniture arrives the vacancies will be filled. At my last visit I found 
twenty-four boys and three girls looking healthy and happy, (ages from eight to fourteen 
116 [part 1 1 






55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.J A. 1892 



years). I was surprised at the advancement in reading and arithmetic, while the writing 
on shite and copy-book is remarkably good. 

The Rev. Principal has generously provided fourteen expensive instruments for a 
brass band, and a competent instructor, and their progress has been such that the 
Cowichan Agricultural Society paid all expenses to get them to play at their Horticul- 
tural Exhibition in July, and all conceded that they did great credit to their instructors. 

Their appearance in public as musicians will have a good effect on the other Indians. 
The buildings on the island have been kept clean, and great care is being taken as to the 
health of the pupils. At present no trades are being taught, and the outside w^ork con- 
sists chiefly in garden work and in clearing the land near the buildings. They have 
however regular fire drill with the hose supplied, and there being a plentiful supply of 
water there is little fear of a serious fire. The stock of clothing and provisions is in 
good order and well attended to, a regular account of all receipts and issues being kept. 

The young men of the Penelakut, Lyacksun and Comeakin Bands have raised two 
other brass bands by subscription and pay an instructor ; but some of the old people are 
very much opposed to them, as they think it will interfere with their dances. 

There is very little change in the Nanaimo Indians. Three or four have since my 
last report enlarged and improved their houses and lots. In several houses sewing- 
machines are to be seen ; in one I saw an organ and the girls taking lessons. 

Those who have worked hard on the River Reserve have good crops and will have 
at least fifty tons of hay to dispose of, besides grain, to thresh which they have , just 
purchased a machine. On the 4th August a fire broke out in the Wesleyan Church 
school and dwelling-house (which was unoccupied at the time) ; the buildings were 
entirely destroyed, and but for the assistance of the neighbours the fine house belonging 
to the Chief, Louis Good, would also have been burned. Since then the village has been 
set on fire in three different places, and there can be no doubt that in each case it has 
been the work of an incendiary, but up to the present time the guilty party has not 
been discovered. 

Under the auspices of the English Church, and with assistance from the Govern- 
ment, a school is now nearly completed ; and it remains to be seen if they will have more 
success in securing a regular attendance than their predecessors have. 

The few Indians at the Qualicum River continue to improve their reserve and have 
quite a number of fruit trees looking well. Their stock of cattle also is on the increase, 
but at present their only communication with the outside world is by boat and canoe 
and very often it is impossible for them to go out to the weekly coasting steamer. 

The Como Bands have made no improvements ; they own no cattle, and cultivate 
very little land. Two years ago they seemed to be making a start in improving and 
clearing their allotments, ordering fruit trees, etc., but when there in May last half 
finished fences seemed to be the rule. They live chiefly by hunting and fishing, the 
young men occasionally working on farms and steamboats, but their relationship and 
proximity to the Euclataws (who are the most depraved on the coast) make it very 
difficult for them to improve. 

With the exception of the last named bands the morality of the Indians of this 
agency is good, and were it not for the liquor traffic the name of an Indian would 
scarcely ever appear in the police court records. 

There are some few Indians who have never tasted an intoxicant ; some who never 
take it unless pressed to do so by their friends ; some who will have a bottle in their 
possession for week^ , never taking to excess ; others again who constantly crave after 
it ; but in nine cases out of ten I am inclined to think that this is because " stolen fruit 
is sweet." In the towns, with their cosmopolitan inhabitants, Indians wishing liquor can 
obtain all they can pay for, and the fines daily imposed on them, and on the purveyors 
of the intoxicant form no small item in the Provincial and Municipal revenues. In al- 
most every village on the coast there are some halfbreeds deserted by their fathers, and 
the law allows these to take what liquor they wish. The result is of course that they are 
made a kind of middlemen to procure liquor ; but, though there are occasional cases of 
drunkenness in the village, we never hear now of the drunken orgies which used so often 

[part i] 117 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



to occur. It is a problem often discussed by men who take an interest in Indians, and 
who have been on the Pacific coast, whether it would not be better to place white men 
and Indians on the same footing in respect to liquor, punishing more severely drunken- 
ness. 

At the Fraser Canneries the Indians have not earned as much as usual, and to 
make up for this, large numbers have gone to the hop-fields in Washington, but as many 
of these are proving an entire failure this season, the amount of ready money in the 
hands of the Indians will this year be very small. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

W. H. LOMAS, 

Indian Agent. 



West Coast Agency, Victoria, B.C., 11th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to forward ray annual report and tabular statement, also 
list of Government property in my possession on the 30th of June. 

I am sorry to be obliged to report that these tribes are steadily decreasing in 
numbers, the decrease in the last ten years being more than one-sixth of the whole 
population. The average number of children, in proportion to adults, is also considerably 
less in most tribes than formerly, when the Indians lived more at home ; the Heshquiahts 
are the only exception, they do not travel so much as the other tribes, and have given 
up Indian doctoring and its accompanying superstitions. 

The schooner catch, on the coast, of fur-seals was small this season, but the 
Tseshaht Tribe particularly, and other Indians on Barclay Sound, did well sealing 
from shore, as the seals came close inland. Probably 1,500 skins secured in or near the 
mouth of this sound by Indians were taken to Victoria, and realized $12 apiece. Some 
of the young men bought lumber with the money so earned, and are putting up frame 
buildings on the reserve at Alberni. 

The Rev. Father Verbeke has built a new church, residence, and school-house at the 
summer village of the Oiahts, but, as elsewhere on this coast, it is very up-hillwork 
trying to teach, as what the children learn in the winter months' or when they are at 
home, is forgotten by the time they return from the salmon fisheries and hop fields. 
Three boys from Heshquiaht are at the Industrial School at Kuper Island, and are 
making good progress. 

The Rev. Father Brabant has just completed the erection of a pretty and commo- 
dious church at Heshquiaht. The young men of the tribe have now a row of twelve 
neat frame cottages on the frontage of the mission land. The Rev. Father hopes to 
build a school-house and hall shortly, where the Christian part of the tribe may hold 
meetings and the boys may play in bad weather. He proposes to have evening classes 
for the young people during the coming winter. 

At the Claoquaht, Ahousaht, and Kyukaht Villages, the Indians are improving in 
the style and number of houses they are building. The Claoquaht Village at Opitsat is 
now entirely deserted, owing partly to the death of Chief Shewish, which happened last 
March. The gold medal given to him by the American Government some years back for 
saving the crew of a wrecked barque, was buried with him. The late Chief left no son ; 
so his brother takes his place, and as he is a Christian it may be hoped that he will help- 
both Church and school in his tribe. A resident priest is again at Kyukaht Mission, and . 
the school will be opened as soon as the tribe returns to the village. 

The death rate has been high for the present year. A severe form of influenza was- 
prevalent in the spring, from which some old people and young children died. A canoe, 
with a family of five, was lost in a gale of wind crossing from the American side last 
spring ; and a man was shot and killed at Port Gamble, W.T., by a white man, because- 
118 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



he refused his wife for purposes of prostitution. A canoe with two men was lost in 
Behring Sea, and one man committed suicide. 

The closing of the Behring Sea to British sealing vessels will be a loss to the Indians 
in my agency. The tribe of Heshquiahts alone made $9,000 by sealing in Behring Sea 
last year, and many of the young men depend on this as a means of support, neglecting 
dogfish oil and canoe making. 

Some liquor is brought from Victoria to this coast by canoes, returning in the fall, 
a few bottles at a time ; and at Pacheena, Port San Juan, where the Nitinats congregate 
at sealing time, a few Indians fetch liquor from Victoria for sale ; but the west coast is 
fortunately free from any white whiskey traders. There was a little trouble at Clao- 
quaht between Indians and whites, the result of liquor having been brought on one of 
the schooners this spring ; but I went there at once and fined a rnan for giving liquor to 
Indians and for assault, and there has been no repetition of the offence. Gambling with 
cards is also an evil indulged in by some of these tribes, owing to a few Indians who 
make a business of it and sometimes gain several hundred dollars in the winter months. 
And I am told that gambling is carried on to a great extent at the Eraser River can- 
neries. It is a difficult thing to stop, as the young men have little to engage their 
attention in the way of amusement, and nearly all seem fond of gambling, and when I 
have tried to stop it by imposing tines, they go away and hide in the bush to carry on 
their favourite game. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

HARRY GUILLOD, 



o^ 



5 

Agent, 



Kwa\y-Kewlth Indian Agency, 

Alert Bay, 27th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report with tabular statement and 
list of property under my charge on 30th June. 

The health of the Indians has been generally good, but the influenza, so prevalent 
last year, still lingers among them, but with few fatal results. 

I am glad to be able to report the good conduct of all the tribes in this agency 
during the last twelve months. There is a better feeling among the Indians and a 
desire for improvement. They still obtain small quantities of liquor, and will do so till 
a more stringent law is in force regarding the sale of intoxicants to Indians ; but no 
disturbance has taken place even where they have managed to obtain it. 

This year has not been a very prosperous one for the Indians, owing chiefly to the 
light catch of salmon at most of the canneries where they go for work. Here, at Alert 
Bay, where a good deal of employment is generally given, the salmon catch was almost 
a total failure. Numbers of them have gone to the hop fields, where they will, no doubt, 
earn large sums of money, of which a great deal is usually spent in liquor and some in 
merchandise, which is very cheap on the American side. The old people fare badly 
during this emigration to the hop fields, as they are left to take care of themselves. 

A school was built last winter by the Rev. A. J. Hall, Church Missionary Society, 
at Gwayas-dumo, the winter village of the Tsa-waw-te-neuh Indians, Mr. A. W. Corker 
being in charge. During the winter I stayed a week with Mr. Corker while visiting the 
village. The attendance at the school was all that could be desired, as many as fifty 
children often attending in the morning, all seeming eager to learn. The discipline was 
very good, considering the short time the school has been in operation. Mr. Corker 
seems to have gained the confidence of the people, who send their children to school and 
come themselves on the Sunday to church. It is unfortunate that this tribe only 
remains about five months at their winter village. In the spring they, with the 

[part i] US' 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Ta-nak-teuk Indians, go in a body to their summer villages at the head of Kingcomb 
and Knight Inlets, respectively, for the oolachan fishing, which is a source of considerable 
revenue to both these tribes — more so now than formerly, as few Indians fish them- 
selves, but buy from these tribes all the oolachan oil they need. Mr. Corker has followed 
the tribe this year to Kingcomb Inlet, but having no school house there, he is labouring 
under great difficulties. The reserve for the industrial school at Alert Bay has been, I 
am glad to say, satisfactorily settled, and the erection of the school is anxiously looked 
forward to. One young man has already built a very good house, and another is clearing 
the ground to build, and I am in hopes more will soon follow their example. It will be 
a great thing if some of the young men will break away from the old j)eople and make 
a start for themselves. 

The mission saw-mill still affords plenty of work for those who want it, but the young 
men do not sufficiently appreciate this endeavour for their welfare; they might earn large 
wages by getting logs, but only a few avail themselves of the opportunity. 

The school at Alert Bay is not as well attended as it ought to be. The Nimkeesh 
Indians, who live here, have been absent at different times for more than five months 
during the past year, but even when at home, few children attend the school. In this 
respect they are behind nearly all the other tribes, who, when they get the opportunity, 
seem desirous that their children should learn. 

Our Visiting Superintendent, Mr. Vowell, paid a visit to this agency during the 
latter part of June, and I accompanied him on his tour through the agency, travelling 
over three hundred miles during the first ten days by canoe. Unfortunately the weather 
was very wet during nearly the whole of our journey. The Indians seemed very pleased 
to see Mr. Yowell, and expressed a hope that it would not be long before he paid them 
another visit. 

The census returns show considerable decrease, almost all, however, being old 
people, who died of influenza during the winter months. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

R. H. PIDCOCK, 

Indian Agent. 



Kamloops and Okanagon Agency, 

Kamloops, B.C., 18th August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — In accordance with the regulations of your Department I have the honour to 
submit, for your information and consideration, the following, my report on the affairs 
of the Indians belonging to this agency. 

Since I sent in my last annual report there has been a slight increase in the usual 
death rate amongst the Indians of this agency, owing mainly to the effects of "la grippe." 
There is a decided improvement in the material condition of these Indians, they having 
enlarged their fields and added to their domestic properties and comforts. 
The following is a detailed statement of their present condition : — 

KAMLOOPS DIVISION. 

Nhlakapmuh Tribe — Spuzzum Group. 

Spuzzum Band. 

These Indians have taken to fruit culture ; and some of their apple trees are beginning 
to bear. Most of their land is too rocky to be ploughed, but by irrigation they can raise 
fruit trees and root crops to great advantage. Those who have not taken regularly to 
gardening find constant employment as section hands on the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
and in cutting firewood for the Canadian Pacific Railway Company. They secure an 
120 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



ample supply of salmon. Their Chief is old, and is in his dotage ; his band is much exer- 
cised at his very eccentric behaviour, as he occasionally exhibits symptoms of insanity. 

Kekalus Band. 

Although these Indians have but a small area of arable land, they maintain them- 
selves in fairly comfortable circumstances. They work for the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
Avay Company and are preparing their land for planting fruit trees. 

Skuhuak Band. 

This small band continues to progress favourably as far as its individual members 
are concerned. Only one family holds the small patch of arable land belonging to the 
reserve. The other members spend most of their time at Spuzzum and work for the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company. 

Chataway Band, 

These people cultivate very little land, only one family residing permanently on the 
reserve. It is, however, during the salmon season, the resort of numbers of families 
from the Cold Water region of the Nicola. 

Boston Bar Group. 

Skuzzy Band. 

The Skuzzy Indians secured an abundant supply of salmon, and provided well for 
themselves during the past year. 

T-kua-yaum Band. 

These Indians have added to the extent of their cultivated lands and are cultivating 
fruit trees successfully. Their live stock is increasing. The band is now divided ; about 
half its members live on the Cold Water River at Kuin Saatin, where they have a grass 
reserve, the other members reside at Boston Bar and at North Bend Station where they 
work for the Canadian Pacific Railway Company. They keep themselves in good 
■circumstances. 

Kapatsitsan Band. 

These Indians are gradually replacing their old log dwellings by comfortable frame 
•cottages. They are improving in cleanliness and personal comforts, and provide them- 
selves abundantly with good food. 

M-jyak-tam Band. 

Only one family belonging to this band now resides permanently on the reserve. 
The others live at Sheyam and work for the Canadian Pacific Railway Company. They 
are well provided for. 

BooTHROYD Group. 



Chomok Band. 

These Indians have some small patches of gold diggings on the foreshore of their 
reserve, which, after the recessions of the annual freshets of the Eraser, appear to yield 
about the same return of gold yearly. They have a very small extent of flat land, but 
make the best of what they have. They were well provided with the means of subsis- 
tence during the past year. 

Speyam Band. 

The Canadian Pacific Railway passes through the Speyam Reserve. There are 
some good hydraulic diggings on the reserve, which, if skilfully worked, could be made 
to yield good returns. The Speyam Indians added to the extent of their gardens during 
the past year, but a very small area of their reserve is fit for cultivation. Two small 
streams flow through the reserve, along the bank of which fruit trees might be grown to 

[part i] 121 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



advantage. These Indians had ample supplies of food and clothing during the past 
year. 

Kamus Band. 

The Kainus Indians are badly provided with cultivable lands. I have arranged 
for some of them to take up plots of land of the Suuk Reserve, where there happens to 
be some land to spare. These Indians are industrious and energetic, and provided well 
for themselves during the past year. 

Suuk Band. 

This small band does not improve much. It is not, however, retrograding, and is 
well provided with the necessaries of life. Some vacant land belonging to this band 
is being occupied by members of the Kamus Band. 

Nkatsam Band. 

These Indians have extended their fields and are steadily improving. Some of their 
fruit trees are bearing, and besides the crops enumerated in the tabular statement they 
last year raised good crops of melons, cucumbers, tomatoes, currants and gooseberries. 
They washed out the usual quantity of gold and are well provided with the necessaries. 
of life. One family will this year have apples for sale. 

Skappa Group. 
Skappa Band. 

These Indians form a thriving little community on the Stickanny Reserve at the 
base of Jack-ass Mountain, where they are providing themselves successfully with the 
necessaries of life. 

The reserve at Skappa proper is being settled by Lytton Indians. 

Hlak-hlak-tan Band. 

These Indians have added to the area of their fields. They are at present some- 
what stinted in their water supply, and they contemplate the construction of a new 
ditch before the opening of next farming season. They took a large quantity of salmon 
last year and are well provided for. 

Siska Band. 

Most of these Indians earn their livelihood as connnon carriers and by Avorking on 
the Canadian Pacific Railroad and on the Provincial Government waggon roads. They 
also wash successfully for gold. They provide well for themselves. 

HalaJia Band. 

The remnant of this band is represented by one family, the patriarch of which is an 
industrious, enterprising Indian, who supports his family, keeping them well provided 
with the necessaries of life. 

Lytton Group. 
Kittsaivat Band. 

This small band has added a little to the area of its cultivated lands, and having 
provided themselves with a large stock of good salmon, these Indians had abundant 
means during the past year. 

N-kij-a Band. 

The N-ky-a Indians are steadily enlarging their fields. They had good crops last 
year, and are very successful in growing beans, for which they find a steady market at 
Lytton. They are well provided for. 

Tl-kam-cheen Band. 

These Indians are highly gratified at the assistance given them by the Department 
in supplying them with lumber for fluming the water of their irrigation ditches, and 
122 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1802 



thus affording them the opportunity of watering their fields at the Tako-zap benches. 
They have not as yet built the flume above mentioned, but will do so as soon as the dry 
season is over. They this year took advantage of the waste water which escapes from 
the Canadian Pacific Railroad Company's water tank at the Lytton station, and by judi- 
ciously leading this water over the reserve at Lytton they have surrounded their dwell- 
ings with neat gardens bearing vegetables of luxuriant growth. There was no falling- 
off in their gold returns during the past year. They cut a large crop of hay at the 
Bitany Reserve. They laid in a large stock of salmon, partly sun-dried and partly 
salted. Of the latter they had thirty-three barrels. A large number of the young men 
found employment on the Canadian Pacific Railroad. 

Spapiam Band. 

These Indians increased the area of their fields to a small extent. They have, how- 
ever, nearly reached the limits of the land they can plough. They had some trouble 
with their Chief, who having absented himself from them for five years, during which 
time he led the life of a vagrant in the Similkameen and Nicola Valleys, returned last 
summer to his band and assumed possession of the best ground which his people had 
cleared and brought under tillage during his absence. I explained to the contending 
parties the sections of the Indian Act which refer to the lawful possession of reserve 
lands by Indians. They had fair crops, made the usual return of gold by mining, and 
secured a good winter's stock of salmon. They make the growing of beans a speciality.. 

N-huakin Band. 

The lands of the N-kuakin Reserve are poor, the cultivable portions being very 
limited in extent. Game is,' however, abundant with them. They collected some gold by 
mining, and had an ample supply of salmon for their winter's consumption. Although by 
no means progressive, these Indians are happy and contented. 

Stryne Band. 

These Indians have brought in a large ditch and have added a little to the size of 
their ploughed land. They had good crops ; fair returns of gold ; a good catch of salmon ; 
and plenty of employment on the Canadian Pacific Railroad. They are steadily improv- 
ing in their circumstances. 

N-kaih and YeM Bands. 

These two small bands have good crops ; they collected some gold ; they secured art 
ample supply of salmon ; their fruit trees yielded a fair crop of good fruit. 

N-kl-pahn Band. 

These Indians have not as yet repaired, in a proper manner, their irrigation ditch 
which broke away two years ago. Their crops suffered from want of water and were very 
deficient, excepting in the item of beans, of which they had fair returns. They caught a 
large number of salmon and were well supplied with food. 

Nesyhep Band. 

This has been somewhat broken up owing to the death of two chiefs in two years. 
Thus being left without leaders, the band scattered for over a year, leaving only about' 
one half of its members on the reserve. They are however again mustering at their old 
home and added a few acres to their cultivated lands. Their fields are productive ; they 
have an ample supply of water ; and they took a full supply of salmon. They take 
annually a large number of trout at the La Fontaine lakes, and keep themselves well 
provided with the means of subsistence. 

NiKAOMiN Group. 

Nikaomin Band. 

The Nikaomin Indians have not materially altered their circumstances since my 
last report. An application was made to me for the right to mine for iron ore on the^ 

[part i] 123. 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Nikaomin Reserve, and I was in hopes that a mine would there be successfully worked 
and would afford constant employment to industrious young Indians at their homes. 
The mine has not proved a success. The young Indians are consequently obliged to 
take service at more distant places. These Indians collected about the usual return of 
gold ; they had good crops of potatoes, and had throughout the year sufficient means for 
their support. 

Sh-ha-ha-nih Band. 

These Indians are industrious and energetic and fast increasing the value of their 
reserve and of their moveable effects. They have extended the acreage of their fields. 
They took a large quantity of salmon and sold their surplus stock to good advantage. 
Their live stock is multiplying. They are in a prosperous condition, 

Spence Bridge Group. 

N-kamcheen Band. 

This band is also doing well. They brought under cultivation a large plot of new 
land this spring, which will be accounted for in next year's report. They got the use of 
an abandoned ditch from Mr. John Murray, a trader residing at Spence Bridge. The 
crops on the new ground took well. They took out the usual quantity of gold from the 
foreshore along the Thompson's River, and largely increased their returns of hay. The 
Chief has a flock of twenty head of sheep, in good condition. 

Piminos and Pakeist Band. 

The lands which these Indians have on the bank of the Thompson's River are 
very difficult to improve ; the Indians are, however, making the best use they can of them. 
A reserve which was lately allotted to them by Mr. Reserve Commissioner O'Reilly at 
Rolintin in Highland valley has proved a great boon to them, as it has given them 
meadow lands, without which they could not winter their live stock. 

Oregon Jack Creek Group. 

Paska Band. 

The want of irrigating water prevents these Indians from extending their farming 
operations ; the supply of water in their neighborhood is very limited. Their livestock 
however thrives well, and they are able to sell of the yearly increase a number of suffi- 
cient value to furnish the means with which to buy all the food and clothing they require. 

Nepa Band. 

The Nepa Indians are still short of water. There has been delay in arranging for 
their water supply, owing to irregularities in the early water records of some of the 
.settlers. These difficulties are likely to be satisfactorily adjusted, before the end of the 
present year. 

Bonaparte Group. 

Stiahl Band. 

These Indians are still restricted in their farming operations by the scarcity of water. 
As, however, the neighboring settlers are inclined to lend their assistance to bringing in a 
large supply of water on a comprehensive system, there appears a fair prospect of their 
being furnished with the water they so much require, at an early period. The Chief of 
this band is old and useless. 

Tluh-taus Band. 

This band is also hampered by the want of water. The same system which will furnish 
the Stiahl Indians, will also increase the present water supply of the Tluh-taus Indians. 
Notwithstanding the water difficulty they have increased their acreage under cultivation 
and maintain themselves by their industry in comparatively comfortable circumstances. 
124 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892' 

Kamloops Group. 
Skichistan Band. 

These Indians did not increase their acreage under cultivation. Their crops were a- 
little under the average owing to drought. They supplied themselves well with provisions 
and clothing, and have had nothing to complain of. 

Kamloojis Band. 

The Kamloops Indians having a good market at their doors for all kinds of farm 
produce are steadily improving their lands and dwellings. Their water supply is deficient ; 
but this may be doubled in volume by storing the water at the sources of supply and at 
convenient places along the water courses. The only Indian school in this agency is 
established on the Kamloops Reserve. The pupils, twenty-four in number, are making good 
progress. The school is a boarding school of the industrial class. Its establishment is a 
convincing proof of the good-will of the white people towards the Indians, and has had 
a good effect on the minds of the Indians of this agency. The Kamloops Indians provide 
well for themselves there being only one case of real destitution on the reserve, that 
of an Okanagon woman who spent the best part of her lifetime under the protection of 
a whiteman, who is now dead. She is blind and cannot do any work. 

There has been a large expenditure for medicines and medical attendance, which I 
have entered under the heading of the Kamloops Band. Much of this expenditure is,, 
however, on account of Indians from various distant bands who come here when ill to be 
attended to, and to be cured of their ailments. 

Chuk-chu-kualk Band. 

This band continues to support its members on the products of the chase ', and until 
the wild animals be destroyed they are not likely to take steadily to farming. They are 
peacable, well provided for, happy and contented. 

Shuswap Group. 
Halaut Band. 
These Indians have nothing of which to complain. They are improving their houses 
and fields. The.y must add to their water supply before they can extend their farming 
operations. They are clearing their lands at the Salmon Arm for the purpose of grow- 
ing more hay. 

Halt-kann Band. 

The Halt-kam Indians have extended their acreage under cultivation and have in- 
creased the number of their livestock. They are clearing their lands at the Salmon Arm 
in order to enlarge their hay grounds. 

Kuaut Band. 
These Indians are not so advanced as their neighbours at Halaut and Halt-kam. They 
are, however, progressing favourably. They cleaned and seeded four acres of ground, 
took a large supply of salmon, and were well provided with food and clothing. 

OKANAGON DIVISION. 

SiMILKAMEEN GrOUP. 

Cliu-chu-way-ha Band. 

These Indians wintered their live stock well. They had fair average crops for that 
locality : most of their land is too sandy to be productive. Game is, however, plentiful. 
They make enough money in the carrying trade, during the summer, to provide them- 
selves with an ample winter's stock of flour and other groceries. 

Kcremeus Band. 
These Indians are well provided with live stock, which wintered well. They do not 
farm much. Their land is highly impregnated with alkaline compounds, which, in dry 

[part i] 125 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



weather, cake on the surface of the ground and check the growth of cultivated plants 
These salts may be eliminated from the soil by systematic rotations of certain root crops ; 
but the Indian will not undertake a new plan on advice only ; he must see the work 
successfully performed before he will believe in its efficiency. 

Shennoskuankin Band. 

These Indians failed to produce sufficient winter forage for their live stock, and 
lost some of their horses in consequence. They do not attend so well to their farms as 
they should. They waste much of their time in visiting their friends of the American 
side and in receiving their visits ; and as is usual with people who over-indulge in hospi- 
tality, the Chief is the poorest man in the community. They have means enough to live 
vi^ithout want. 

Okanagon Group. 

N-kam-i'p Band. 

These Indians continue to decrease in number. They have plenty of means, and 
appear happy and contented. 

N-kam-ajJ-lix Band. 

These Indians had large crops of grain, hay and roots, the surplus of which they 
sold to good advantage. They have as many live stock as their reserve can feed until 
it be fenced in. They are at present too much divided in sentiment on questions of 
precedence, and this division prevents them from uniting and organizing to work out a 
system of fencing and of making other requisite improvements within their reserve. 
They are energetic and industrious, each for himself, and have made striking advances 
.since their reserve was allotted to them. 

Penticton Band. 

The Penticton Indians continue to progress favourably. Their Chief was very ill 
last spring. He was treated by Doctor John Chipp and is recovering his health. Many 
of these Indians' horses have become wild. Their fruit trees are thriving. A steamer 
now plies regularly on Okanagon Lake, giving them cheap means for carrying their 
surplus products to market. 

Spaliamin Band. 

These Indians are enclosing their lands, and have built over six miles of fencing. 
They have comparatively little land adapted for tillage. Their live stock thrives well ; 
and they have a good market for their surplus animals. The young men earn good wages 
as herders. 

Nicola Group. 
Kuinsaatan Band. 

These Indians had good crops, and they are arranging to extend their fields. Their 
live stock passed through the winter without loss. They secured a sufficient stock of 
salmon for their winter provision at Boston Bar, and sold their wheat at good prices. 

Kuiskanahh Band. 

The crops belonging to these Indians were very indifferent, having suffered from want 
of water. When their arrangements for getting water out of the Nicola prove successful, 
they will be in a position for farming on a large scale. They secured their winter's 
provision of salmon at Skappa. 

Naaik Band. 

The Indians of this band had good crops. They wintered their live stock success- 
fully. They had a good carrying trade. Their religious animosities are cooling down, 
and they appear to be in a fair way towards increased prosperity. The Nicola valley 
126 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



€oal measures appear to extend under the ISTaaik Reserve, and two applications have 
been made for licenses to search for coal therein. 

Nziskat Band. 

This band is much reduced in number and is not making much forward progress. 
Vo applications have been made for the right to search for and mine coal on this reserve. 

Zoht Band. 

This band made fair progress. Their crops were good, and the Indians appear to 
be comfortable and contented. 

Sinllatncheen Band. 

These Indians are Sushwaps, the remnants of a band that were driven northward 
from the Mission Yalley by the Okanagon Indians. They continue to extend and 
improve their fields. They had good crops of wheat, oats and roots, the surplus of 
which they sold for good prices. They have increased the number of their agricultural 
implements. They have improved the interiors of their dwellings, and are learning to 
•enjoy privacy and comfort at home. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. W. MACKAY, 

Indian Agent. 



Fort Steele, Kootenay, B.C., 28th July, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Afi'airs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to forward you the tabular statement for the past year, 
showing census and other statistics of the several bands of Indians occupying the 
reserves of the Upper and Lower Kootenay Yalleys. 

The year 1890 was by no means a pleasant one, the uneasiness amongst the 
Indians south of the international boundary communicating itself to the young men 
amongst these Indians. Fortunately the prompt action of the United States civil 
authorities (aided by a force of volunteers and a small body of regular troops) in 
arresting: the American Indian Chief Eneas, and a laro-e number of the Indians south 
of the boundary, and the execution of four of their number, had a very quieting effect 
on both sides of the line. Since that time there has been little to complain of in the 
behaviour of the Indians on either side. 

The construction of the Great Northern Railway, and the influx of a large white 
population south of our border, will stop these almost annual Indian alarms and excite- 
ments at the Flathead, which had such a bad and disquieting efiect upon our own Indians. 

During the winter and spring of the present year much distress occurred amongst 
a large number of the Indians, not only at the mission, but amongst those belonging to 
the Columbia Lakes and at the Tobacco Plains, owing to the prevalence of influenza and 
.a long period of distressing illness. 

I have had the Indian cabins at the Mission whitewashed inside and out and 
disinfected. At this moment the general health of the tribe is good, though still some 
lingering illness remains in a few of the families. 

The crops of the past year were more than usually good at the Columbia Lakes and 
the Tobacco Plains. The St. Mary's Band had but little seed grain, and consequently a 
smaller area under cultivation. The summer frost and the unfavourable weather this 
spring have also much injured the present year's crop. 

In August last Sister Pacifique and three Sisters as assistants arrived to take 
charge of the Indian Industrial School. The school was opened by them in October. 
The Indians are very anxious to have their children taught reading and writing. 
It was necessary for the Missionary, Father Cocola, to refuse many children, as 

[part i] 127 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



under the present arrangement provision has been made for only a Hmited number. 
The school buildings are large enough to accommodate twice the present number of 
children. 

It is impossible to speak too highly of the kindness and care the Sister Superior and 
her assistants take of the Indian children under their charge. The improvement, both 
in the appearance and manners of the children, has been very great. They have already 
made some progress in reading, writing and spelling; fully as much as could be 
expected, considering that they were quite ignorant of the English language at the 
opening of the school. The school did not escape the influenza this spring ; it 
appeared everywhere throughout this section of the country. 

An eftort was made this spring to encourage the Lower Kootenay Indians in 
planting a crop. The swampy nature of their reserve, which, like nearly all the valley 
land in the Lower Kootenay country, is subject to an overflow from the Kootenay River, 
makes it impossible at present to cultivate more than a small acreage. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

MICHAEL PHILLIPPS, 

Indian Agent. 



Williams Lake Agency, B.C., 

Lesser Dog Creek, 31st August, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your information the following report of the 
various bands in this agency, together with tabular statement and list of Government 
property in my charge on the 30th of June, 1891. 

Quesnelle Band 

numbers fifty-six, the births and deaths since last report being equal. These Indians are 
the most worthless in the agency. There is plenty of good land on the reserve ; but, as it 
is situate three miles from the village, they are too indolent to cultivate it. The Town of 
Quesnell is distant three miles from the village, and they seem to make a living by 
wandering about the Chinese quarter and begging for food. This reserve unfortunately 
has four half-breeds belonging to it ; and, as these are allowed by law to purchase 
whiskey, it stands to reason that some is conveyed to the village and given to the rest 
of the band, thereby giving a taste for intoxicants. This reserve was visited by me 
twice since last year. 

Alexandria Band 

numbers fifty-one, being a decrease of four since last report. This band has never adopted 
the village mode of life. Their houses are scattered according to where their patches of 
land are situated, and each family is quite independent of all tribal rules or interference of 
chiefs. The Chief himself is always absent, trapping or hunting, and cares as little for 
his subjects as they do for him. They are all industrious, and are always working, either 
as farm hands for the whites or at trapping and hunting. They also cultivated fifty-five 
acres of grain and roots. Unfortunately they have all a liking for intoxicating liquor, 
and, by means of half-breeds living on the reserve, are able to obtain all they want. I 
visited this reserve twice during the year. 

Soda Creek Band 

numbers sixty-six, being the same number as last report. This band continues to pre- 
serve its name for industry and good behaviour. They are much pleased that their reserve 
is to be surveyed this summer. A new church has been built this year, and the scatter- 
ing houses are to be pulled down and rebuilt in one street. I paid two visits to this 
reserve since last report. 
128 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



1 

I 



Williams Lake Band 

nunbers one hundred and thirty-seven, being a decrease of two since last report. An 
Industrial Indian School is to be opened immediately at the Roman Catholic Mission 
three miles from this reserve. This band has a good reserve, both as regards agricultural 
and hay land ; and they are able to maintain themselves well. The young men get plenty 
of work at good wages from the farmers around. I visited this reserve twice during 
the year. 

Alkali Lake Band 



numbers one hundred and fifty-four, a decrease of twelve since last report. These Indians 
are by no means industrious and often refuse to work on the farms when asked. Their 
delight is to ride about on horseback, and they are always ready to work at driving cattle 
or horses when they would refuse other work even at higher wages. 

Dog Creek Band 

numbers ten, no increase or decrease. This small band is amply provided with agri- 
cultural and hay land. 

Canoe Creek Band 

numbers one hundred and thirty-nine, a decrease of five since last year. This band is 
fairly industrious, and they work the most of the small extent of agricultural land which 
belongs to the reserve. The young men obtain employment occasionally as cattle 
herders. They are all good hunters and by that means chiefly make a living. 

High Bar Band 

numbers thirty-nine, a decrease of two since last year. There is very little water for 
irrigation on this reserve, and consequently not much land is cultivated. They have not 
finished their church yet. They are fairly industrious, and it is a pity that the large 
tract of good land which belongs to the reserve has not more water for irrigation. I 
visited this reserve twice since my last report. 

I Clinton Band 

numbers thirty-seven, being the same number as last year. The village and part of this 
reserve adjoins the town of Clinton ; and it is surprising how well these Indians behave 
themselves. It is seldom any of them are seen in the street, and hardly ever any of 
; 



them get drunk. 



Pavilion Band 



numbers fifty-eight, a decrease of two since last report. This reserve has plenty of good 
bgricultural land for the wants of the Indians. They are good workers ; and many of 
them are hired out on the farms of the whites during ploughing and harvest. 



Fountain Band 

numbers two hundred and four, a decrease of seven since last year. At the request of 
the band, the Indian Department furnished the lumber and nails necessary to flume a 
mining ditch which passes through the village, and the leakage from which rendered 

lany of the houses unhealthy from dampness. The lumber used was three thousand 
four hundred feet, and twenty-five pounds of nails. This band is industrious and well- 

)ehaved ; but the scarcity of water for their crops is a drawback to their being well off. 

Lillooet Band 

numbers ninety-three, a decrease of three since last year. The land of this reserve is of 
bhe poorest quality, and the supply of water very small ; but these Indians leave no 
leans untried by which to make a living. The village is close to the town of Lillooet 
and as there are several Half-breeds on the reserve, there is occasionally some drunken- 
ness amongst the Indians. Very few, however, escape being taken and punished, through 
the vigilance of the chief. 

[part i] 129 

14—9 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Bridge Rivei' Band 

numbers eighty-four, a decrease of two since last report. This reserve extends up Bridge 
River for a distance of thirteen miles on both sides. The agricultural land is in patches 
of two or three acres each all along the reserve. The rest of the reserve is all placer 
mining ground, which has been worked only in spots, and which the Indians will some 
day be able to surrender for mining purposes for valuable consideration. These Indians 
do a great deal of mining with pan and rocker, but they seem to have no ambition to 
undertake heavy work where sluicing is necessary. They are blessed with having no 
Half-breeds on their resei've. 

CayoosJi Band • 

numbers thirty-five, a decrease of one since last year. This reserve has a plentiful supply 
of water for the lower part of the land, but little for the rest. Although the soil is 
almost pure sand, yet, with abundance of water, fairly good crops are raised. There are 
no young men in this band, infants and elderly people forming the male population. 
They mine a great deal along the banks of the Eraser, and make about from 25 cents to 
$1 a day. 

Pacelqua Band. 

numbers forty, the same as last report. Having been allowed the use of a small stream 
of water — belonging to a neighbouring farm— this reserve was enabled to raise a fairly 
good crop on its small patch of agricultural land. These Indians maintain themselves 
chiefly by mining along the Fraser River. 

Chuack Band 

numbers nine, the same as last year. They are provided with plenty of good land and 
with sufficient water. 

Mission Barid, 

situate on Seton Lake, numbers sixty, an increase of three since last year. No crop was 
put in at this reserve. These Indians leave their reserve during the summer, and try 
to make a living as best they can. Were it not for the large Mission Church here, this 
reserve would have been abandoned many years ago. This is where the Lillooet Bands 
assemble for religious instruction under the Roman Catholic Missionaries twice a year, 
during a week or ten days each time. I reported last year on the poverty of the land 
of this reserve. 

Mias Band, 

situate four miles from the last reserve, and also on the lake shore, numbers nine, the 
same as last year. Chief Eneas and his family are the only permanent residents of this 
reserve. They have land and water enough to raise vegetables for their support. 

Schloss Band, 

situate at the head of Seton lake, numbers twenty-nine, a decrease of live since last year. 
The land here is good, and there is plenty of water for irrigation. There are many very 
old people on this reserve who are not able to work, and the chief supports them from 
what he raises. 

Necuit Band, 

situate only two miles from the last reserve, numbers forty-five, a decrease of seven since 
last year. The land here is almost worthless and the water supply small. 

The Chief of Schloss, two miles distant, has often proposed that this band should 
join his and form one village, as he says that there is enough land for both of them, if 
some work were done in clearing off bush. But the Indian love of birthplace is too 
strong, and I really believe they would rather* starve than leave the home of their 
ancestors. 
130 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Nequatqua Band 

is situated at the head of Anderson Lake, and numbers sixty, a decrease of two since, 
last year. The land here is good, and potatoes, corn and other vegetables of excellent 
quality are raised in abundance. Some of this band proceed every summer to New 
Westminster to work in the salmon canneries, and earn enough to keep themselves and 
families in comfort during the winter. Mountain goats are plentiful in this neighbour- 
hood, and at certain seasons form the chief food of these Indians. 

Kuniin Lake Band 

numbers forty-five, a decrease of one since last year's report. The Chief of this band 
died during the summer, much to the regret of his tribe. These Indians have an excel- 
lent reserve, both as regards agricultural and hay lands. It is, however, subject to 
summer frosts, and some years their wheat is badly frozen. They are great trappers and 
hunters, and the value of their yearly catch of furs is considerable. The reserve is 
situate fifteen miles from the waggon-road, and consequently whiskey is not introduced 
there, 

Toosey Band^ Cliilcotin, 

numbers fifty-five, a decrease of four during the past year. They own three good wag- 
gons, two mowing machines and two horse rakes, together with good harness ; also a 
threshing machine which cost $600, but which, I am sorry to say, is a disgrace to the 
firm which made it. Each of these articles is the property of one Indian, not of several 
combined. These Chilcotins are quite different from the other bands in the agency in this 
respect, viz., that they invest their money in useful articles, instead of in articles of 
show. This reserve will be surveyed immediately, much to the satisfaction of the band, 
as it is just four years since it was laid out by the Reserve Commissioner. 

Anahem Band — Chilcotin. 

This band is situate fifty miles west from the last, and numbers one hundred 
and eighty-eight — the same as last year. These Indians do not trap as much as formerly. 
They devote most of their time to cultivating and improving their land. There is a 
good flour mill within ten miles of the reserve, which is able to grind during the winter 
a-s well as the summer, a great convenience, as the winter is the season when every one has 
more spare time for hauling his wheat to mill. This band owns five waggons with good 
harness, and will soon purchase mowers and rakes. When it is remembered that ten 
years ago this band was little better than wild, living in the mountains, in detached 
bands, during all the year, it may be said with truth that they are progressing rapidly 
towards civilization. 

Stone Band — Chilcotin, 

is situated ten miles from the last, but on the other side of the Chilcotin river, and 
numbers one hundred, the same as in last year's report. This band has good land on 
their reserve, and their fencing and cultivation are a credit to them. They have a good 
Chief, who by his example induces them to work. This reserve, as well as the last, will 
be surveyed this summer. There being no seed potatoes for this spring's planting, Indian 
Superintendent, Mr. A. W. Vowell, kindly authorised the purchase of two thousand 
pounds, for which the band was most thankful. 

The total decrease by death in all the bands in this agency has been fifty-six, since 
last report. In nearly all cases, except those of old age, of adults, the cause of death 
has been consumption. With Indians this disease carries them off in a few months 
after is has developed. There is no doubt that the Indians were far more healthy when 
they did not live in houses ; and I attribute the cause of pulmonary affections to the 
excessive heat of their houses in winter, and the sudden chill caught when going outside. 
In cases of broken limbs and fractures, an Indian will recover sooner than a white man, 
though often crippled for life by the bad setting of the limb ; but when the former once 
takes to his bed from serious internal illness, the chances are that he will never recover. 

[PART i] 131 



I 



14-91 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (Xo. 14.) A. 1892 



They seem in such cases to wish to die, and their friends never try to encourage them to 
have heart to battle with the disease. 

A great injury has been done to the Indians in some reserves by the large credits 
allowed to them by the store-keepers in the vicinity. I have known Indians to owe 
from one to two hundred dollars each to one store — not for necessaries but for luxuries 
such as many a white settler would think too extravagant to indulge in. As an example : 
I was present in a store when an Indian — already fifty dollars in debt to the same 
store — bought, on credit, the following bill of goods, viz. : Syrup, sugar, tea, coffee, rice, 
peaches (dried), lard and candy. As long as an Indian, and in many cases a white man, 
can get credit, he will not be much inclined to work, and even were he so inclined, how 
could he ever save enough to pay even fifty dollars 1 But a worse feature is that they 
get accustomed to such luxuries and are ever hankering after them. I know twq store- 
keepers who used to have each about $3,000 of Indian debts on their books, and, I have 
no doubt, they have not very much less to-day. Had all the luxuries been required to 
be paid for in cash, the Indian would not have acquired the taste for them as he now 
has. But, although during his life the Indian does not trouble himself about his debts, yet 
when he dies his wife or children immediately find out what amount, and to whom he was 
owing, and they sacrifice even their last horse to pay the debts. It is probable that the 
Missionaries have taught them that the soul must be in a solvent state both temporal as 
well as spiritual, in order to obtain admittance at the gates of St. Peter. 

The salmon run has been fairly good this summer and consequently there will be 
no want during the coming winter. 

There has been no crime of a serious nature in this cgency the past year, and the 
general conduct of the Indians has been good. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

WM. LAING MEASON, Indian Acjent. 



Babine Agency, Hazelton, B.C., 30th June, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report on Indian affairs, too-ether 
with tabular statement and list of Government property in my charge on 30th June 
1891. 

The Kit-khsuns. 
Kit-wau-ragh Band 

numbers one hundred and forty-one. There^are forty-two houses and some under con- 
struction. There is an Anglican church. Missionary Society's church and the building 
of a school under contemplation. The people find employment in, the canneries of the 
coast, do some boating, chopping cord wood and trapping. There are about seventeen 
acres of land under cultivation and about eleven cleared. 

Kit-wau-cool Band 

numbers sixty -five. There are twenty-three houses. This band, with the exception of 
a few of the oldest people, generally abandon the village during the salmon canning 
season to find employment at the different canneries of the coast. During the winter 
they hunt and trap. 

Kitse-gukla Band 
numbers eighty-three. There are twenty-two houses, seven of which belong to New 
Kitse-gukla. This village contains those following the Methodist doctrine. The sur- 
rounding land is especially adapted for cultivation. The people as a whole follow 
various occupations during the summer ; hunt and trap in winter, 
132 [part i] 



I 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 18r2 



Got-au-max Band (Hazel ton) 

numbers two hundred and thirty-seven. This population is swelled by the conflux of 
members of other bands, who, through the inducements of the facilities in finding 
employment, settled. This band proper counts only sixty-three. There are sixty-two 
houses, of which three are frame and were built since last year. Hazelton is the head 
centre of all communication and trade. Indians of the remotest parts of this agency are 
to be met there. The Indians here have twenty-eight acres of land under cultivation 
and about fourteen under clearing. They follow packing into the interior, boating, 
mining, sawing lumber, getting out cord wood, and some are employed in the canneries 
of the coast during the season. 



'O 



Kits-jjioux Band 

numbers two hundred and thirty-five. There are thirty-four houses. This band depends 
mostly on fishing, hunting and trapping. They cultivated nineteen acres of land and 
are breaking up some more. 

Kits-go-gaas Band 

numbers two hundred and ninety-five. There are thirty-eight houses. This band 
depends mostly on fishing, hunting and trapping. They cultivated eleven acres of land 
and are clearing more. 

Gal-Doe Band 

numbers thirty-six. There are seven houses. This band fishes hunts and trajDs. They 
cultivated three acres of land, breaking up some more. The poj^ulation is given upon 
careful count, showing an increase. 

All the bands of Kit-khsuns have improved their condition since last year. They 
are of progressive tendencies and' anxious to learn. For the first time they abstained 
from tearing and eating live clogs during the festivities of last winter. There has been 
an abundance of salmon this year. The potato and wild berry crop gave a plentiful 
yield. The winter was mild. The Indians enjoyed excellent health. Their conduct 
was admirable. 

The Hoquel-gots. 

The habitations and hunting grounds of these Indians range about the lakes 
of the interior. They as a whole belong to the Roman Catholic faith. They entirely 
depend on hunting and trapping and fishing for subsistence. 

The Indians of Fraser's and Stuart's Lakes, Stony Creek and Fort George own 
horses and cattle, but the numbers of these are not easily ascertained. 

The enumeration of the Hoquel-gots of the interior is given according to the best 
information and approximately correct. 

The general health of the Indians was excellent ; their conduct very good. 
I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

R. C. LORING, 

Indian Agent. 



Industrial School, 

Kamloops, B. C, July 27, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report of the Kamloops 
Industrial School, for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1891, with an inventory of Gov- 
ernment property in my care. 

[part i] 133 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The attendance for the year has been twenty-four pupils, eleven girls and thirteen 
boys, with a few omissions from illness or absence at home, caused by deaths in the 
families of pupils. Such occasions of grief are honored, having all children at home. 
The fact that this school is located on Kamloops Reserve and along the highway to 
Shuswap Reserve, with frequent visits to the pupils by relatives, has caused considerable 
uneasiness to the girls and boys and inconvenience to the officers in charge. Experience 
proves that pupils coming from localities away from towns or fronting upon the railway, 
are much easier managed than those who are familiar with scenes in white settlements. 
Hence preference to get pupils from rural districts, not likely to be often heard from ; 
such are more settled in their habits and more apt to profit by instruction. 

The female pupils reported heretofore have continued during the year, except s^iort 
absence, and a week at home by Shuswap girls. Two of the Shuswap boys. Martial and 
Daniel, brothers, ran away and after a time w^ere brought back by parents ; same boys 
left again and no effort was made to have them return. In their places are Allan and 
John McLean, aged 12 and 9 years, Nicola tribe, father Half breed and mother native, 
both dead. June 18, Louis and Francis ran away, having acted as jockies at races they 
became excited as Dominion Day races approached. They are still absent from the 
school. The former is nephew to Chief Louis, who said he would send after the boy. 

The Sisters in charge of females at last report finding that a clergyman could not 
attend as often as the rules of their Order required gave notice of withdrawal. Accord- 
ingly they left the school the last week in February, and Mrs. Mary Ann Richardson, 
of Lytton, was secured (having formerly been an applicant) for the position of matron, 
and her daughter, Nellie Richardson, engaged as cook. The female pupils now attend 
the same classes with the male pupils, under the teacher, Mr. McMillan. The arrange- 
ment is satisfactory, being to" the advantage of both the female and male pupils, and 
necessitating less help than before the change. 

The working hours, half time, of the female pupils are turned to the best account 
in household work, sewing, knitting, etc., and the conscientious discharge of duty by the 
matron is noticeable in the improvement of those under her instructions, and their 
general appearance in dress. 

The outdoor work by the male pupils has been attended to by the Principal, and 
the amount of useful improvements during the year attracts attention. There are in use 
five acres fenced for gardening, twenty-five acres for pasture under fence, and under- 
brush cut away leaving twelve acres ready for meadow, to be fenced as soon as conven- 
ient. Other improvements have also been made during the year, such as a lumber 
fence around girls' building, temporary stable, outbuildings, etc. Considerable garden 
work has been done, but expectations not realized, owing to, perhaps, inferior seed, 
want of irrigation and too much alkali in the ground. However, a quantity of vegetables 
were raised for use of the school, which, with the liberal supply of milk enjoyed, prove 
very acceptable to officers and pupils. This being the first year for gardening, better 
results may be looked for another season. 

The greater part of the wood used for the past year was procured by the Principal 
and boys, cut at the timber limits of the school property, and made ready for stoves 
when draAvn to the buildings. 

During the week of the mission at the Reserve near the school, Bishop Durien 
visited the school twice and expressed his pleasure at what he witnessed. 

Mr. Mackay, Indian Agent, has made frequent visits of inspection since last 
report and rendered important service to the school. Numerous visitors have called 
from time to time and spoken in friendly terms of what came under their notice, not 
unfrequently giving high praise for the liberality of the Government for the good work 
of the Industrial School. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

MICHAEL HAGAN, 

Principal. 

134 [part i] 



55 Victoria. , Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



KuPER Island Industrial School, 

Chemainus, B. C, 21st July, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration my first report on the 
work of this institution, with an inventory of Government property in my charge on 
30th June, 1891. 

On the 11th July, 1890, the day on which Mr. Inspector J. Ansdell Macrae 
installed me as Principal, there were 13 boys at the school. Considerable dissatisfaction 
concerning the school seemed to exist amongst the pupils as well as amongst the Indians 
in general. It is difficult to say whether their uneasiness was grounded on any real 
cause, but due allowance must, of course, be made for the many difficulties incidental to 
the organization of an institution of this kind amongst various tribes of Indians unac- 
customed to school life and discipline. 

In order to overcome some of the difficulties I thought it advisable to combine 
pleasure with duty, and to make the school a happy and j)leasant home for the children. 
For that reason I purchased an organ, procured a tine set of brass instruments and 
organized a band. Gradually the number of complaints diminished, the Indians, seeing 
their children contented, began to gain confidence in the school, and as a natural result 
became anxious to take advantage of the opportunities offered for the education of their 
children. 

In the month of November, as soon as the Indians had returned from the hop 
fields the number of pupils increased, to 25, and had we not been limited to that number 
we might have got many more pupils. 

The health of the children was very good until the beginning of the summer, when 
the epidemic commonly called "la grippe" made its appearance at the school. Thirteen 
children suffered from that disease ; haj)pily all have recovered under the careful treat- 
ment of the matron. Sister Mary Joachim. 

The children have made considerable progress at school and there is already a 
marked improvement in their deportment and general appearance, especially when they 
don their uniform. The I'apid knowledge of vocal and instrumental music which they 
acquired in such a short period has elicited many favourable comments from our white 
neighbors. There are 16 boys in our brass band, and every one displays a deep interest 
in it and seems to have a natural talent for that kind of music. 

Our greatest difficulty at present consists in making the children speak English. 
Although they understand a good deal of it, they are always inclined to sjDeak the 
Indian dialect amongst themselves. 

For want of shops no attempt has yet been made to teach particular trades. The 
outside work was confined to cutting down the bush around the premises, building 
fences, levelling the ground, and making a reservoir for the water supplied to the 
hydraulic ram. Of the 30 acres of land connected with the school, there are now two 
used for a vegetable garden and three for pasture. Besides the work on the land, the 
pupils have also helped the foreman in building a barn, a chicken-home, a pigsty and 
boathouse. 

Several applications for admission have been made by female pupils, but, as we 
were not fully prepared to receive them, their admission had to be postponed for a few 
weeks. 

I have the honour to be, sir 

Your obedient servant, 

G. DONCKELE, 

Fi'incijKiL 



[part i] 135 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Industrial School, Kootenay, 11th July, 1891. 
The Superintendent of Indian Affairs, 
Victoria. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report on the industrial school 
opened here in the beginning of October last, under the charge of four Sisters of Charity. 
It is a matter of gratification to state that the twenty-seven Indian pupils, twelve 
boys and fifteen girls, have given full satisfaction to those in charge of them, as much 
by their good conduct as by their application in learning whatever has been taught 
them. 

The girls have been taught housework, cooking, baking, washing, ironing, sewing, 
mending clothes, dairy work and gardening. Five of the largest girls have become able 
to bake good bread, also to cook ordinary victuals. Their progress in sewing is no less 
worthy of mention. Three of them, apart from the cutting out, can make their clothes 
well, whilst the others are trying to improve in that branch of education. The boys 
have been taught sawing and splitting firewood, clearing land, gardening, and housework 
in their own apartments. Their attempts in gardening give them credit. They have 
been taught neither trade nor farming work, for want of tools and farming imple- 
ments. The latter can be rented here only at a very high price, expense which the in- 
come of the school does not permit us to sustain. 

Their progress in the study of the English language is also very satisfactory. They 
are happy and contented at school ; not one wishes to leave. The parents, who at 
the opening of the school were on the eve of breaking out into war with the whites, 
objected to send their children at first, but seem now highly pleased, and come and offer 
their children, more than we are allowed by the Government at present to take. 

The " grippe " has severely affected several pupils, although the best care has 
been taken by the Sisters to avoid all fatal results ; still one boy became a victim of it. 

The cleanliness of the school would be greatly promoted by having the interior of 
the houses painted and having boardwalks between the different buildings. 

The children should have such games as gymnastics. The laundry lately built is 
suitable, but it has not been furnished, except with a stove and caldron. 

On account of the difficulty of transportation, all goods and jorovisions are valued 
very high when reaching this place, thus the Government allowance for the schools, 
after trial made, is found inadequate to pay the expenses, as the following account of 
three quarters will plainly prove : — 

Food .$1,6.32 80 

Clothing 77.5 00 

House furniture, for which Indian Department could not 

provide at the time 188 3-5 

Foreman's wages 375 00 

Light, school books, &c., Szc 217 50 

Travelling expenses 125 00 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

N. COCCOLA, O. M. L, 

Principal. 



Stobart, Saskatchewan, 11th September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my report for the year ended 30th June last. 
A report has already been submitted to the 4th of November last, covering my last 
season's work. 
136 [part i| 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 18D2 



During November and the early part of December I remained at headquarters 
preparing accounts and report of the summer's work, and at general draughting. 

In December I made a trip to the Prince Albert district with the object of select- 
ing a suitable reserve for the Lac la Ronge band of Indians and also a small reserve for 
the Sioux refugees living about the town of Prince Albert. Certain lands were recom- 
mended as suitable for these bands and a report submitted. 

On my return to Regiria I resumed office work, preparing my returns of plans and 
Held notes for the summer of 1890. 

I left Regina 7th January, 1891, for Morley, where I inspected the industrial school 
there, nearing completion, and after a consultation with the Rev. John McDougall with 
reference to the proposed industrial school at the Red Deer River Crossing, I proceeded 
by stage to that point. On my arrival at the Red Deer Crossing I proceeded to estab- 
lish the boundaries of the land selected for the school, located hay lands, let contract for 
digging the well and inspected the sandstone found on the school site, with a view of 
its being utilized in the building, a report on which was submitted. 

I reached Calgary on my return the 26th January. 

At Calgary I received instructions to proceed to Blackfoot Crossing and investigate 
the alleged trespass on the coal seams of the reserve, a rejDort on which was submitted. 

From Blackfoot Crossing I returned to Calgary with the object of ascertaining the 
cost of quarrying sandstone at Red Deer Crossing, and after interviewing contractors 
returned to Regina on the 1st February. 

From 2nd February to 7th April I was engaged in the preparation of plans and 
field notes of the various surveys made during the summer of 1890, and other general 
draughting as occasions required. 

On the 8th April I accompanied the Commissioner to Calgary and the Peace Hills 
agency, stopping en route to inspect work done in connection with the Red Deer school. 

Remaining at the Peace Hills agency, I was engaged for the remainder of the 
month and the early part of May sub-dividing Sampson's and Ermine Skin's reserves. 

Receiving instructions desiring my return to headquarters, the Department requir- 
ing my plans of surveys made in Treaty No. 3 during the summer of 1890, I made 
arrangements for my assistant to complete some mounding remaining to be done, and 
proceeded at once to Regina. 

I may mention my intention of having sub-divided a much larger area than was 
done, had not circumstances required my recall to Regina, however, more than sufficient 
for present purposes has been completed. 

From 11th May to 12th June I was engaged in the completion of plans and field 
notes of reserves in Treaty No. 3. 

From 12th to 21st June, preparing various accounts, reports and general draught- 
ing occupied my attention. 

Having applied for and obtained leave of absence from the 21st June, nothing- 
further occurred to report on until the fiscal year expired. 

Respectfully submitted. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant,^ 
A. W. PONTON, 



Indian Reserve Surveyor. 



MoosooMiN, N. W. T., 26th September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to present for your information, my thirteenth Annual 
Report of my inspection of the Indian Agencies and Reserves in the North-Western 
Territories of Canada. 

[part i] 137 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Starting from the point at which I left off last year ; I arrived on 17th November 
at the 

Moose Mountain Agency — White Bear Reserve No. 70. / 

These people are of the Salteaux Tribe, and the full strength of the Band is one 
hundred and eighteen souls, of whom about ninety-three are at present on the Reserve, 
the remainder are reported to be in- the vicinity of Turtle Mountain, U.S., and they 
return here from time to time. 

Their total acreage in crop this year was about fifty acres, forty -live being in wheat, 
the remainder in potatoes and turnips. The wheat is not as yet threshed. I examined 
the stacks and found the samples of some of them excellent, while others are damaged 
by rain, the harvest having been very wet. 

The crop is estimated to yield four hundred and fifty bushels ; the yield of potatoes 
and turnips was only moderate ; they have been carefully stored away for the winter. 

On account of the rainy season it was with difficulty that sufficient hay was secured, 
they have about seventy tons, the stacks are fenced and fire guards ploughed around 
them. 

Thirteen Indians — heads of families — farm, one man having nine acres in crop, 
four men have seven acres each, two men five acres each, one man three acres, and four 
men only one acre or less each. 

They have thirteen houses, and eleven stables, the timber in this part of the country 
beings only poplar their buildings are not much to look at from the exterior, although 
they are all neatly whitewashed : upon closer inspection, and going into them, I found 
most of them fairly comfortable. As yet many families are still living in their tents, 
where they dwell during the summer. 

They have thirty-four head of cattle, fourteen oxen and nine cows. The 
cattle are in the hands of eleven of the above Indian farmers ; one having seven head ; 
one six head ; one five head ; two three head each ; and six men have two head each : 
the cattle are all on loan from the Department, 

During the past year there have been six deaths in this band, two children and 
four adults, the latter being the result of la grippe. There were three births recorded, 
two boys and a girl. 

Strijjed Blanket Reserve iVo. 69. 

This is a Band of Assinniboines and have a total strength of ninety-one souls, of 
whom some sixty-seven only live on the Reserve permanently, the others, I am 
informed, visit with their friends south of the line. 

They had one hundred and six acres in crop, seventy-nine acres being wheat, four- 
teen acres oats, six acres rye, two acres potatoes, four acres turnips, and the remainder 
gardens. A hail storm passed over this reserve when the grain had just formed, and 
almost totally destroyed the whole crop, out of the wreck some was saved and is in 
stack. 

I examined the stacks the sample of both the wheat and the oats is good, and when 
threshed there will be, probably, one hundred and fifty bushels of the former, and two 
hundred bushels of the latter grain ; the rye was entirely destroyed. 

The yield of potatoes was something over one hundred bushels they were safely 
stored away. 

The above crops were put in by thirteen Indians, one of them Lone Child — having 
eighteen acres, two sixteen acres each ; one twelve acres ; one ten acres ; one eight acres ; 
two seven acres each ; one six acres , two five acres each ; one three acres and one less 
than an acre. 

They have summer fallowed thirty acres, part having been plowed twice and part 
three times ; this summer fallowing is as creditable work of the kind as can be seen 
in this country. 

The band have eighteen houses, fourteen stables, and three root houses, I visited 
each house and examined the stables, I found them put in thorough order for the winter ; 
the dwellings are much similar in appearance outside to those of the Salteaux, but more 
138 [part I J 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.J A. 1892 



commodious ; inside some taste was shewn in decoration ; their few ornaments, each as 
beaded bags, belts, head dresses, fire bags, bridles, guns, bows and arrows were hung 
artistically upon the walls, and made the most of ; the floors were clean, a few had 
cooking stoves which were freshly black leaded, and white wash had been freely used, 
both outside and in. 

The stables also had been put in complete order, the walls freshly mudded, the 
roofs repaired and doors rehung, stalls cleaned out, the manure hauled away, stack 
yards have been made and a good sized stack is near every stable. 

The band have fifty-two head of cattle, fifteen being oxen and twelve cows, the 
oxen are somewhat thin from their severe summers work, for in addition to the large 
summer fallow, they have done a great deal of freighting in connection with the Agency. 

The cattle are owned by ten men : They received their first cattle under the loan 
system ; having repaid all loaned them, these are now their own property. 

One man owns twelve head, one ten head, one eight head, one seven head, two four 
head each, one three head, two have two head each, and one one head ; they have in 
stack ninety tons of hay. "^ 

The recorded deaths in this band during the past year are eight, four adults and 
four children, the former ail from consumption ; the births were only one boy and two 
girls. 



PHEASANT RUMP RESERVE NO. 68. 

This is also a band of Assinniboines ; their full strength is eighty-nine souls, fifty only 
living on the Reserve, the remainder going south to Turtle Mountain, U.S. 

Fifteen men have farms, four of them having thirteen acres each : oiie eleven acres ; 
three eight acres each ; two seven acres each ; two two acres each ; and three less than 
an acre each. 

Their crops aggregated seventy acres wheat, nineteen acres oats, two acres rye, 
three and a half acres potatoes, five acres turnips and two acres gardens. 

These crops were almost totally destroyed by the same hail storm that destroyed 
Striped Blanket's ; that which was spared has been carefully harvested, the grain stacked 
and the roots stored away. There may be one hundred bushels wheat when threshed, 
and there was about the same quantity of potatoes. 

The band put up one hundred tons of hay, all saved in good shape and w^ell stacked ; 
they summer fallowed in a workmanlike manner twenty-five acres. 

They have twenty-two houses, sixteen stables, and three root-houses. The houses 
are similar in design to Striped Blanket's, and as with that band, lime has been freely 
used outside as well as inside. They are fairly comfortable, the floors clean, stoves 
freshly black leaded and door-yards neatly swept ; the stables also are freshly mudded 
cleaned up, and put in good order for the winter, stack-yards built and filled with hay. 

Live Stock. — This band own two horses and seventy-seven head of cattle, all free of 
Department lien (but under the Agent's control), they are in the hands of twelve In- 
dians, one man owning eleven head ; one, ten head ; two, eight head each ; one, six head ; 
one, five head ; one, four head ; one, three head ; and one, one head. The work-oxen 
here are also rather thin for similar reasons as those of Striped Blanket. 

The animals not at work herd with Striped Blanket's, and I have seldom seen finer 
cattle or cattle in better condition ; they show high breeding. Two year old steers will 
weigh up to fourteen hundred pounds live weight. 

The registered deaths during the past year are two adults, one from consumption 
and one from the result of an accident ; only one birth is recorded — i boy. 

The farm work of this agency is under the immediate supervision of Charles Law- 
ford, and his wife instructs the women in housewifery. As they live on Striped Blanket's 
reserve, which directly adjoins Pheasant Rump, these two bands come in for a greater 
share of their personal attention than the White Bear Band, forty miles away ; for this 
reason primarily these Indians are in better condition than the latter. 

Farmer Lawford has thirty-five tons of hay in stack, and he had fourteen acres of 
oats, five acres of rye, and an acre of flax, but these suffered the same fate as the Indians' 
crops. 

[part i] 139 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



There is a Farmer's dwelling house, storehouse, three stables, and a blacksmith's 
shop. The Farmer was engaged repairing the Indians' waggons. 

The Indian women on these reserves are great knitters, making mitts, socks, stock- 
ings, toques, mufflers and petticoats, they also manufacture a rough willow basket, but 
are not skilful enough to make the finer and more salable qualities. 

This Farmer keeps no separate stores from those of the agency. I went over his list 
ot articles in use ; after examination I condemned and wrote off" the list such as aie of no 
further use. 

These Indians are commencing to reap substantial benefits from their farming 
operations. They sold the Department or killed for their own use (under permit), dur- 
ing the past year, twenty head of cattle, and gristed their own wheat to the extent of 
fifty-five sacks of flour. , 

Agency Buildings. \ 

The headquarters of this agency have recently been removed from Striped Blanket's 
Reserve to White Bear's. Such of the buildings as it was convenient to remove, have 
TDeen brought away, mamely, the office and the storehouse. New houses have been built 
for the Agent, the Clerk and the Interpreter, also a new stable and root-house. The 
buildings are all well built and suitable, particularly the Agents house, which is a very 
commodious, well arrano:ed, self-contained, and well finished building. 



'&• 



Agency Storehouse and Office. 

I took stock of the goods in the store and compared the same with the balances 
shewn in the books, and went over the list of goods in use in the Agency, striking 
off such as are worn out and of no further use in the service. 

I made an audit of the books in the office, and found the same well kept and 
written up to date, and the general work had been performed in a satisfactory manner. 

The agent, Mr. J. J. Campbell, is an undefatigable worker in the interests of his 
Indians, and has their progress at heart, he was being ably assisted by the clerk, Mr. 
Graham, and Farmer Lawford. 

Crooked Lakes Agency. 

I arrived at this Agency on the 4th of December, and immediately commenced 
my ins^Dection. 

O'CJiaji-pa-wace Band, Xo. 71 — E. McNeil Farmer — Farm 3a. 

There were paid on this reserve last annuity payment, one hundred and forty-six 
Indians ; in addition to those then paid it is reported that twenty-three members of 
this band are living south of the line in the vicinity of Turtle Mountain, and thirty- 
two others have opposite their names, " Gone South with Chuckachasse," the Farmer 
returns one hundred and thirty-six as living on the reserve, forty being by him classed 
as working Indians. 

They have twenty-eight houses and fifteen stables, these were all freshly mudded 
and in good order for the winter. 

They had one hundred and twenty-seven acres in crop, and one hundred and nine 
acres being grain, the balance — eighteen and one-half acres — potatoes, turnips, carrots 
and gardens, of the ninety-five acres wheat, about fifteen acres were a total failure, the 
remainder yielded thirteen hundred bushels, they also harvested seven hundred and 
sixty bushels potatoes. 

This farming was performed by twenty-one heads of families, fifteen of whom grow 
both grain and roots, and six of them, roots only ; the most land was sown by Pierre 
Belanger — seventeen acres — but his yield was very light on account of his land being 
very dirty, the best crop was grown by " Little Assinniboina," who from eight acres 
harvested nearly two hundred bushels wheat. The potatoes of the band yielded an 
average of less than one hundred bushels to the acre. 
140 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The Farmer himself had a few acres of oats, and half an acre of potatoes for his 
own use ; the oats yielded sixty bushels only, and the potatoes seventy-five bushels, he 
also put up twelve tons of hay. 

A few improvements have been made since the last inspection, the more noticeable 
are Pierre Belanger's new house and Ochap-pa-wace, Mrs. Loud Yoice and 0-sow- 
wasten each a new stable. Pierre Belanger has been working on the new road 
running through to Whitewood. 

The band sold about seventy loads wood in Broadview, at from one dollar to one 
dollar and fifty cents a load, fifty tons of hay at an average price of six dollars a ton, 
also nine hundred and thirty dollars worth of Seneca root ; they had done very little 
fall ploughing. 

Live Stock. — This band have eighty -four head of cattle under Government control 
and twenty-eight head of private cattle, also twenty-five horses. The cattle under 
Departmental control are in the hands of eighteen Indians, which is a more even 
division than I usually find, the largest number — ten — being held by Kee-hen-amango, 
Mrs. Loudvoice coming next with nine head, the cattle are all in fine order, the band 
have in stock two hundred and sixty tons hay. 

I inspected the farmers books, and examined into the receipts and issues. I found 
the same to be correct and regular. I also examined the goods in use and struck off 
the list all articles worn out and of no further use. 

The records show there were nine births and eleven deaths in the band since 
October, 1889 ; the deaths were, all but five, infants, from consumption. 

Ka-ka-wis-ta-hato Band, Reserve No. 72, — J. Nicol, Farmer— Farm 3h. 

There were paid on this Reserve at the last annuity payments one hundred and 
twenty -four souls. With the exception of those at the Industrial and Boarding Schools, 
these are all living on the Reserve, thirty-four families occupying thirty-one houses. 

Seventeen men farm, and had one hundred and eighteen acres in crop, one hundred 
and five acres being grain ; eighty-seven acres wheat yielding fifteen hundred bushels. 

The crop was more evenly divided among the families than is usual, the largest 
farmer Wah-sa-case having only fourteen and a half acres, the next in size of farms 
came Alexander and Cas-su-was-a-mat with eleven acres each, and from these growing 
gradually smaller until Ka-na-now-oo-way-oo with two acres wheat and half an acre 
potatoes is reached. 

Live Stock. — This Band have one hundred and ten head of cattle under Depart- 
mental control, they have no private cattle, but have twenty-five horses ; the cattle are 
held by twenty-one -difFerents Indians — Wah-sa-pase having fifteen head, Alexander ten 
head, Francis seven head and so on, until the lowest number of one cow is held by 
Te-tic-hay. 

They have nineteen stables, and they put up over two hundred tons of hay — the 
cattle are all in the finest condition. 

Since the last inspection there have been four houses and three stables built, and 
the houses and stables have been freshly mudded and put in order for the winter ; they 
are not a very good description of house on account of there being no good building 
timber on the Reserve. 

They own of private farming implements one waggon, two mowers, two horse 
rakes and one binder, having purchased the waggon, one mower and rake this year. 

They have a few resources for making a living besides farming. During the past 
year they sold forty-tons hay at an average price of three dollars per ton, and forty loads 
of wood averaging one dollar and a quarter a load, also one hundred and twenty-five 
dollars worth of Seneca root. 

Since October, 1889, there have been six births and seventeen deaths on this 
Reserve — cause of death consumption and effect of la-grippe, nine were adults. 

I audited the farm books, and confirmed the balances therein brought down, 
examined the ration sheets, and checked the same, also the receipts. I checked the list 
of goods in use, and have written off articles worn out and useless. 

[part i] 141 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Cow-e-sess Reserve, No. 73, 

J. A. Sutherland, Farmer and blacksmith; Mrs. Sutherland, Instructress — Farm 3a. 

This band has a strength of one hundred and fifty souls on the pay-sheet, while the 
farm roll contains but thirty working heads of families, and one hundred and eight 
souls. 

The absentees are accounted for by a few at Turtle Mountain, U.S,, and a good 
many children away at the Industrial School at Fort Qu'Appelle, and at the Presby- 
terian Boarding School at Round Lake. 

It differs somewhat from other bands from the fact that within it are found the 
opposite sides of life, riches and poverty (both viewed from an Indian standpoint). The 
former state is unique in Indian life now-a-days, while the latter is generally chronic. 
O'Soup, Gaddie, Ne-pa-pa-ness, and Andrew Deiorme represent the former clas^. 
In this generation of Indians few of them will ever be any better off than the above- 
named men now are, but their riches are of a fleeting and casual nature, consisting as 
they do of horses and cattle, agricultural implements and annual crops, for they have no 
improvements on their' land of a very permanent character, the timber on the reserve 
not being very good for building purposes, consequently their buildings are not very 
good, O'Soup's being somewhat better than any of the others. 

The band had two hundred and twenty-two acres in crop, two hundred and six 
being grain. The yield of wheat was \'ery fair, averaging seventeen bushels to the acre, 
or a total of nearly three thousand bushels. Their oats yielded eight hundred bushels, 
or only thirty-four bushels to the acre, and their potatoes eleven hundred bushels, or the 
very moderate yield of one hundred bushels to the acre, while peas, barley, rye, turnips 
and carrots were comparative failures. 

They cut and stacked over two hundred tons of hay. The fields are well fenced, 
and their farming is conducted upon modern principles. Threshing is over, straw stacks 
are fenced in and the ^rain stored away. 

With the exception of O'Soup not any of them have proper granaries. Fortun- 
ately the grain will be all disposed of before the rainy season sets in or damage would 
occur to it. 

They have thirty-seven dwellings, thirty-three stables and as many stores and root- 
houses. I visited them at their homes. I found the richer ones living very comfortably, 
being well supplied with the necessaries of life, having in store vegetables, wheat, flour, 
and meat. The poorer ones were being cared for and looked after by the farmer. 

Sixteen heads of families have farms ranging in size from forty acres down to five 
acres, the largest farmer being Alexander Gaddie ; O'Soup farms twenty-one acres ; 
Ne-pa-pa-ness has nineteen and one-half acres ; and Ambrose Deiorme has over nineteen 
acres, and so on down to the smallest farmer of five acres. 

The band have a few other resources of livelihood besides farming. They sold the 
past year one hundred and twenty-five dollars worth of seneca root ; also some horses 
and cattle and about fifty tons of hay. 

They have purchased farming implements with their private means to the extent 
of one light waggon, three buckboards, eight farm waggons, five mowers, five horse 
rakes and four binders. O'Soup owns a span of Canadian horses. 

Their private stock consists of eighty-three head of cattle, forty-three horses and 
eighteen pigs. 

They have ninety-one head of cattle under Government control. These are in the 
hands of fifteen different Indians : Aswecan having eleven head ; H. Peltier, ten head ; 
Jacob Bear and Nepapaness, nine head each ; Joseph LeRat and Edward Peltier, seven 
head each ; Ambrose Deiorme and Wah-pee-see-coose, six head each ; O'Soup and 
Augustus Peltier, five head each ; M. LeVallee, four head ; Esquequnuap three head 
the balance are held in trust by the farmers ; Alex Geddie is only charged with 
one head cattle under Government control, but he is the largest owner of private cattle, 
on this reserve. 

I audited the farm books, checked the receipts and examined into issues and rations 
sheets, the work was performed in a regular manner. I also checked the list of goods 
in use and wrote therefrom those worn out. 
142 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The farm buildings present a neat appearance, and are kept in good order. 

In addition to a strict supervision of his work, Farmer Sutherland performs all 
the blacksmithing for the agency and is engineer of the steam thresher ; he is also 
superintending the erection of and placing the machinery in the new grist mill which is 
now in course of being built. The farmer did a little gardening upon his own account 
growing potatoes for his family, and some oats for the farm horses ; of the latter he 
reaped about one hundred and sixty bushels; and he puts up fourteen tons hay. 

There were four births and nine deaths on this Reserve since October 1889, the 
deaths were seven adults and two infants. 

Sakimay Reserve, No. 7Jf.. — A. J. Cohurn, Farmer ; Mrs. Cohurn, Instructress, Farim Sd. 

I visited this reserve on 10th December, the Indians were all in their winter 
quarters, having abandoned their teepees until warm weather comes again. 

Several of the men were away from home, with their teams, hauling coal from 
Broadview to the Agency. 

The houses and stables were freshly mudded and repaired. Akoose has finished 
his new house and is living in it, it is quite a pretentious building and is neatly white- 
washed and decorated ; a peeled pole fence surrounds it. This band had in crop this 
year ninety-nine acres, eighty-five being wheat ; six, rye and peas ; and eight, corn, 
potatoes and turnips ; they have threshed out their crop, and the yield of wheat is very 
good, being over fourteen hundred bushels, and the sample is fair, the yield of roots, 
corn and potatoes Was small. They are taking good care of the latter for seed which 
will be greatly supplemented by a quantity grown by the farmer. The rye did not 
yield worth mentioning. 

The numerical strength of the band is one hundred and ninety-seven, with forty-one 
heads of families ; an average of one hundred and fifty souls live on the reserve, farm, 
and receive mbre or less assistance from the Department, while a number of them under 
a head-man called She-sheep are practically self-supporting, seldom applying for any- 
thing. 

Fifteen men have land under cultivation, the largest number of acres belongs to 
Acoose, he having this year twenty-five acres of wheat. Ten other men had from two 
to nine acres each in crop, and four growing roots only. 

They have thirty dwellings and twenty-three stables, I visited them at their homes 
and observed great improvements since my last visit six years ago, at which time they 
lived nearly all in tepees ; the scarcity of building timber is given as a reason for the 
rather poor class of houses and stables, however they have made them fairly comfort- 
able. 

They have done a good deal of fall ploughing, and have one hundred and fifty tons 
hay in stack. 

The farmer cultivated a small crop opon his own account namely, nine acres oats, 
which yielded only one hundred and twenty bushels ; one and a-half acres potatoes 
yielded one hundred and fifty bushels, and ten and a-half acres rye yielded only thirty 
bushels ; he also stacked fourteen tons of hay for the farm horses. 

The band have eighty-six head of cattle under Departmental control, also eighteen 
head of private cattle and fifty horses ; the cattle under control are held by thirteen 
Indians, two of them having thirteen head each, one ten head, one eight head, three 
seven head each, one six head, two five head each, two two head each, and one man has 
one head only ; the cattle are all in good order, and this year there were twenty-two 
calves from twenty-three cows. 

The most noticeable improvements during the year are : Acoose, a new house and 
stable, and the following named parties built new stables, Muskago, Insacompetung, 
Penepekeesick and Yellow Calf. 

These Indians are building a bridge over the Qu'Appelle River (on the Reserve) 
and are grading the hill. 

They have some other slight resources for making a living besides farming ; they 
trade in dry cord wood with the town of Grenfell, having sold last year five hundred 

[part i] 143 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



loads at one dollar and fifty cents each load ; they burn lime, and they sold and traded 
in 1889-90 about twelve hundred bushels at thirty-five cents a bushel ; they take a few 
furs, principally fox, lynx, musk-rat, a few black-tailed deer, also two bears ; they also 
trade in seneca root, having sold during the past year to the extent of eighty-eight 
dollars. 

They spend their money in agricultural innDlements, provisions, clothing and house- 
hold necessaries ; they purchased during the past year four lumber wagons and a mower ; 
they now have in this line, of private property, a binder, five lumber wagons, five mow- 
ers, and three horse rakes. 

The Farmer had no stock in his storehouse of any kind, I examined his books and 
compared them with those of the Agency, they have been kept accurately ; the ration 
lists supported the issues of provisions and agreed therewith. 

I examined the articles in use about the farm and struck off the list those worn 
out. 

The farm-house and buildings are in good order and repair. 

Since July 1889 the births have been eight and deaths eleven. 

Indian Agency. 

There are four bands of Indians and four Farming Instructors in this Agency ; six 
hundred and twelve Indians were^aid their annuities at the last payment. 

To report generally of the work of the agency, considerable advancement has been 
made in the civilization of the Indians since my former visit in 1885. At that time 
many of them had but returned from the plains, and those longer settled were still 
restive under the restraint of reserve limits. 

That this generation of Indians will become self-supporting, as understood by a 
white man, is not my belief, but if each son and daughter can be advanced a stage — 
made a little more civilized than their parents — time will overcome all difiiculties, old 
traditions will die out and they will get to live as white people do. 

The grist mill in course of erection will prove a boon to the Indians, for although 
Wolseley, where there is a department subsidized mill, is not very far distant, the charge 
of sixteen cents a bushel for grinding is more than an Indian can afford to pay. 

The mill building, now nearly completed, appears to be very suitable for the class 
of machinery to go into it, 

The agency buildings are kept in order. A small and very necessary addition was 
made to the agent's house this year. 

I took an inventory of the goods in store. Upon comparing it with the balances 
of each account shown on the books, I found discrepancies in only four accounts and 
these very slight ones. 

I examined the goods in use and struck off the list those worn out. 

I made a thorough audit of the books, comparing them with the receipts at the 
farms, way-bills, etc. I also checked the additions and balances brought down from 
month to month. I also examined and checked the cattle registers of th^e difterent 
bands and found them well kept. 

The system of bookkeeping is well conducted, and the work of the office is promptly 
performed. The following books are kept in the office : Order-book, containing receipts 
and issues ; agency ledger, beef receipt book, letter book, contract book, invoice book, 
voucher register, record of individual issues, cattle record, letter register, standing orders, 
vital statistics, cash book, receipt book, Indian passes, record of religious denomination 
of Indians, accounts of agricultural implements purchased by Indians, earnings of indi- 
vidual Indians, reports of Indian Councils, record of vaccination, permits to sell wood, 
hay, etc., and to purchase ammunition ; copies of farm returns, way bills, vouchers, 
agency store returns, ration lists' from instructors ; letters and circulars received 
were all docketted and fyled. 

The storehouse was kept in good order, and the goods are arranged in such a manner 
as to facilitate stock taking. 
144 [PART i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



With regard to the individual earnings of the Indians, an unusually close account 
has been kept. The gross amount earned by all the bands during the past fiscal year 
amounts to $2,812. This amount also includes sales of cattle, horses, hsh, lime, grain, 
potatoes, seneca root, firewood, and freighting performed. 

There are no day schools in operation in this agency, most of the children attending 
either the industrial school at Fort Qu'Appelle, or the boarding school at Round Lake. 

Divine service is held every Sabbath day at one or more Indian houses in the 
agency, and the regular attendance of the Indians thereat is highly commended by the 
missionaries. 

Colonel McDonald, the Indian agent, speaks most favourably of all the members 
of his staff, both for the great interest they take in their work and their ability for per- 
forming the same. 

Indian Head Agency. 

I arrived at this agency on Saturday evening, 20th December, and on the following 
Monday morning proceeded with my work. 

Mr. W. S. Grant has been in charge here, first as farming instructor and then agent, 
since 1884, and James C. Halford, acts as farmer, clerk and interpreter. 

There were paid at the last annuity payments two hundred and thirteen souls. 

These Indians have fairly good houses, several of which are floored, and all of them 
were clean. 

Each house contained a good supply of flour, some had also meat ; the flour had 
been earned by them delivering firewood at the Wolseley grist mill. 

In a few houses there were stoves ; in- two cases the women were engaged knitting 
socks and mitts. A few were thinly clad, but on the whole they appeared very contented. 

Chief Jack (since deceased) had a good modern style house, which the Department 
gave him assistance to build. He also had a large and comfortable stable, sheep and pig 
pen, and a poultry house. 

These Indians continue to live in groups of houses, and instead of there being but 
one group, as they were at my last visit, the agent has induced them to divide, and they 
now form six groups, at long distances from one another. 

One hundred and ninety-three acres were under crop this year, and seventy acres 
have been summer fallowed. 

This crop was owned by forty-nine persons, sixteen of them having grain and root 
crops and the remainder roots only. As there are only forty-six men and four women 
on the pay-sheets who can be classed as heads of families, it shows that the agent has 
nearly every one of thera at work providing for his or her family. This general distri- 
bution of farm work and ownership is to be greatly commended. 

The largest farmer was Chief Jack, who had fifteen acres of wheat, five acres of 
oats, half an acre each of potatoes and turnips, one-eighth of an acre each of carrots and 
onions, besides a garden. Wee-see-con came next, with fifteen acres of general crop ; 
E-chas-ho-pah next, with over fourteen acres, but he was so unfortunate as to have his 
whole grain crop destroyed by a hail storm ; Big Darkness next, with about thirteen 
acres in crop — and he has made good provision for next year, by having twelve acres 
summer-fallowed and eight acres fall-ploughed ; Rabbit Skin next, with twelve acres 
in crop, and a summer-fallow of ten acres. 

The one hundred and thirty-one acres wheat yielded nine hundred and forty-three 
bushels grain — threshers' measure. The ten acres oats failed entirely, also the five 
acres barley. From the fifteen acres potatoes eleven hundred and fifty-four bushels 
were gathered and put away for winter use and seed. Twenty acres turnips yielded 
over three thousand bushels, which were stored for winter use. 

There are eighty-four dwellings, thirty-eight stables and three root houses on the 
reserve. A good many of the dwellings are poor, and barely habitable in winter. I 
found thirty-eight of them were occupied, sixteen of which are floored, and twenty -two 
have earthen floors. 

[part i] 145 

14—10 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



I visited every one of these houses, and left them with the general impression 
that the circumstances of the Indians are very good ; that they are living in a fairly 
comfortable manner (for Indians), and that they are contented. 

I could see that the agent, who accompanied me, was no infrequent visitor, and 
that he was intimately acquainted with them, their families and their condition. Fuel 
was plentiful, and each family had made stacks of it close to their doors. They had 
roaring fires on, which gave cheerfulness to their homes. 

After the chief, the following named Indians were also in good circumstances, 
having houses, made as comfortable as their condition will permit, built after one 
pattern, namely, one room, low ceiling, fire places, mud roof, but with floor, windows 
and door : — Charlie, house, two stables and stack yard ; Big Darkness, house, with cook- 
ing stove, three large stables, stack yard and pig pen ; he owns, by private purchase, one 
waggon, one sleigh, one mower and a set of double harness. E-ches-ko-pah and Pretty 
Man have each a house, stable and stack yard ; Moon Face, ditto ; Arrow Head has 
house, two stables and stack yard ; Wa-see-can is similarly provided, and, in addition, 
has a mower of his own ; Crooked Arm has a house, sheep pen and stack yard ; Gee-gus 
has a comfortable house, a cooking stove, stable and stack yard ; Rabbit Skin has a 
house, three stables, stack yard, corral, pig and sheep pens, and the following agricul- 
tural implements, namely, horse rake, sleigh and waggon ; Dry Walker has a house, 
with a cooking stove, three stables, stack yard and a waggon ; Pretty Shield has a house, 
with cooking stove, a stable and stack yards ; Carry-the-Kettle has a house with two 
rooms, both floored, cooking stove, rocking chair, lamps and two stables ; The Runner 
and Crooked Legs live together in a good house, with two rooms, both floored ; they 
have two stables and a stack yard. Little Wolf has a house, stable, stack yard and a 
farm waggon. 

These Indians were competitors at the agricultural shows held at Regina and Indian 
Head last fall, and were successful in winning many prizes. At the former place they 
carried off thirty-one, namely, seven first prizes in the classes of wheat, bread, knitting 
&c. ; nine second prizes ; eight third prizes ; four fourth prizes, and three extra prizes. 
In wheat the competition was with white settlers. 

At Indian Head they won sixteen first prizes, in wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, 
turnips, onions, butter, bread, knitting ; also fifteen second prizes, and one third prize. 

The ordinary industrial pursuits at this season of the year are : attending to their 
stock, chopping cordwood, and hauling the same to *Wolseley, for which they receive $2 
a cord. Part of the payment for the same is made in flour and part in cash. Also getting 
out logs, which they sell at the same price ; making moccasins for the Industrial Schools, 
for which they receive twenty cents a pair ; tanning hides for white settlers, at $2.50 
each ; knitting mitts, socks and comforters for their own use, and also some for sale. 
There are no game, pelts, furs or fish to be had in this vicinity ; thene are a few rabbits. 

Live Stock. 

The band have at present ninety-four head of cattle, namely twenty-one work 
oxen, two bulls, seventeen cows, twenty six steers, eleven heifers and seventeen calves. 
Four years ago they had but thirty-nine head, which have been increased by direct 
purchases of twenty head. Twenty head have been killed for beef and six died thus 
making a natural increase of sixty-one head. 

The present cattle are owned by twenty different Indians, namely : Dry Walker 
owns eleven head ; Big Darkness owns thirteen head ; Jack owns nine head; Carry-the- 
Kettle owns seven head ; We-see-can and Rabbit Skin own six head each ; Mrs. Long Lodge 
and Moon Face five head each ; Black foot. Pretty Shield, Wea-gos-han four head each ; 
Crooked Legs also owns four head ; Gee-gus owns three head ; Little Wolf, E-chas-no-pah, 
Come First, Wee-sa-han, Hy-oh-ke, and Charlie, two head each ; and the Runner one 
head. 

They have had a fine year for stock, for until just now the animals have run out. 
In one respect the want of snow has been a drawback, as the cattle had to be watered 
daily at the different wells, and it is very difficult to keep the Indians sufficiently atten- 
146 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



tive in such matters. The lack of natural springs and lakes in this agency is a great 
drawback to stock-raising by the Indians. 

They put up an estimated quantity of three hundred and forty tons of hay. I am 
pleased to say they had all large stacks of hay in the yards adjoining their stables. 

Their sheep are held in four hands, namely, Jack, Rabbit Skin, Wa-se-can, and 
Crooked Arm. The original number given them was twenty ; these were agumented by 
seventeen sent from File Hills. They have now fifty seven, and as three died and five 
have been killed for mutton the natural increase is shown here to be twenty-eight. 

There are eleven sheep in addition to the above, held by Rabbit Skin, in trust or 
on sl^ares for the Industrial School, Qu'Appelle. 

The pigs owned are the Indians' private property ; Chief Jack has a boar and two 
breeding sows, and rears several every year ; Rabbit Skin has four, Big Darkness has 
six and Carry-the-Kettle has two. 

I took stock of the goods in the storehouse, and of those unused I found every- 
thing in good shape ; there were neither shortages nor discrepancies ; they were in 
order and care was taken of them. 

I made a careful audit of the agency books ; the clerical work was accurately per- 
formed. I struck off a few articles from the goods in use, as they were worn out and 
useless. 

The usual books are kept in the office ; the work had been promptly done, and all 
-written up to date. 

There is no religious instruction or missionary work of any kind being done among 
these Indians. At the time of this inspection three of the children were attending the 
Catholic Industrial School. The Indians themselves, excepting seven, are classed as 
pagans. A school was kept under the auspices of the Presbyterian Church from 1887 to 
1889 — nearly two years — but the last teacher left about fifteen months ago and has not 
been replaced. 

QihA'pidelle Industrial School. 

I commenced my inspection of this school on 13th January. The previous inspection 
was up to the 31st August, 1891 ; therefore, this one covered a period of sixteen months. 

I made an inventory of the goods in store and in use, and checked the items of each 
account, both as regards the receipts (as they are entered in the books) and the issues. 

The goods in store were carefully kept, and appeared to have been issued with 
system, and there were but few discrepancies between the stock and the books. 

I closed each account in the ledger, and brought down the balance — if any — and 
initialed the same, to 1st February. 

I checked the copies fyled here of the monthly store return, comparing them with 
the books, also the material made up into garments, since the last inspection. 

The clerical work of this institution has been performed by Mr. J. A. Farrell, who 
has also charge of the stores. The business details are numerous ; the storehouse, as well 
.as the store-room, was kept in proper order. Beef and flour are issued daily, and 
groceries in the original packages ; clothing and niaterial as requisitioned for by the 
Matron. 

The following is a list of the account and record books in the office : — Order book 
for receipts and issues, journal, ledger, voucher register, letter book, register of 
letters received, register of receipts, invoice books, cash book. The followino^ were regu- 
larly placed on fyle : Letters and circulars received, quadruplicates of vouchers, monthly 
pay-sheets, ration lists, list of manufactured goods, blacksmith's work, farm and store 
returns. 

The office work had been regularly performed, and was in a satisfactory condition. 

I also made an inspection of the industries connected with the institution. 

Farming. 

This work is under the supervision of Thomas Redmond, who was appointed to the 
position in 1884. He is assisted by a regular staff" of eight boys, four of whom work every 
iorenoon and the other four every afternoon. 

[part i] ^ 147 



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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



He has one span of horses and one yoke of oxen for the work. The crops harvested 
in 1890 were two hundred and forty-seven bushels wheat, eight hundred and forty 
bushels oats, two thousand two hundred bushels potatoes, eleven hundred and fifty 
bushels turnips, nine hundred bushels mangolds, and some pease, which, as yet, are not 
threshed. Besides the above, they cultivated Indian corn, beets, onions, and a large 
vegetable garden ; they also cut and stacked fifty tons of hay. 

The live stock under the Farmer's charge consists of six horses, thirteen milch 
cows, one bull, two steers, three heifers, five spring calves and seven pigs, a total of 
thirty-six. 

At the season of the year when my inspection was made the farm work of each day 
commenced with milking, then watering and feeding stock, cleaning stables ; then, as the 
day advanced, they took out the teams to haul stone from across the lake ; also saw 
wood, take out ice, then in the evening milking and attending to stock. 

Gavpenters^ Shop. 

This trade is under the direction of Robert Mehan, a first-class mechanic, who was 
appointed to the position fourteen months ago. He has six boys learning the business ; 
three of whom work in the forenoon and three in the afternoon. 

During the past year they have done a great deal of work, much that is not visible 
to the casual observer. 

They refitted the inside of the large stable, sixty feet by thirty-two feet, with stalls^ 
staunchions, cfec, in such a manner that the cattle can stand head to head, with a passage 
between ; they also fitted up the cellar of the same building with root bins ; they built 
a granary twenty-four feet square, fitting it up with bins; built an implement shed, 
fourteen feet by twenty ; converted the old milk-house into an Indian waiting-room ; 
built a new dairy twelve by fourteen feet ; an addition to the wash-house or laundry 
eighteen by twenty-two feet ; an addition to the poultry-house twelve by fourteen feet ; 
a large meat safe in the corner of the ice house ; a porch over the back entrance ; a 
summer house in the garden ; an arch over the entrance to the garden ; a high, close 
board fence around the stable, stack and cattle yards; inside sash for green-house; 
cased the inside of the green-house ; eight new desks and seats for the school room ; 
three checker tables with fixed seats on each side, ten feet long ; new maple floor in 
recreation room, thirty-two by fifty feet ; cupboards, nine by twenty-four feet, with 
twenty panelled doors and eighty shelves (partitioned) for girls' clothing ; cupboards 
with fifteen panelled doors, and eighty partitioned shelves for boys' clothing ; cupboards 
for boys' lamp room ; closets for boys attached to the house for winter 'use; made and 
cased fire tanks and connections ; made benches attached to walls in school and recrea- 
tion rooms ; made sixteen tables, four of them being thirteen feet long ; made hot bed 
frames and sash for same ; extended the verandah platform ; made a large cupboard for 
File Hills agency ; a bread safe ; shelving and open cupboards in the bakery, also in 
recreation room for the boys' caps ; cupboards, with doors, in the carpenter's shop for 
keeping tools and working supplies in ; made six storm sashes ; thirty benches, seven to 
sixten feet long ; clothes hangers around the garret, twenty by eighty feet ; playing tables, 
with seats ; fitted up the gymnasium ; curbed two wells, and covered cess-pools and wells ; 
wainscotted several rooms ; repaired fences, doors, wheelbarrows, vehicles, farming imple- 
ments, windows, benches, stools, stands, sidewalks, tools, bucksaws, floors, partitions, 
roofs, hayracks, furniture, shelves, slates ; made pigeonholes, writing desks, shelves in 
storehouse and storeroom; floored storeroom; made woodwork for boys' and girls' 
skates, and laid down a sidewalk. 



Blacksrnith^ s SJiop. 

This is in charge of D. McDonald, a skilful workman, who was appointed to the 
position nearly two years ago. He also has six boys learning the business. They work 
the same hours as the carpenters' boys do. 

Their work performed during the past year is Jess conspicuous than that of the 
other trades, as it consists so much of repairing. 
148 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



They have made seventy-five iron bedsteads, fitting them up with springs ; also 
iion railing for two verandah's. They iron-braced all the tables and benches ; kept in 
order all the stoves, furnaces and ranges, all iron-work and plumbing, and all the tin- 
smith's work ; repaired all vehicles and farming implements ; shoeing horses ; covered 
the stairs with sheet lead. They made bread-cutters, hinges, and twenty pairs skates 
for the other Industrial Schools. Also for the agencies in Treaty 4, they have repaired 
the Indians' vehicles, sharpened plough points, harrows, and shod horses. 

Bakery. 

This is in charge of G. Goff. He is assisted by two boys, who are learning the 
business. Besides doing all the baking, they cut the meat for the kitchen, and in 
summer time their spare hours are spent working in the gardens. 

Furnace and Night-watchtnan. 

This position has been held by C. Miles since October, 1888. Besides performing 
his regular duties, attending the furnaces and stoves and patrolling the buildings and 
premises during the night, being a stone-mason and plasterer by trade he does all such 
work connected therewith that requires to be done. He has repaired the plastering and 
kalsomined the whole of the boys' school building, sixty by ninety feet, three stories. 
He built the stone foundation under the stable and the stone wall around the stable 
cellar ; the stone foundation under the granary ; the chimney for the pig-house ; put 
down two cement floors ; and built a soft -water cistern of brick and cement. He does 
all the painting of furniture, all new articles and repairs done by the carpenter. He 
built an additional coal-bin in the cellai-. He attends to the green-house, and has 
repaired several chimneys, and all breaks in the plastering in the boys' and girls' schools. 
He attends to the supply of water in the fire tanks ; sees that the hose and fire buckets 
are always in order and fit for emergencies. 

Those boys not in the work-shops or with the farmer are worked on fatigues, under 
the supervision of the teacher, Mr. H. Denehy. They saw wood, carry wood and coal ; 
do the sweeping, shovelling snow from the paths and roads, and in summer time keep 
the walks and grounds in order ; do weeding and hoeing, and assist in gathering the 
root crops. 

Matron^s De/partment. 



The Matron has furnished me with the following information regarding her depart- 
ment : — 

She has a staflf of two teachers, two tailoresses and two cooks, all under salary. 

Twelve girls have been taught, and know how to use the sewing machine, four only 
^vorking each week. 

Eleven can use the knitting machines, making mufflers, socks, stockings, mitts, &c. 

Eighty -five can do hand-knitting, and do all the darning of stockings ; besides, each 
'one can make a complete pair of stockings. 

Thirty-one have been taught cooking and work in the kitchen by turns. They do 
all the washing, excepting boys' underclothes. 

All the clothing, dresses, etc., are made in the Matron's department, except a brown 
duck suit for each boy and a coat for each girl, which are sent in ready-made. They 
also do all the mending. 

I have much pleasure in stating that the interior of both the boys' and girls' schools 
are marvels of cleanliness and order, commencing with the reception rooms, the several 
class rooms, dining rooms, dormitories, kitchens, pantries, &c. 

The children present a well-dressed, clean and healthy appearance, and are evidently 
well contented to be where they are. The doctor (Seymour) reports most favourably of 
their state of health. 

The farmer, carpenter, blacksmith and baker have families, and do not live in the 
institution, but receive one daily ration each in monthly issues. 

[part i] 149 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892^ 



The several workshops have a business-like appearance. All engaged therein 
appeared to be kept busy. The yards, stables and other farm buildings were kept in 
good order, and the live stock were in good condition. 

The grounds surrounding the schools are tastefully laid out, and are enclosed by 
neat fences. The roads and walks are kept clean. 

The reverend Principal has a good word to say of each member of his staff, and 
speaks hopefully of the future progress of the institution and its greatly -increased favour 
among the Indians of the reserves ; and says that so far as tlie Indians themselves are 
concerned, he now meets with little or no difficulty whatever in gaining their consent to 
take their children into the school as soon as they are old enough. 

Touchwood Hills Agency. 

I commenced my inspection of this agency on 7th February. 

The officials and employes engaged within this agency number fourteen, and the 
five bands within its jurisdiction numbered at the last annuity payments seven hundred 
and seventy souls, as follows : — Poor Man Band, one hundred and three ; Day Star, 
seventy-eight : Muscowequahn. one hundred and fifty-four ; Gordon, one hundred and 
fifty-one ; Yellow Quill, two hundred and eighty-four. 

The Yellow Quill band do not engage much in agricultural pursuits as yet, and 
may be called hunting Indians. 

Day Stur Band, No. 78. 

This band of seventy-eight souls are under the supervision of Farmer Gooderham ; 
labourer Charles Favel lives on the reserve and works with the Indians ; and Catherine 
Slater, wife of the school-teacher, instructs the women in household duties. 

They have made considerable progress since it was my lot to inspect their work in 
1884. I was happy to find the old chief hale and hearty, and in his old age enjoying a 
comfortable home. 

With the exception of a few individuals who have private gardens, this band farms 
in community, all working in the same fields and sharing the crops. Seventeen families 
share in this way. 

Their principal crops were forty-three acres wheat, which yielded four hundred and 
twenty- two bushels, machine measure ; six acres barley, yielding one hundred and forty- 
eight bushels ; five and a-half acres potatoes, yielding three hundred bushels ; three acres 
turnips, yielding six hundred bushels. Some pease and rye sown did not come to any- 
thing. The band put up three hundred tons hay. 

In addition to the regular routine of farm work, this band have, since the last 
inspection, fenced forty-three acres new land, built seven new stables and three new 
dwellings, and have taken out logs for two other houses ; also, made five sets of bob- 
sleighs. 

With their own means they have purchased a mower and horse-rake. 

Seventeen families inhabit fifteen houses. I visited each one of them. 

The houses were fairly comfortable, but considerable sickness prevailed among the 
inmates. Four elderly persons and two children were seriously ill ; bed clothing appeared 
to be scanty among them, but they were well s.upplied with both flour and beef. 

There were seven births and four deaths on the reserve during the past fiscal year. 

The day school is kept by J. Slater. There were nine children present ; they looked 
clean and healthy, and the teacher informed me that the attendance of the children was 
very regular. 

They have one hundred and thirty-two head of cattle under Government control,, 
namely, fifteen oxen, fifty cows, thirty-two steers, twenty-nine heifers, two bulls and 
four calves. These are held by nineteen persons, with the exception of twenty heifers,, 
and two bulls, which as yet are kept together for the benefit of the whole band ; they 
have also fifteen private horses. 

I inspected the byres and stables. I found them to be in good order, clean and com- 
fortable ; the animals were all in good condition. 

150 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Poor Maris Bmid^ No. 88. 

At the time of my inspection there were twenty-six families, or one hundred souls, 
on the ration list, but as the Indians were using their own beef and flour the list was 
not in practical use. 

Farmer Gooderham resides on this reserve, and they receive more of his personal 
attention than Day Star's band. They farm almost entirely in severalty, and the families 
live at a considerable distance from each other. 

They had a total of one hundred and thirty-eight acres in crop, divided among 
twenty-four persons. It consisted of one hundred and two acres wheat, fourteen acres 
of barley, five acres potatoes, ten acres rye and seven acres turnips and carrots, and 
smaller vegetables. 

The yield was twelve hundred and fourteen bushejis wheat, two hundred and twenty- 
two bushels barley, twenty bushels rye, three hundred and thirty bushels potatoes, and 
seven hundred bushels turnips, carrots and other vegetables. They had already gristed 
a large quantity of their wheat ; consequently, each family had a good stock of flour on 
hand. 

There are eighteen houses on the reserve. I went from house to house and observed 
the condition of the inmates. 

There are fourteen stables on the reserve these, with hay corrals at each, formed 
.perfect farm yards. I cannot praise too highly the clean and comfortable condition in 
which I found all of these to be, which shows plainly that the men attend to their part 
of the business. 

The cattle were fat. They have, all told, one hundred and one head of cattle dis- 
tributed among twenty Indians ; they are pretty evenly divided ; eleven head being 
the largest number held by any one. and three the smallest number ; they consist of 
twenty work oxen, forty-two cows, twenty steers, fourteen heifers and three calves. They 
had abundance of hay, having had two hundred tons when the winter set in. 

As I before remarked, the men are diligent at their work, and the more noticeable 
improvements since the last inspection are : the brothers Fox have built two new 
houses, newly fenced six acres, and summer fallowed four acres ; Stonis has built a new 
house, a new stable, broken five acres, and newly fenced eleven acres. ; Mackegoness has 
taken out timber for a new house, built a new stable, fenced twenty-three acres, and fall 
ploughed twenty acres ; Widow Mary's son built a small house, a new stable, and fenced 
eight acres ; Bill See-wes-tecken has taken out timber for a new house and stable, built a 
new stable and fenced ten acres ; Uwestack newly fenced ten acres ; Chief Tuh-wee-kee- 
see-quake and Tobacco's son built a granary and an addition to their stable, newly fenced 
twenty-five acres, ahd summer fallowed ten acres ; William Favel fenced eight acres, and 
summer fallowed eight acres ; Worm has built a new stable, fenced eight acres and sum- 
mer fallowed four acres ; E-wee-nin has built a small dwelling and fenced three and 
a-half acres ; E-nin-oo-wiss has built a house and stable and fenced one and a-half acres. 

The band have purchased with their own money one binder, two mowers and two 
horse rakes, and one lumber waggon ; seven men have made themselves very excellent 
bob-sleighs. 

The farmhouse, stable and storehouse, are in excellent order. The farmer has built a 
new granary and raised four acres oats for his horses, and cultivated a large vegetable 
garden, which, besides being profitable to his own family, was a good example to set 
before the Indians. I checked his inventory of Government property in his hands, and 
wrote off the list such articles as are of no further use, being broken or worn out. 

I examined and audited his several account books, checking the cattle returns and 
stock registers, looking closely into the manner in which these have been kept. I 
checked his receipts and issues of all classes of goods, comparing his receipts with the 
charges against his farm (6a) in the agency books. His ration lists were regularly kept 
and forwarded to the agency along with his monthly provision return. 

Mrs. Gooderham is Instructress in housewifery to the women of the band. She is 
exceedingly faithful in performing her duties, but her greatest drawback in accomplish- 
ing much is the extreme poverty of the Indians, their lack of almost everything apper- 

[PART i] 151 

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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



taining to domestic comfort in their houses, and with little or no material to work 
upon. 

During the past fiscal year the births were seven and the deaths four on this 
reserve. 

Gordon Reserve, Farm 6c. 

T. J . Fleetham, Farmer ; Mrs. Fleetham, Instructress. 

This band numbers one hundred and fifty-one souls, under thirty-two heads of 
families, twenty-three of whom cultivate more or less land. Twenty-four are owners of 
cattle, and twenty-seven are householders. 

They had nearly two hundred acres in crojD, the larger proportion being of wheat, 
which yielded (threshers' measurement) eleven hundred and thirty-four bushels; of' 
barley they threshed two hundred and forty -seven bushels ; of rye, fifty-eight bushels ; 
they lifted three hundred and eighty-five bushels of potatoes, and of carrots and turnips 
they had five hundred and seventy bushels. 

They gristed a larger quantity of their wheat (three hundred and fifty bushels), and 
in consequence every family had, at the time of my visit, a good supply of flour on 
hand. 

This band is made up of plain Indians and a large proportion of Half-breeds. 
Among the latter are many intelligent men, who are fairly successful farmers. Their 
houses are comfortably furnished, their wives and families are well clothed and their 
houses tidy and bright. 

Among the pure Indians (and with them I must include one of the sons of Chief 
Gordon and another Half-breed) the case is very different. This class is very short of 
bed-clothes, and their sleeping places (I cannot call them beds) are but a bundle of rags 
on the floor in the corner of their one room. 

Their farming has been carried on with system, and considerable success ; their 
fields are well laid out and well fenced ; their stables were clean and comfortable ; hay 
was plentiful, and carefully fenced stack-yards protected it from being wasted. Water 
holes were open on the different lakes where the cattle were accustomed to drink. 

In addition to the routine of farm work, a good many permanent improvements 
have been made by different Indians during the past year. Alex. McNab has built a 
new stable, broken seven acres of land, and summer fallowed four acres. Widow Sears 
built an addition to her house, summer fallowed five acres, and purchased with her 
private means a new mower and a horse-rake. White Bear has built a new stable. 
Henry Bird has built a new house and new stables, and broken two acres of land. 
Fisher, or Coojack, has bit)ken five acres and taken out rails to fence the same. Alfred 
McNab has broken four acres of land. Josiah Pratt has built a new stable ; it is an 
excellent building, having a thatched roof ; also, he has built a new milk-house and an 
addition to his house, and broken five acres of land. Tom McNab has taken out logs 
for a new stable, broken five acres, and taken out rails to fence the same. John 
Cochraine has built a large new stable and a new milk house, and broken three acres. 
David Anderson has built a new milk-house. John Anderson has built a new house 
and a new stable, and l^roken seven acres of land. 

, Individual members of the band are now owners of a number of farming imple- 
ments, purchased with their private means. These are in addition to those received by 
them from the Department. The following is a list : — Eight farm waggons, seven 
buckboarcjs, six sets of double harness, three bob-sleighs, seven cooking stoves. In 
addition to the above, each farming Indian has a set or more of home-made bob-sleighs. 

This band has one hundred and thirty-one head of cattle under Government con- 
trol, namely, twenty-eight oxen, one bull, thirty-six cows, eighteen steers, fifteen heifers 
nnd thirty-three calves, and one not issued. 

As I remarked before, these animals are owned by twenty-four Indians — two having 
twelve head each ; the balance are distributed in numbers from eight to one head each. 

Their cattle are domesticated ; they are let out of the stables every morning to 
water and range during the clay, returning at night to their own stables, where thej 
152 [part il 



")5 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



are again tied up and fed hay. Some of the cows were still giving milk, and eight 
families make butter regularly. 

The farm house and other farm buildings on this reserve are in good order, and 
are b;)th suitable and very comfortable. They consist of a dwelling, one and a-half 
stories, eighteen by twenty-two feet, with kitchen attachment sixteen by twenty-two 
feet ; an office, storehouse, stable, implement shed, cow stables, extra stable, and a new 
granary built this year. The farmer cultivates an excellent vegetable garden. 

The Indians here have no other resources but farming, and there is no sale for their 
surplus products, neither is there any demand for manual labour. Fur-bearing animals are 
almost extinct ; an occasional fox is killed, and Asson killed about $20 worth of fur 
before Christmas. There are no fishing lakes near. Rabbits are plentiful. 

I audited the farmer's books and checked them with those of the agency. I found 
them regularly kept, and the balances correct. Ration sheets were used and sent in with 
the monthly provision returns. 

I carefully examined the live stock register, and found that the quarterly stock 
;return agreed with it. 

I checked the list of articles in use on the farm, and condemned any that were 
worn out and useless. 

During the past fiscal year the births were five and the deaths ten on this reserve. 

There is a boarding and day school on this reserve, conducted by the Rev. Owen 
Owens and his wife. It is under the auspices of the Church of England in the Episcopal 
Diocese of Assiniboia. I was greatly interested in going through the school building ; 
there were twenty-six children present, looking bright and clean, and becomingly dressed ; 
the dormitories were comfortable and wholesome. Mr. Owens informed me that his 
.allowance from the Department was not sufficient to properly feed and clothe the chil- 
dren, but he was enabled to do so through the assistance he received from churches and 
kind friends in the east. 

A deaf mute on this reserve is a subject for any charitably disposed jDerson of 
sufficient means. He is a bright, intelligent boy, ten years old, and perfectly healthy. 
If he could be entered as a pupil in some deaf and dumb institute, and educated, he 
Avould probably become an intelligent Christian man and a good Indian. 



3fuscowequan Band — Farm 6c — Louis Couture, Farmer. 

In 1885 two hundred and eighty-two souls received their annuities as members of 
this band, while in 1890 one hundred and fifty-four only were paid, nearly all the half- 
breed families belonging to it having taken their discharge from treaty. 

In 1890 the births were eight, and the number of deaths twelve. 

There are nineteen houses on the reserve and sixteen stables, but only twelve of 
each are used this winter, as several families live together in the same houses. Four- 
teen heads of families farm. 

The crops of 1890 were seventy-four acres wheat, seven acres oats, nine acres bar- 
ley, seven acres potatoes, and seven and one-half acres- turnips, carrots, onions and 
smaller vegetables. The wheat threshed out was three hundred and twenty bushels, 
but the sample was inferior, and only fit to feed stock. Of oats and barley, the thresher's 
measurement returned two hundred and sixty-two bushels and one hundred and sixty 
bushels, respectively. These were good and merchantable. 

The yield of potatoes was three hundred and fifty bushels, and of carrots and tur- 
nips they had eight hundred and thirty-five bushels. 

Some new work has been done, and new buildings erected since the last inspection. 
The most noticeable are Little Wolf's two new stables, and he has taken out logs for a 
new house, and newly fenced twelve acres. Henry Bear has newly fenced ten acres 
and built a new milk house. Pierre Desjarlais has built a new stable. Michael has 
\m\\t an addition to his house and fenced six acres. Inquanope has built a small 
liouse and taken out a large number of rails. Moyese has fenced ten acres. Old 
Hunter has built a new house. Muscowequan and Moyese have broken three acres of 
new land, and summer fallowed five acres. Little Wolf and son have broken four 

[part i] 153 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



acres. Que-que-zance has broken five acres. Pierre Desjarlais has broken three acress,, 
.and last summer fallowed four acres. Peeyaces has summer-fallowed ten acres, and 
Inquenope has broken two acres. 

These Indians, like the other bands of this agency, have very few opportunities of 
earning money to help them in being self-sustaining. Henry Bear makes jumper 
sleighs, and occasionally sells one. He also does carpenter's work when he gets the 
chance. Mrs. Old Hunter makes very good mats, but the demand for the same is not 
very great. 

The band has seventy-seven head of stock. Seventeen work oxen are on loan 
during the good behaviour of those Indians holding them. Fourteen Indians have 
cows — four having two each. Three cows and one steer are not as yet distributed. 

They have eleven head of private cattle, namely, four cows, one ox and six head of 
young cattle. They have also fifteen horses. 

I inspected the stables and byres, they were very well attended to. They had in 
stock at the beginning of the winter two hundred and twenty-five tons of hay. 

I visited the Indians at their homes. I did not receive the impression that they are- 
well off, but I consider them more comfortable than the poorer families on the three 
other reserves, the women and children were badly clad, and they are also very destitute 
of bed clothes. 

I visited the boarding school under Mr. Denehy : there was a good attendance of 
children, they were well and cleanly clad, and appeared to be in good health ; the 
dormitories were fresh and clean, and the children appeared to be contented and happy ; 
this school is under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church. 

I audited the farmer's books and checked them with those of the Agency,, and with a 
few exceptions they agreed therewith. 

I checked the list of articles in use on the farm and struck therefrom such as are 
worn out and of no further use. 

The farm buildings were in good repair and were kept in a very creditable manner. 

The farmer raised for feed for the farm stock, one hundred bushels oats,, twenty 
byshels barley, sixty bushels potatoes and one hundred bushels turnips and carrots ; he 
put up twenty-five tons hay and built a new fence around the farm premises. 

Yelloiv QuilVs Band. 

The Indians of this band live almost entirely by hunting and fishing, and although 
the issues of food and other supplies appear on Farmer Couture's returns, his supervision 
of them is entirely nominal, and as a matter of fact he does not handle such .^rupplies 
at all. 

The annuity pay sheet of 1890 for- this band contains two hundred and eighty-four 
souls, with forty -five returned as absent, being reported " up north hunting." By reference 
to earlier pay sheets these do not appear to have been on their reserve since 1886 when: 
three hundred and twenty-seven souls were entered as paid. 

The births in 1890 are Set down as thirteen, and the deaths at eleven ; there are 
forty-eight men, sixty-five women, eighty-five boys, seventy-eight girls and eight not 
classified ; of the men forty three are heads of families ; also seven women. 

Of the one hundred and sixty-three boys and girls, it is to be regretted that none of 
them as yet attend school. 

They have six habitable houses at Fishing Lake and two stables, and at Nut Lake' 
three habitable houses ; they planted eight acres potatoes in two fields from which they^ 
had the very moderate yield of three hundred bushels. 

They have twenty-three head of cattle, of which two oxen, four cows and four 
calves are at Fishing Lake ; they have thirty private horses, they cut and stacked sixty 
tons hay. During the year at Fishing Lake they broke four acres of new land and 
fenced it ; they built three new houses and three new stables. 

At Fishing Lake the Indians were exchanging their surplus fish for flour. 

At Nut Lake they were taking large numbers of fur-bearing animals, among them' 
a good many bears. 
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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892' 

Agency Office. 

I checked all the inventories with the stock on hand, both of the articles in use 
and those in store ; I also made a close audit of the books and checked the monthly 
returns with the same. 

I found the following books kept in the office in connection with the business there- 
in transacted : Daybook, journal, ledger, register of vouchers, letters received, births 
and deaths, contractors' receipts, earnings of Indians, daily shipping book, circular book, 
invoice book, agricultural implements to Indians, letter book, official diary. They were 
kept with regularity ; all letters received were fyled, also quadruplicates of vouchers ;; 
farmer's ration sheets ; also copies of agency and farm returns. 

The agency buildings were in good order and in proper state of repair. 

Since the last inspection the following new buildings have been erected : a clerk's 
house, blacksmith's shop, and ice house ; the root house was rebuilt and a new roof put. 
on it. 

FILE HILLS AGENCY. 

I commenced my inspection of the File Hills Agency on 28th February. 

The staff there consists or Acting Agent AV right, Interpreter Houri and Farmer 
McConnell. 

This Agency has under its supervision the following bands : Pee-pee-kee-sis, No. 
81 ; 0-kee-neese, No. 82 ; Star Blanket, No. 83 ; and Little Black Bear,. No. 84. 

Pee-pee-kee-sis and 0-kee-neese bands, farm as one band in community, and were 
most successful with their crops the past year. 

Pee-pee-kee-sis band has a population of eighty-seven souls, namely : nineteen men, 
thirty-three women, seventeen boys and eighteen girls. The 0-kee-neese band numbers 
fifty-nine souls, namely : sixteen men, twenty-six women, eight boys, and nine girls ; of 
the above thirty-five men, only twenty-two are strong enough to do farming work ; in 
this they are assisted by seventeen women and boys ; by these all the work is performed, 
and the fruits of their labour goes to support the others as well as themselves. 

They had in crop last year fifty acres wheat, which yielded sixteen hundred and 
sixty-seven bushels (thresher's measure) ; twenty acres oats yielded six hundred and 
nine bushels ; six acres potatoes yielded about one thousand bushels ; eight hundred 
bushels being placed in the farm root house, and two hundred bushels in their private 
cellars, for consumption during the winter. 

The quantity of hay put in stack by these two bands was estimated at three hun- 
dred tons. 

In addition to the above crops raised in community, nearly every householder had 
a private garden, in which he raised a few potatoes and smaller vegetables. 

There are twenty-one houses occupied on these Reserves, I visited each one of them, 
some of the houses are quite new, and a few families are in very fair circumstances, 
while the greater number are very destitute of wearing apparel and bed clothes. 

In the 0-kee-neese band, Mustooseco is the most comfortable in a domestic way of 
any on the reserve, his one and a half story house is well floored, up stairs as well as 
down, it was clean and well ordered he has cooking and a box stove, chairs, table, bed- 
steads, lamp, dishes, etc. This year he built an addition to his stables, also cattle cor- 
ralls, he owns a mower and horse rake ; his wife makes bread and can knit. 

Es-cu-e-han has a very good story and a half house, neatly whitewashed outside as 
well as inside, floored upstairs as well as down, cooking stove and a box stove, bedsteads, 
table, chairs, lamp and dishes. Had this house been orderly I would have considered it as 
comfortable as Mustooseco's, but it was not. This man owns a pair of bob-sleighs. His 
wife is said to be an excellent housekeeper, she makes bread and butter and can knit. 

Kewatin has a fairly comfortable house, this year he built a new cattle corrall, he 
also owns a mower ; his wife makes butter and knits. 

Kah-ke-ka-as-se-me has a very good, but small, house, it contained a bedstead. He 
put a neAV roof on his stable, and built a new cattle corrall this year. 

[part i] 155 



5B Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



As-sin-a-wa-sis has built an addition to his stable and a cattle corrall. His house 
is fairly comfortable, being floored, in it are table, cooking stove and lamp. His wife can 
make butter, and she knows how to knit. 

Tuck-wah-now has a comfortable house, floored, with windows, and bedstead ; he 
has a new stable and corrall. 

Pis-quat-ah-pew has a new house, and stable and corralls. The house has windows, 
bedstead, tables, and lantern. This man's wife makes butter and knits. 

Day Walker has a new house ; it is floored, but only with flattened logs. 

Pee-pee-kee-sis Band. 

Nah-tah-toose has in his house table, bedstead, chairs ; he owns a pair of bob-sleighs. 

Kee-wish has a cooking stove, bedstead, table and lamp. 

Os-ky-sis has built a new stable and cattle corrall ; he owns a mower, he has also a 
pair of bob-sleighs of his own make. 

Ah-toose has built an addition to his stable, a new corrall, and owns a pair of bob- 
sleighs. His house is comfortable, and contains a cooking stove, table, bedstead and 
dishes. 

The Stony has built. a new stable. 

Red Bird has repaired his house. 

Mrs. Bufl'alo Bow makes butter and knits. 

Widow Pee-pee-kee-sis has a fairly good, but small, house, it contains a cooking- 
stove, bedstead and table. 

The houses were all floored, mostly with flatted logs, and were fairly comfortable, 
;but there was a striking deficiency of bed-clothes in some of them, and some had too 
jnany occupants for their size. 

Live Stock. 

The 0-kee-neese Band have eighty-nine head of cattle, namely, fifteen oxen, twenty- 
'eight cows, twenty-six steers, five heifers, ten bulls and five heifer calves ; they have also 
fourteen private horses. The cattle are owned by eleven persons, divided as follows : 
•^one has seventeen head, one has sixteen head, one fourteen head, one thirteen head, one 
•eleven head, one ten head, one four head, and two have two head each. 

The Pee-pee-kee-sis Band own eighty-one head of cattle, which consists of fifteen 
work oxen, one bull, tw^enty-eight cow^s, twenty -five steers, two heifers, thirteen bull and 
six heifer calves ; they have also fifteen private horses. The cattle are owned by thir- 
teen persons, and are divided as follows ; one person owns eighteen head, another has 
seventeen head, two have seven head each, three have six head each, one has five head, 
two have four head each, one has two head, and the bull is owned in common by the 
whole band. 

I made a close inspection of the stables, byres and corralls, and found them all in 
-a most satisfactory condition of order and comfort. 

Star Blanket Band, No. 83. 

This band numbers forty-seven souls, namely, eight men, seventeen women, ten 
boys, and twelv^e girls ; seven men, and three womem are heads of families ; the eight 
men are reported able bodied, while only seven women and boys are able to do field 
work ; they occupy nine houses. 

This year they had thirty-one acres in crops, consisting of twenty acres wheat, six 
acres rye, three acres potatoes, one acre in beets, turnips, carrots, and onions, and one 
acre in gardens. 

The wheat was badly frozen and yielded only one hundred and forty-eight bushels, 
thresher's measure, this when properly cleaned was reduced to sixty bushels of rather 
poor sample, the rye sown did not yield anything, they placed one hundred bushels 
potatoes in the farm root house, and the Indians stored a similar quantity in the cellars 
of their houses for winter consumption ; they had in stock at commencement of winter 
one hundred and tw^enty-five tons of hay. 
156 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892^ 



I visited the Indians at their homes. The Chief — Star Blanket's — house is comfort- 
able, it is large and airy with both a cooking-stove and fire-place, the house is in good 
repair ; one of his wives is a butter maker. 0-hoo has a new house and stable, the house 
is floored and it has a bedstead. Stern Child has a new house and new stable, the house- 
is floored and has a bedstead. See-Coose, lately from Little Black Bear's Band, has a 
new house and stable, the house is not floored, no bedsteads or any furniture whatever. 
Pow-asson's house is comfortable, it is floored with slabs, he has built a new stable. 

The band has five stables, occupied by thirty-five head of cattle, namely, seven, 
oxen, one bull, eight cows, nine steers, two heifers, one bull calf, and seven heifer calves, 
they are owned by five persons, one owning eleven head, two seven head each, two five- 
head each ; they also own ten horses. 

The cattle were in good condition and there was abundance of hay. 

Little Black Bear Band. iVo. 8^. 

This band numbers eighty souls, namely, twenty-four men, twenty-eight women, 
fifteen boys and thirteen girls ; of the men, fifteen only are able bodied, and ten women 
and boys only are able to work in the fields ; seventeen men, and one woman, are heads 
of families, and they occupy twelve houses. 

I visited each house, in some houses there appeared to be too many occupants for 
their size and for health, but as Indians visit each other a great deal in winter, that 
may account for the overcrowding. 

Pee-cutch is the leading man ^ the Band, since the death of the Chief ; he has 
built a fairly comfortable house with floors and windows, it contains a cooking-stove, 
chairs, table and lamp ; he has turned his old house into a stable ; his wife makes butter ; 
together with his Band he newly fenced one hundred acres of land this year ; he pur- 
chased a new binder this year. Nock-a-we-na has built a new stable and floored his 
house. Bellegarde, has a comfortable house, large, airy, clean and neatlya rranged 
inside, containing most of the necessary articles of furniture ; he has built new^ 
stables and has a new house in course of erection ; he owns a mower and horse-rake, his 
wife knits and makes butter, also bread. 0-na-pen has built a new house and stable ;. 
he also purchased a mower. Oh-kee-mah built a new house and stable ; the 
house is floored, and contains a cooking-stove. Chee-wee-in built a new house and 
stable, the house is floored, his wife can knit and make butter. Peet-wa-ke-sa-in has a 
story and a half house, neatly whitewashed outside and inside, it contains a cooking- 
stove, chairs, table, bedsteads and lamp, altogether it is very comfortable ; he has good 
stables. Old Rook has a new house, it is floored. Blood, this woman has a new house 
and stable. Pierre has a new house, it is quite small, but it is floored, and contains a 
cooking-stove, chairs, table, and bedstead ; he owns a pair of bob-sleighs, he does not farm 
much, preferring to freight and hunt, he built a new stable and cattle corrall. Big Sky 
built his house two years ago, but he has made some additions and improvements, it is 
now floored, it contains a table, bedstead and a lantern ; his daughter can knit. Ch ee- 
mah-kase has a new house, it is floored. 

All of the above named householders have a small garden adjacent to their houses,, 
in which they raise a few potatoes and the smaller vegetables ; their farm work is done 
in community in the large one hundred acre field. 



Live Stock. 

The band owns one hundred and twelve head of cattle, namely, twelve work oxen, 
two bulls, thirty-four cows, twenty-six steers, fifteen heifers, eleven bull and twelve 
heifer calves ; of private animals they have thirty horses, two cows and three head of 
young cattle. 

The cattle under Departmental control are owned by fifteen persons ; one having 
fifteen head, another thirteen head, two have twelve head each, two have eight head 
each, three have six head each, one has five head, three have four head each, one has 
three head and one two head and two cows ; and two bulls are undistributed. 

The above animals are being wintered in eleven stables ; these stables were clean 
and comfortable. 

[part i] 157 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Farm Work. 

The band had under crojD the past year sixty-eight acres of land, this was farmed in 
one field, excepting gardens., by all the band working together, it consisted of fifty 
.acres wheat, which yielded five hundred and two bushels, thresher's measure ; three 
acres potatoes yielded three hundred and fifty bushels, of which one hundred have been 
placed in the agency root-house for seed, and the remainder in the cellars of the Indians' 
houses for winter consumption ; twelve acres of rye did not yield anythingj half an acre 
€ach of beets, turnips, carrots,, onions, and an acre of garden stuft' was consumed by the 
Indians as it grew. 

In addition to the farming of the Indians, the agency had an excellent garden. 
From it was taken two hundred and fifty bushels of potatoes, which were stored for 
:seed. 

I made a careful audit of the books, and found such as are in use written up to 
date and balanced. I examined into the receipts and issues, and took an inventory of 
the goods in store. I inspected the goods in use, and wrote off the list those worn out 
and useless. 

The Indians were being fed with their own flour — product of their grists. It was 
issued to them in the usual manner from the storehouse. They were also using their 
•own beef. During last autumn they killed twelve of their own animals for keep. 

There is a boarding and day school at this agency. It is kejDt by Mr. and Mrs. 
Skene, under the auspices of the Presbyterian Church. There are ten Indian children, 
inmates of the school. Some others attending are not classed in this list. The child reii 
were clean, becomingly dressed, and looked intelligent. Some were still rather delicate, 
having but recently recovered from the chicken pox ; one pupil having died from the 
same complaint. I was taken into the dormitories, and was pleased to note their cleanli- 
ness, and comfortable as w^ell as airy condition. The building is large, two and a-half 
stories, built of solid stone, and well plastered on studding and lath inside. It is quite 
comfortable, and must have been erected at considerable outlay by the church, and it 
could very well accommodate double as many children as the present attendance. 

Muscowpetung Agency. 

On 18th March, I commenced my inspection of this agency. Agent Lash being 
away " on leave," I received every assistance during my inspection from the clerk, Mr. 
H. R. Halpin, who appeared to be efiiciently performing the duties of agent, together 
with those of his own position. 

The agency is composed of four bands of Indians, namely, Piapot No. 75, called 
Farm 9a ; Muscowpetung No. 80, called Farm 46 ; Pasqua No. 79, and Standing Buffalo 
(Sioux) No. 78,, called Farm 4a. These farms are respectively under the direction of 
farmers McKinnon, Stewart and Hockley. 

In population the agency numbers seven hundred and eleven souls ; one hundred 
and seventy-five being non-treaty Sioux. 

Piajmfs Band. 

This band numbered at the last annuity payments, two hundred and thirty-five 
souls, namely, sixty-four men, one hundred women, thirty-six boys and thirty-five girls. 
The average number living on the reserve during the j)ast six months, two hundred and 
twenty-four. There are fifty-eight men and eight women heads of families, who occupy 
thirty houses. 

Since July 1890, there have been eighteen deaths among them, (fourteen adults 
and four infants), and nine births in the same period. 

In former years Piapot had a great number of followers, nearly fifteeA hundred 
having been fed and paid their annuities under his standard at one time ; they dwindled 
away, through desertions and disease, a|nd in 1887 his band numbered two hundred and 
ninety-six only, then each year has shown a steady decrease in its numbers. 

158 [PAET i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Farm Work. 

The band had one hundred and twenty-six acres under crop the past year, namely, 
•seventy-one acres wheat, nine acres rye, seventeen acres potatoes, five acres turnips, and 
four acres gardens, from which they harvested eight hundred and five bushels wheat, no 
rye, one thousand bushels potatoes, and five hundred and thirty bushels turnips. 

The above crops were grown on sixty-three acres fall plowing, eight acres summer 
fallow, and fifty-five acres spring plowing ; all the crops were light in yield, and there 
was little if any difference between the systems of farming ; the potatoes could almost 
be counted a failure, as those harvested were small and immature. 

The crops were owned by thirty-eight Indians only, who may be called Master 
Farmers, and they were assisted by eighteen others who worked for them as farm 
laborers. 

The acreage of crop was pretty evenly divided among these thirty-eight ; the largest 
farmers being Lame Fox and jjartner, they have twelve acres wheat, one and a-half 
acres potatoes and half an acre turnips, total fourteen acres. George Howe, as an indi- 
vidual farming alone, came next with six and a-half acres wheat, half an acre potatoes 
and garden, and a quarter of an acre of turnips, total seven and a quarter acres. 

During the winter they have taken two grists of wheat to the Qu'Appelle Valley 
Mills, two hundred bushels and one hundred bushels respectively, receiving total returns 
of fifty-four sacks flour or eighteen pounds of flour per bushel. 

I made a house to house visit, the women have yet a great deal to learn in the way 
of housekeeping ; there were a good many down sick but the Doctor was visiting them. 

Of the thirty dwellings, twenty-four are floored, and all have mud roofs, and are 
low, one story, one roomed structures ; some families are accumulating a few domestic 
utensils, I counted five cooking stoves, and five box stoves, in as many different houses. 
Some have coal-oil lamps, most of them, have their beds raised on bunks from the floor, 
and some have tables. I did not observe any destitution, the sick ones and their 
inability to properly nurse and feed them, was the most conspicuous black spot in their 
surrounding at the time of my visit. 

Through their large trade in hay, for which they have ready sale in Regina, indivi- 
dual members of this band have acquired a number of farming implements, vehicles, 
harness, (tc. Chief Piapot owns two lumber wagons, two buckboards and a set of 
harness; Rock Chief owns a lumber wagon, a buckboard and a bob-sleigh; Thunder 
Rock owns a wagon and a bob-sleigh ; Naked Widow owns a wagon ; Charles Fox owns 
a wagon ; Big Sky owns two wagons, a mower and horse rake and bob-sleighs ; Lame 
Fox owns a wagon, mower and horse rake and bob-sleighs ; Two Horns owns a wagon, 
a mower and horse rake and bob-sleighs ; Ka-moot-ah-hen owns a wagon and bob-sleighs. 
The following own a farm wagon only : Sitting Back, Pee-ay-soo, Suranip, Archir Rock, 
and Spy Glass, Na-ah-tre ; Young Headman owns a wagon and mower. 

The earnings of this band by the sale of hay is a remarkable feature of their 
industry, but as I intend to treat of the agency as a whole in this matter, I will make 
no further allusion to it here. 

Live Stock. 

They have one hundred and five head of cattle, namely : Forty-three work oxen, 
one bull, eighteen cows, eight steers, nineteen heifers, nine bull and seven heifer calves. 
These animals are in the hands of twenty-four Indians, seven of whom have oxen only, 
Among them they own one hundred and five horses. 

This having been rather a mild winter, most of their cattle ran out, they look pretty 
well, some oxen are thin, having been hauling ha}/ to Regina nearly all winter. The stables 
here have not the farmer-like appearance of those of the Wood-Crees, and are more 
used for their horses, than for their cattle ; if a storm is brewing the Indians imme- 
diately hunt up Iheir horses and drive them into shelter, leaving their cattle to remain 
out. 

I audited the books and examined into the issues, I found them quite correct. I 
examined the tools and implements in use, and condemned and wrote off the books such 
of them as are worn out. 

[part i] 159 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The farmer keeps a horse and a cow, he also has in his charge two steers and a 
bull calf. He is living in a house which was built for the purpose of a boarding and 
day school, by the Presbyterian Church ; it is admirably suited for a farm house, being- 
commodious and comfortable ; the other buildings are in a good state of repair, and are 
kept in an orderly manner. 

The farmer had a crop for the use of his establishment, namely, eight acres oats, 
one acre potatoes ; quarter acre garden, yielding seventy bushels oats, and sixty bushels 
potatoes ; he put up twenty-five tons of hay for his animals. 

Pasquah Band, JS^o. 79, Fa7'm ^a. 

Farmer Hockley has been in charge of this band since 1882 ; he was assistant to 
Farming Instructor Newlove in 1881, and upon his being retired from the position Mr. 
Hockley was allowed to lake his place, and he has managed the work very creditably, 
and with more or less success, according to the season being favourable for farming or 
not, ever since. 

The band has not been so easily managed, as it was composed of a chief (Pasqua 
now dead two years) who had a mind of his own, and who, when prosperous, would have 
his own way, and when a year of adversity arose, wished to dictate the management. 
A good many of his band are Halfbreecls, and partly civilized Indians, who are natur- 
ally improvident, and trust to luck, but since the death of the chief, they are doing 
better, and with a good crop this year, and a ready sale for dry cordwood in the town 
of Fort Qu'Appelle, they have got along very well. 

They numbered at the last annuity payments, one hundred and seventy-six souls,, 
one hundred and twenty-four of whom are now on the reserve. The absentees are, in 
a measure, accounted for by a family living at Skunk Bluff, and another family at Turtle 
Mountain, United States. Nineteen of the children are at the Qu'Appelle Industrial 
School, and ten are at the Presbyterian Boarding School. 

Since 30th June last, the births are entered eleven, and the deaths six. 

Farm Work. 

The band had ninety^five acres in crop last year, namely : seventy-seven acres 
wheat, two acres oats, six acres rye, six acres potatoes, two acres turnips, and two acres 
gardens. The yield was one thousand four hundred and seventy -five bushels wheat, 
one hundred and two bushels oats, forty-five bushels rye, six hundred and eighty-four 
bushels of potatoes, two hundred and forty-two bushels tur-nips. The produce of the 
gardens was eaten as it grew. 

They have gristed a good deal of their wheat, the result being a yield of flour from 
fifteen to twenty-four pounds to each bushel. 

The crops are owned by thirty-six different Indians, the largest farmer being George 
Asham, who had eighteen acres wheat, one acre oats, quarter acre potatoes, and an 
eighth of an acre turnips. Coming next to him is Tom Stevenson and Wah-chaw, who 
had twelve acres wheat and a quarter acre of potatoes. Following these are nineteen 
with four acres wheat or less, and potatoes, and some turnips, and fourteen raised roots 
only. The crops were grown upon thirty-seven acres summer fallow, three acres back- 
setting, and the balance spring plowing, the back-setting proved to be the cleanest, and 
best crop. 

There are twenty-nine men on the reserve fit to do a day's work ; in this number 
are included some boys over seventeen years old. 

The forty families live in thirty-one houses. Some of the houses may be called 
comfortable dwellings, while others of them are by comparison mere huts. Tom 
Stevenson's new house is the best Indian house in the agency, being a story and a half, 
floored upstairs and down, and comfortably furnished. He has also good stables and a 
good granary Although he is " treaty," he is an intelligent half-breed. His wife is a 
daughter of deceased Chief Pasquah, and owes her domestic knowledge to Mrs. 
Hockley, who taught her to be a civilized woman. 
160 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The following Indians have built new houses since the last inspection : E-chu-was- 
ce-qua-poo, Wah-chau, Josiah Matoney, Tom Stevenson. These houses are finished with 
floors, windows, &c., and two of them are story and a-half with thatched roofs. Peter 
Dubois, James Dubois, Au-ta-jjah have new houses, but they are not floored, and have 
only the ordinary mud roof. 

If these Indians had good building timber available, I have no doubt but their 
buildings would assume a more substantial appearance : as it is, they do pretty well in 
this way under the circumstances. 

Most of them are accumulating useful farming implements, which they have pur- 
chased from the proceeds of the sale of farm produce, animals, wood and hay. Tom Le 
Mack has a waggon and two setts of bob-sleighs. Assinacappo has a waggon. John 
Asham has a waggon, a share in a mower, a bob-sleigh, and a good set of harness. Go- 
to- wess has a waggon and bob-sleighs. Ka-kee-ke-sick has a mower, horse rake and bob- 
sleighs. William Dubois has a waggon. Peter Dubois has a waggon. Albert Asham 
has a waggon and bob-sleighs. E-cha-was-com-e-qua-poo has a waggon and bob-sleighs. 
Josiah Matoney has a waggon. Sam Seers has a waggon and bob-sleighs. Antoine 
Seers has a waggon, bob-sleighs, mower, horse rake, and a light waggon. George Asham 
has a waggon and bob-sleighs. Tom Stevenson has a waggon, bob-sleighs, cutter, light 
waggon, plow, harrows, double harness, mower and horse rake. Charley Asham has a 
share in a mower along with his brother John. 

Most of the men of this band are handy about making bob-sleighs, wooden ox 
collars, tfec, and some of them are fair rough carpenters. 

The following women of this band have profited by the domestic instruction of 
Mrs. Hockley, to the extent that they can knit, cut and make dresses, men's clothing, 
make butter and bread, and perform general housework satisfactorily : Mrs. Stevenson, 
Mrs. Echias, Maggie Le Mack, Mary Pasqua, Mrs. Tom Le Mack, Mrs. Sam Seers, Mrs. 
Antoine Seers, Mrs. Thomas Daniels, Mrs. John Le Mack. Nearly all the other women 
can do rough housework with more or less expertness. 

Live Stock. 

This band has one hundred and seventeen head of cattle under departmental 
control, and Tom Stevenson has five head, his own private property. They own seventy 
horses. 

The cattle are in the hands of thirty individuals and are pretty evenly divided. 
Tom Le Mack has seven head. Wah-chan (Pasquah's son) coming next with six head. 
The cattle consist of forty-one oxen, twenty-six cows, twenty-two steers, twelve heifers, 
eight bull and eight heifer calves. 

The animals are all domesticated and stabled during the winter, each owner of 
cattle having a stable which I found to be in good repair, clean, and well provided with 
hay. 

Individual Indians were allowed to kill twelve animals for their own use during the 
winter, and three were killed and taken into store for general issue. 

Standing Buffalo Band, No. 78 (Sioux). 

Farmer Hockley has charge of this band also. 

It is eight years since I visited this band. They still continue to live in a village 
in the gulch running up from the lake. Some of the houses have had additions built to 
them, others have been entirely rebuilt ; a good many of them are now floored ; some 
contain cooking stoves, chairs, tables, lamps and sleeping bunks. The houses generally 
were clean. The women and children were fairly well dressed, and appear to be in 
easy circumstances. 

Some eighteen or twenty of the men were at home ; those away were chopping and 
hauling firewood to the town of Fort Qu'Appelle. They are all strong looking fellows, 
and look well able to do a good day's work. 

When all are at home, there are about one hundred and seventy-five souls in this 
band, but as they are not paid annuities, and hold their national objection to being 

[part i] 161 

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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



counted, it is difficult to arrive at their exact numbers. Some families visit about a 
great deal, going away for a week, a month, a year at a time. The working Indians are 
about one-sixth of the population on the reserve, and number from fifteen to twenty-five. 

There are forty dwellings, ten of these have no floors, twenty have the ordinary 
mud roof, and twenty have thatched roofs ; three contain cooking stoves, and four have 
box stoves. 

Some improvements of a permanent nature have been made since the last inspec- 
tion. Chas-che-cha has built a new house, it has a mud roof, but it is floored. James's 
son-in-law has a new houpe ; mud roof, no floor. Although this house has no floor, it 
was particularly clean, and neatly arranged. Chands-pah-wah-tah has a new house and 
a new stable, the house has a thatched roof and is floored. Pah-dah-nah has a new 
house ; mud roof and a kind of floor. Wee-ah-mah-tappe has a new stable with a ridge 
pole roof. E-ne-tah-do-tah, a new stable and corrall. Moses rebuilt his house ; it has a 
thatched roof, is floored, and very clean. U-ze-che rebuilt his house ; it has an ordinary 
mud roof, and is floored. 0-cow-o-pah rebuilt his house ; it has a thatched roof, and is 
floored. 

All the fences have been rebuilt, and nearly all the stables. A number of the 
stables are furnished with staunchions, which is the most convenient and economical 
manner for confining catttle in their stables. 

The band sold large quantities of dry cord wood to the flour mills in Fort Qu'Ap- 
pelle, the price received was |2 a cord in trade, or $1.75 in cash. 

There are several Indians who have already commenced to purchase useful articles 
to assist them in farming. Susie Patrice owns a farm waggon and bob-sleighs and a 
buggy. My-cam-e-how and Doctor each own a farm waggon. Frank and Moses have 
each bob-sleighs, and nearly every family has a light waggon. 

Farm Work. 

They had in crop last year twenty-seven acres of wheat, four acres oats, five acres 
potatoes, two acres turnips, one acre gardens ; total, thirty-nine acres. 

Six acres of this wheat was on breaking, and the balance spring plowing. The 
wheat yielded six hundred bushels, one hundred bushels is being saved for seed, the 
oats yielded two hundred bushels, twenty are being kept for seed and the balance has 
either been sold or fed. Turnips yielded seven hundred bushels, and the potatoes a like 
quantity, of the latter one hundred and fifty bushels have been stored for seed, and the 
balance are being used by the band. 

They have made some preparation for the spring seeding, having thirteen acres 
summer fallowed. Susie Patrice has six acres, Luswiss six acres. Chunk -how one acre, 
and four acres fall ploughed. 

Thirteen of these Indians farm in severalty, and fifteen others (men and boys) had 
a common field, containing two acres potatoes, and one and a-half acres turnips. Potatoes 
and turnips were grown in the gulch, the wheat on the high bench land. The frost came 
about the same time in both situations. 

The births entered since July, 1890, are four, and the deaths eleven. The deaths 
were principally among children, there being nine between the ages of one and three 
years. 

They have forty-seven head of cattle, under Departmental control, namely, nineteen 
oxen, eight cows, seven steers, six heifers, three bull and four heifer calves. They are 
in the hands of fourteen persons, ten having a yoke of oxen and one cow each, the others 
are distributed in numbers of two, three, four, five and six animals each. 

Although the oxen have been worked hard, hauling cordwood to Fort Qu'Appelle 
all winter (the band's principal source of sustenance), they were in fair condition. The 
cows and young stock also looked well. They had abundance of hay, having stacked 
one hundred and twenty-two tons. 

Each farmer has a stable and some of them corralls also, they were clean and had 
the appearance of being well looked after. 



162 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) ^ A. 1892 



They have forty-five private horses. They killed, by permission, six head of their 
cattle during the winter, for beef. 

There is a boarding and day school here, under the supervision of the Roman 
Catholic Chui*ch, it is directed and taught by Mr. and Mrs. Norman Leslie. I visited 
the schoolroom, there were eighteen pupils present, ten of them were boarders. 



Home Farm. 

Farmer Hockley raised three hundred bushels oats and twenty bushels potatoes for 
the use of his farm. He has two horses, two calves and a native mare and colt in his 
charge, and he put up twenty tons of hay. 

He has been living in his new house only a short time. It is a very suitable house 
for a farmer, being of moderate size, frame, on a stone foundation, having a good cellar. 
It is situated on a living stream or creek, but he has also a good well with a pump in it. 

I audited the farmer's books and checked them with those of the agency. I found 
both the receipts and issues entered regularly and accurately. 

I examined the goods in use and condemned those worn and useless. I also ex- 
amined the cattle registers, and found them kept according to form, and to agree with 
the quarterly returns sent in to the commissioner's ofiice. 

Instructress Mrs. Hockley makes regular weekly visits to the Indian houses, and 
encourages the women and girls to come to her for instruction in housewifery. It is 
well known how difficult they are to deal with being so generally indolent, improvident 
and naturally of dirty habits, but she has done much to ameliorate their condition. Her 
influence would be greater had the Indians means to build better houses, for it is hard 
for them to be neat and tidy housewives in a seven by nine log hut without a floor, and 
where the whole family live, cook, eat, sleep and use it as a nursery. 

Divine service is held every second Sunday by the Presbyterian clergyman at the 
house of Tom Stevenson. The attendance of Indians is very good ; and every second 
Sunday service is held at the Presbyterian boarding school, where they attend in large 
numbers. 

Muscowpetung Band, No. 80. 

E. C. Stewart, farmer. Farm 46, — This band numbered 125 at the last annuity 
payment, namely 34 men, 53 women, 16 boys and 22 girls ; the number resident on the 
reserve 96, the absentees being reported at Long Lake ; 20 men are classed able-bodied, 
and able to do a day's work. 

They live in 16 houses. These houses are low buildings of logs, with mud roofs, 
containing one room only. Some of these houses are of fair size, clean, and exhibit an 
appearance of comparative comfort, while others are small, dirty and overcrowded. 

Since 30th June the vital record shows : Births six, and deaths seven (four of them 
children. 

Farm Work. 

The band had 63 acres in crop, namely, 52 ar^res wheat, 7 acres potatoes and 
4 acres gardens ; yielding 440 bushels wheat and 250 bushels potatoes; 100 bushels 
of wheat and fifty bushels of potatoes are being kept for seed. 

There is a great drawback to farming operations on this reserve on account of the 
failure to get water on the bench land at a reasonable depth. For this reason it becomes 
necessary for the Indians to have their houses and stables in the valley. They did not 
do any fall plowing. 

The band had 274 tons hay in stack in October. From this quantity they supplied 
76 tons to the Department for the Government herd of cattle, and 71 tons on contract 
to the Mounted Police. They have not fed much to their own cattle as they regularly 
stabled only their working oxen. 

The farmer planted a small crop, but the yield was insignificant ; seven acres oats 
yielding only seventy bushels, and seven acres rye and half an acre potatoes were a total 
failure. He put up twenty-five tons of hay for his horse and cow. 

[part i] 163 

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55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The band have ninety head of cattle, namely twenty-five oxen, twenty-three cows, 
seventeen steers, eleven heifers, six bull and eleven heifer calves, they are on the hands 
of eighteen Indians. Every ox was worked more or less all winter hauling hay to 
Regina, They have thirteen stables, which are badly constructed, few of the Indians 
stable more of their cattle than the working oxen and they do this more to 'have them 
handy, than for any kindness towards them. Their ponies receive all their attention of 
this kind. They have thirty-two horses. 

The farmer has a comfortable residence, the premises are kept in a neat and orderly 
manner. I audited his books, and checked them with those of the agency, I found all 
goods entered regularly, and the issues agreed with the ration sheets. I examined the 
goods in use, and struck from the list those worn out. 

I checked the cattle registers, and observed that it will take a " round up " to recon- 
cile them with the returns. 

Indian Office and Agency Buildings. 

The agency buildings consist of agent's house, clerk's house, office storehouse, car- 
penter and blacksmith's shop, stables &c., they were all freshly painted last summer, and 
are in good repair. They are kept in a manner creditable to the department. 

I audited the books, and after taking stock compared the same with the balances of 
the different accounts. 

I also examined the goods in use and condemned those worn out. 

The office work had been performed in a regular manner, and systematically, Letters 
and circulars received, copies of farm returns and agency returns were properly fyled. 

Vital Statistics. 

The records for the fiscal year 1890-91 shows total births twenty-four, total deaths 
seventy-seven. 

An account is kept of the individual earnings of the Indians of this agency ; from 
30th June 1890 to 31st March 1891, the gross earnings of all the bands are entered, and 
amount to $5,527, this amount is made up as follows, for sales of fire wood, $1,081, for 
sales of hay, $3,407, for sales of beef, $228, miscellaneous earnings $810. 

In reviewing the work performed in this agency, I would wish to give honour where 
honour is due. Mr. Lash is a most efficient Indian Agent, and the Instructors are 
experienced men in the management of Indians. The present standing of the Indians 
has been reached by years of patient teaching and good example. The families of the 
officials have not been without their good influence, upon the women of the bands, 
kind measures have been at w^ork in that direction, and their good effects can be seen in 
every Indian household. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

T. P. WADSWORTH, 

Inspector Indian Agencies. 



ScuGOG Reserve. 

ScuGOG, Ont., 26th, October 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for the 
year ended 30th, June 1891. 

I have no material changes to note in the affairs of the Scugog Band since my last 
report. Farming operations have been carried on as usual, and have proved fairly suc- 
cessful, some of the Indians raising large crops of wheat, oats and peas, the crops turned 
out much better than last season. I have never seen their garden crops looking as well 
164 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



as this year, large quantities of potatoes and corn were raised by several of the Indians, 
the result of care and industry. I also report with pleasure, that the use of liquor 
among the band is becoming less every year only a very few of the Indians are addicted 
at all to drink, and I yet hope to see this degrading and injurious habit thoroughly and 
completely stamped out. The hotel keepers and dealers will not sell any Indian intox- 
icants, but a few besotted wrecks of white men still run the risk of procuring them 
whiskey occasionally, but I will sooner or later convict these parties, and when caught 
I intend punishing them so severely, it will prove a lesson to others. 

The good fishing still proves a source of considerable profit to this band, not only 
during the summer months, but all through the winter as well. They succeeded in tak- 
ing with hook and line through the ice large numbers of fine bass, all they wanted for 
home consumption, besides shipping every week quantities to Toronto and other points, 
getting for them eight and nine cents per lb. (whole) for all they could ship, fully sup- 
plying the Toronto market. I have tried to make as careful an estimate of fish taken, 
as possible, but owing to the large quantities used for home consumption, it is hard to 
arrive at an exact estimate. 

I am glad to report, that most of the Scugog Indians ar almost free from debt, and 
with a very few exceptions are comfortable, contented and happy. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

GEO. B. McDERMOT, 

Agent. 



River Bourgeois, N.S., 1st October, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — In forwarding my annual report, with tabular statement, on the state of the 
Indians of this district, I regret to have to say that the Indians suffered severely the last 
winter and spring from the ravages of "la grippe," which has been epidemic among the 
Indians, as well as among the white people, in this part of the country. The services 
of two physicians were required for a time to render needed medical aid to the plague- 
stricken people ; and, notwithstanding the best efforts of these gentlemen to save life, a 
number of children and three or four adults succumbed to the disease. At present all 
are well, and no traces of the sickness are to be found among them. 

In regard to their circumstances, I do not know that any improvement can be 
reported ; and there is no indication, at far as I can see, of any increased interest being 
taken in the work of cultivating the land. I find these Indians more inclined to the 
occupation of fishing than that of farming. They own a few large boats, which they 
built themselves, and those who are able to get the necessary outfit make a fairly 
successful fishing. 

The school on the reserve continues in operation. Those children who are regular 
in attendance make fair progress. A number of families move away during the summer 
months into neighbouring towns and villages, and their children are on this account 
deprived of the benefits of the school for a considerable portion of the year. 

The new church on Indian Island has been opened this year for divine service. It 
is a neat and commodious edifice, well built and comfortably furnished — a lasting credit 
to the faith and religious zeal of the Indian population and to all others who contributed 
towards the good work. The Indians of the whole island are sincerely grateful for the 
substantial aid granted by the Department^at this time so much needed. And I also 
beg to take this opportunity of thanking the Government for the timely assistance thus 
afforded the poor Micmacs of Cape Breton. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

M. McKENZIE, 

Indian Agent. 
[part i] 165 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



North-Eastern Superintendency, 

Chatham Head, N.B., 17th October, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my report for the year ended 30th June, 1891, 
and tabular statement of Indian matters in connection with the lands under my 
superintendency. 

Eel River Reserve, Restigouche County. 

There is little to report different, from my last, in connection with this band ; 
they follow the usual avocations — fishing, labouring for white men, and a little farming, 
the latter not receiving as much attention as it might, although the chances for farming 
are not very good. 

They have been cut off from their fishing by changes in the local fishing regulations, 
but are fairly comfortable. 

Papineau Reserve, Gloucester County. 

The Indians who remain on this reserve and exert themselves are very comfort- 
able ; they can earn a great deal acting as guides, the Nepisiguit being famous for its 
salmon and trout fishing. Their land is good, and they are able to cultivate it. Some 
of them hunt in the winter, and do well with the pelts they have to sell. The Indians 
who have left the reserve are not doing well. 

Red Bank Reserve, Northumberland County. 

This settlement, on the Miramichi, lies at the mouth of the Little South- West River, . 
on the Main North- West, both fine rivers for fish, but the laws are so stringent the 
Indians derive little benefit from fishing. 

Their land is good, and any of them who give it their attention can make them- 
selves comfortable. 

There is quite a village near, with saw and grist mills, and they have good oppor- 
tunities of helping themselves if so disposed. They have also a neat chapel and resident 
priest. 

Eel Ground, Northumberland County. 

This reserve has a large population. It is nicely situated on the Main North- West 
branch of the Miramichi ; the land is very fair and yields good crops. There are a 
number of comfortable houses, a neat church and school-house. The priest of the district 
visits them at stated times, and the school teacher, Mr. Michael Flinn, endeavours to 
impress upon the children the necessity of attention to their studies. A number of the 
men work in the ships and mills during the summer, earning a good deal, but they 
suffer from the use of liquor, which it seems impossible to keep from them. 

Burnt Church, Northumberland County. 

This band is not as comfortable as it ought to be, considering its many advantages. 
This land is fair, and they have fishing nearly all the year round. They have an old 
church, which is kept in good repair, and a very good school-house, under the charge of 
a young lady. 

This reserve has the largest population of any in my superintendency, and at their 
great festival of Ste. Anne they have a number of visitors, and all work is suspended 
for a week for its celebration 

Big Cove, Kent County. 

This is a fine reserve, and the Indians are in good circumstances ; their land is very 
good, and they give a good deal of attention to fishing, and to the manufacturing of 
rustic furniture, for which they are well paid. They also work in the mills in summer 
and in the lumber camps in winter. There is a nice church in good repair, and they are 
determined to keep it so 
166 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Indian Island, Kent County. 

This band depends chiefly on fishing. The reserve is small, and the land not very 
good, but they raise more or less crop every year. They have a nice church, and deserve 
credit for the use they have made of their opportunities. 

Buctouche, Kent County. 

This is as good a reserve for farming purposes as any in the superintendency, but it 
is now partly settled by white men. Many of the Indians have left, but those who 
remain are fairly comfortable, and can do very well by fishing and farming. 

Shediac, Westmoreland County. 

This band is not improving. The Indians as a rule do not try to improve, and their 
roving propensities are fostered by the ease with which they can move about by rail, 
and the bad effects are seen in their condition. A few of them living on the Abon- 
shagan, below Shediac, try to farm a little, and were more comfortable than the 
majority. 

Fort Folly, Westmoreland County. 

This band has a poor chance, the land being poor and no firewood on it. The 
Indians manufacture their wares, and fish a little. They also have a church on the 
reserve. There is a stone quarry quite near, but that is work which they do not appear 
to try. 

I cannot say that this band is improving. There is little or no change ; they move 
along in the usual way, and will always do so. There appears to be a little ambition and 
a desire to improve in some sections, but the majority are careless, thinking only of the 
present, and feel as if the Government should give them whatever they want. 

Notwithstanding the stringency of the regulations regarding the sale of spirituous 
liquor to the Indians they do procure it, and are made miserable by its use. I trust 
we may by some means be able to put a stop to it. 

I have the honour to be. 

Your obedient servant, 

CHAS. SARGEANT, 

Indian Agent. 



Battleford Industrial School, 

' Battleford, 29th September, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith my eighth annual report of the Battle- 
ford Industrial School, also inventory of all Government property under my charge. 

It is most gratifying to report that the instruction imparted to the Indian youth 
in all departments during the past year has been attended with excellent results. 

In the class-rooms the pupils continue to make good progress under the able tuition 
of Mr. and Mrs. Ashby, who have worked faithfully in the discharge of their respective 
duties. The half-time system has worked admirably, thereby giving all the pupils half 
a day in the class-room and half a day at industrial training, thus making the best 
possible use of the time. 

Attendance. 

We commenced the year with fifty-six pupils on the roll and closed with one 
hundred and twenty, thus materially augmenting the number in a few months. A 
number of these children were procured from the Duck Lake and Carlton agencies by 
the Commissioner and myself during the winter. 

[part i] 167 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



No objections were raised by the Indians on account of the long distance, as they 
were willing to send their children in the coldest season of the year. 

The fact that the Indians are becoming mDre and more civilized and christianized 
is very evident, together with the fact that they have an ardent desire to acquire 
knowledge, and to have their children trained to become useful citizens. This system 
of industrial schools appears to be the best channel through which to convey this 
knowledge. 

Trade Instruction. 

Carpenter'' s Shop. — Mr. Gatley continues to be in charge of this department. 
During the past year the total earnings amount to $630, that is for work done for the 
institution, reserves and agency. The pupils worked well, were obedient, and exhibited 
their skill in the work accomplished by them, our main object being to give then;i a 
thorough practical training. 

BlacksjYiitKs Shop. — During the early part of the year our blacksmith, Mr. 
McKinnon, was suffering from consumption, and could not devote full time to his work. 
He was a faithful, skilled and energetic man. He expired in the month of January. 
Since then the shop has been kept regularly open, and the pupils made good progress. 
As in previous years, all blacksmithing for the reserves and agency has been performed 
by our boys and smith. 

You will be pleased to know that several pupils have left the school during the 
year, and are now termed " out-students." 

From reports received from their guardians or masters, I have much pleasure in 
stating that they are giving genera] satisfaction. One main object before us is to keep 
a watchful care over those who leave the institution, and follow them through life, to be 
able to judge of the results of this training. 

Two boys are running the grist and saw-mill at Onion Lake. Another has been 
transferred to Emmanuel College, Prince Albert, to be further instructed as a teacher. 

Those who were trained as farmers have taken up land on the reserves and are 
retaining the civilizing influences and doing well. 

Female Depart^nent. 

The female ^pupils have made excellent progress in sewing, cooking, washing, iron- 
ing, general housework, etc., under their respective teachers, performing their duties 
cheerfully and satisfactorily ; those in service are doing remarkably well and are highly 
spoken off by their guardians. 

With increased accommodation, a greater number of girls could be advantageously 
trained, as there would be no difficulty in procuring them from the Duck Lake and Carl- 
ton agencies, and a great many more could be found in this district. An addition of 
forty by fifty feet would meet our requirements. 

Imp7-ovei7ients. 

During the year the following improvements have been made : 

A new laundry, with drying-room upstairs, properly fitted up. 

Principal's residence, thirty-four by twenty-two feet, two stories and a kitchen 
twenty by sixteen feet. This was built by our carpenter and boys, with the assistance 
of one man for a short time. The work was performed in a neat and workmanlike 
manner. The building is warm and comfortable. 

The windmill also was completed and works admirably. 

A first-class system of fire protection was also laid throughout the whole building, 
a large tank being placed in the attic of the main building, with over-flow pipes to fill 
other tanks, thus enabling us always to have a good supply of water on hand. 

The boys' and girls' lavatories have also been fitted up with baths, wash basins and 
a good supply of water. The attic of the new addition has been lathed and plastered, 
and made into a comfortable sewing and knitting room. The basement has also been 
lathed and plastered, and is now a comfortable play-room^ for the girls. 
168 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.j A. 1892 



The drain which was laid hist fall seven hundred feet in length has been a great 
boon to the institution, and rendered it much more healthy. 

All the improvements have been made in the right direction, and show the good 
judgment of the Commissioner in expending the money to the best possible advantage, 
and the results are very marked. 

The sanitary condition of the children has been generally good. There has been 
only one death during the year and that from consumption. 

To complete the requirements of the institution we need a new hospital, black- 
smith's shop and recreation room for the boys. 

The pupils have made good progress in speaking the English language, and still 
continue to improve in this respect. 

I cannot close without expressing my appreciation of the great interest taken in the 
institution by the Commissioner, and for the valuable aid rendered by Agents Williams 
.and McKenzie in obtaining pupils for the school. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

T. CLARKE, 

V Principal. 



Metlakahtla, B.C., 28th October, 1891. 
To the Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to* forward to your Department my annual report and 
tabular statement for the North- West Coast Indian Agency for the year ended 30th 
June, 1891. 

The Indians of this district are as quiet and peaceable as they can be after such a 
turbulent time as existed for many years amongst them. 

Those of the northern portion of the district have not earned quite as much money 
.at the salmon canneries this year as formerly, owing to a partial failure of the salmon 
run on the Skeena and Naas Rivers. 

Many of these Indians went to the hop fields of Puget Sound for employment, 
■where they also failed to obtain much labour, and realized but little profit. 

The high price of furs, however, and the many new employments furnished for 
Indians by white settlers, and new salmon canneries being constantly built, together with 
the ease with which Indians can procure abundance of shell fish and venison, renders 
their subsistance practically safe at all times. 

Of course there are always a few destitute helpless ones requiring slight assistance 
by the Department. 

The reservation of Indian lands in this district having been completed this year by 
the Reserve Commissioner, the land agitation and consequent hostile feelings will 
gradually vanish. 

These Indians are amj)ly provided with land. 

The little steamer Vigilant, belonging to the Department here, has been very useful 
iihis year, not only to your agent, but also in otherwise assisting Government work on 
the coast. v 

The steamer has been greatly improved this year by the addition of a new brass 
propeller and some alterations which were made to the machinery. 

The Metlakahtla Industrial School has been most successfully conducted this year 
also, the Principal Mr. Scott having secured the entire confidence of even the educated 
agitators amongst the Indians, who at first proclaimed aloud that the " Government 
school would prove an additional snare to the poor Indian." 

There were many deaths amongst the Indians of some bands last spring by influenza, 
notably the Hydah, the Kitkahtlas and the Kitck-shaus. 

[part i] 169 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892" 



The missionary doctors and teachers deserve great credit for their enthusiastic work 
among and attention to sick Indians, one doctor having had no less than eighty patients 
daily for about three weeks, and attending to them at their different cabins. The- 
missionary teachers provided many necessaries and comforts for the sick people. 

The principal place of sickness was at the Skeena River canneries. 

The completion of a new hospital at Metlakahtla for Indian and white patients has 
already been a great blessing to many sick Indians. 

The deaths caused by " la grippe " are, partly, the cause of a decrease in the numbers 
of some of the bands. 

The notable increase to the populations of Bella Bella and China Hat is caused 
principally by the absorption of the entire band of Coquiettes, whose village was des- 
troyed by fire last year. 

Several buildings at Metlakahtla were unfortunately destroyed by fire last May, 
causing the destruction also of the agency building and ofiice, together with some Gov- 
ernment property of small value. 

Another new and commodious agent's residence and office is being constructed at 
Metlakahtla. 

The Indians of this district have been supplied this year with the usual amount of free 
medicines from the Indian Department through the missionaries and medical men here,, 
also with such garden seeds as they require, and they have no reasonable grounds for- 
complaint in any respect, either against the white settlers and traders in the district or- 



against the Government. 



I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant,. 
C. TODD, 
* Indian Agent. 



Industrial School, 

^Metlakahtla, B.C., 2nd E'ovember, 1891.. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to forwand herewith an inventory of the Government pro- 
perty under my charge, and also to submit the following as my report for the fiscal year 
ended the 30th June last. 

At the commencement of the year twenty-two pupils were in the school. Three 
more were shortly afterwards admitted, and the increased number, twenty-five, was 
maintained until about the end of the year, when it was reduced to nineteen. 

In the beginning of April the epidemic influenza known as "la grippe " visited the 
Indian village here, and shortly afterwards extended to this institution, attacking all 
officers and pupils, except the trades instructor and two of the boys. Charles Wesley,. 
a bright little Hydah, the first attacked, although tended with much care, died after a 
month's illness. Trade and class instruction was suspended for three weeks.. The want 
of sufficient accommodation was much felt. My office and sitting-room had for three- 
weeks to be set apart for the treatment of the worst cases. Bishop Ridley, the Rev. 
R. W. Gurd, Mr. Agent Todd and Miss Dickenson kindly extended to the school their 
sympathy and assistance. 

Under class instruction the progress of pupils, with two or three exceptions, has 
been satisfactory. The elder boys, who were admitted during the first year of the 
school's existence, understand and speak English fairly well. 

Thirteen boys received some instruction in carpentry — the trade likely to be of the- 
greatest service to them on leaving — and the most of these exhibit an aptitude for the 
work. The instructor with their help, built a work-shop, drying-room, fowl-house and 
wood-shed, besides making clothes-presses and other articles of furniture ; and with the 
170 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892' 



help of the puplis generally, kept our roads, etc., in repair, and attended to the fatigue 
work of of the institution. 

Such changes as have been made in the personnel of the staff have much improved 
the working efficiency of the school, besides effecting a saving in payments under 
"salaries and wages." 

Dr. Ardagh, on many occasions during the year, kindly visited and prescribed for 
the pupils without making any charge. 

The conduct of the boys continues good, and a spirit of contentment prevails in the 
school. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

JNO. R. SCOTT, 

Principal. 



Victoria, B.C., 16th November, 1891. 
P. O'Reilly, Esq., 

Indian Reserve Commissioner, 
Victoria, B.C. 

Sir, — I have the honour to present the following report, covering the past season's 
work. 

In obedience to your instructions of the 3rd of April, I organized a party find left 
Victoria on the 1 5th c f that month for Nass River, for the purpose of completing the 
surveys of the Kincolith, Stony Point and Grenville reserves, arriving there on the 20th. 

Having finished the above mentioned work, I proceeded to Observatory Inlet on 
the 2nd of May, and there continued the surveys which were begun by me last season. 

On the 21st of May I started for the head of Portland Canal, and surveyed the 
three reserves in that locality. This completed the survey of all the allotments which 
had been made to the Nass River Indians. 

On the 6th June I took passage per steamer " Danube ' for the Skeena River j- 
where I surveyed three small reserves for the Tsimpsean Indians. 

I was greatly detained through stormy weather, both on the Skeena River and 
while en route to Lowe Inlet, and did not arrive at that place until the 19th of June. 
Here I surveyed the Kumowa reserve for the Kitkahtla Indians. 

I then moved camp to Hartly Bay, and surveyed the Kul-ka-yu reserve belonging to 
the Kitkahta Indians, and thence to Kitkahtla Bay, where I surveyed all the reserves 
which had been allotted to this tribe. 

On the 15th of July I moved camp to Kitimat, and completed the survey of the 
reserves for that tribe. 

From Kitimat I moved to the head of Gardner Inlet, where I surveyed three reserves 
for the Kitlope Indians, and then returned to Hartly Bay, where I arrived on the 1 8th 
of August. • 

While at Hartly Bay, I received instructions from you regarding the survey of 
additional reserves allotted to the Kitkahtla Indians, and I decided first to survey all 
those which were in exposed positions on the coast, and on the 19th of August I left 
Hartly Bay with this end in view and surveyed Pa-aat, Klap-thlon, Kul and Key-ar-ka 
reserves, returning to Dolphin Island on the 3rd of September. 

I had great difficulty in carrying out my work on this island, owing to the continuous 
stormy weather and the roughness of the. coast line, which I found greater in extent of 
mileage than I anticipated. I also surveyed Grassy and Sand Islands for this tribe. 

Owing to the inclement state of the weather I deemed it advisable to strike camp 
and move to Hartly Bay, but while en route for that place I was picked up by the 
steamer " Princess Louise," where I met you, and having explained how unadvisable it 
would be to retain the party in the field longer, I received your instructions to report 
at Victoria, after completing the survey of the Alert Bay industrial school reserve. 

[part i] 171 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



This I did, and arrived in Victoria on the 1st of November, where I paid off my party, 
having first carefully stored the camp equipment, 

I have enclosed a schedule showing the reserves surveyed and the number of miles 
run. This return is not very large, owing to the great distance which the reserves are 
apart, the total distance covered by canoe for the season being 825 miles. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

F. A. DEVEREUX, 

Indian Reserve Surveyor. 



172 ' [PAHT 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No 


. 14.) 




A. 1892 


Schedule of Reserves Surveyed by F. A. Devereux, 1891. 


Date. 


Tribe. 


Chains. 


Miles. 


Remarks. 


April 

do 

do 

May 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do ... ... 

do 


Nass Biver Indians. 

Reserve No. 14 

do 9 

do 10 

do 28 

do 25 

do 27 . 

do 26 

do 17 

do. 18 ... 

do 19 

Tsimpsean Indians. 

Reserve No. 23 

do 22 

do 24 

Connections 22 and 23 

Kitkahtla Indians. 

Reserve No. 3 

do 6 

do 5 


366 
280 
340 
130 
398 
150 
396 

80 
285 

65 


31 12 
2-63 

40-82 
10-54 

10-73 

8-60 
4-75 




June . ... 

do 

do 

do 


32 

38 

40 

100 




June 

August 

do 


356 

54 

142 

185 

59 

2420 

12 

38 




do 

do .... 
September .. 

October 

do ... 


do 18 

do 17 

do 1 

do 2 

do 4 

Kitkahtla Indians. 

Reserve No. 4 , 

do 1 

do 2 

do 3 

Connections 1, 2 and 3 

Kitimat Indians. 

Reserve No. 2 

do 3 




June 

July 

do 

do 

do 


240 

345 

8 

94 

156 




July 

do 


285 
90 

331 
52 

100 




do 


do 1 




do 

do 


do 4 . 

Connections 2 to 3 

Kitlope Indians. 

Reserve No. 3 

do 2 

do 1 




August 

do '.'..'.'. 


95 
233 
360 






Alert Bay " Indian Industrial School Reserve "..... 
Total distance run.. . 




October .... 


380 












109 19 






do travelled by canoe 









825 00 





[part i" 



173 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Victoria, B. C, November 16tli, 1891. 
Hon. p. O'Reilly, 

Indian Reserve Commissioner, Victoria, B.C. 

Sir, — In obedience to your instructions of the 8th May last I left Victoria on the 
13th of the same month with a party of live men via Canadian Pacific railway for 
Aschcroft where I took the British Columbia Express company's stage and travelled 
over one hundred and fifty miles north to Soda creek on the Eraser river, and surveyed 
the reserves at Soda creek and Deep creek. 

On the 15th June I crossed the Fraser river and proceeded to the Toosey Indian 
Reserve in the Chilcotin District forty-five miles from Soda creek. Here I surveyed the 
reserve and hay meadow for these Indians, and also examined the ditch at the head 
waters of Mackin river to report on the practicability of diverting the head waters of 
.said creek into the north fork of R^skie creek. 

On 3rd July I left Riskie creek and travelled forty-five miles west to the Anahan 
Reserve on the Upper Chilcotin river. I surveyed the main reserve of these Indians, and as 
-they strongly objected to the survey of their hay meadow, claiming that they should get 
it all, I deemed it advisable to defer this survey until I received further instructions. 

On 20th July I crossed the Chilcotin river to the west side a few miles above 
Hanceville. The river at that time of the year being very high I experienced great 
difficulty in crossing my outfit which I managed however without accident. I then sur- 
veyed the reserves for the Stone Indians, and recrossed the Chilcotin river, where with 
my party I proceeded in accordance with your instructions recently received to the hay 
meadow of the Anahan Indians and surveyed this reserve. 

On 14th August I left the Anahan Reserve in Upper Chilcotin and started for 
Canim lake in Lillooet District. On my way there I laid over one day (18th August) to 
survey the Toosey Indian Fishery situate on the Fraser river a few miles below the 
mouth of the Chilcotin. Then continued via Chimney creek and the Cariboo road, 
reaching Canim lake, over one hundred and sixty miles from the Anahan Reserve, on 18th 
August. I there surveyed the reserves for the Canim Lake Indians. 

On 15th September I started with my party by the Cariboo waggon road, and 
travelled eighty miles to the Bonaparte river a few miles above Cache creek, where I sur- 
veyed an addition to the old reserve for the Bonaparte Indians. 

On 28th September I left the Bonaparte Reserve and travelled by team and the 
Canadian Pacific railway, via Ashcroft to Spatsum. Here I also surveyed an addition 
to the old reserve, and made some alterations in the old surveys, then proceeded with 
pack horses eighteen miles east to Highland Valley, where I surveyed the hay meadows 
for the Cook's Ferry Indians. 

On 17th October I left Highland Valley and travelled by pack horses to Spence's 
Bridge, where I surveyed an addition to the old reserve of the Cook's Ferry Indians, 
situate about one mile south of Spence's Bridge on the Canadian Pacific railway, and 
completed my season's work on 2nd November. 

Leaving Spences' Bridge the same day with my party, I arrived in Victoria the 
following night and stored my outfit as instructed. 

During the season the weather was favourable throughout, as we did not lose more 
than five days altogether. We had frequent summer frosts in the high lands, but noth- 
ing occurred during the trip to delay the progress of the survey. 

Appended hereto is a schedule showing the reserves surveyed and mileage chained 
by me during the season. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

O. FLETCHER, D.L.S. 



174 [part i] 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Keturn of Indian Reserves, showing mileage during season of 1891, as surveyed by 

O. Fletcher, D.L.S. 



Date 
•Commenced. 


Tribes and Reserves. 


Chains. 


Miles. 


ReTnarks. 




Soda Greek Indians. 








May 30 


Reserve No. 1 ... 

do 3 

Toosey Indians. 


448-50 
1120 00 


'19-66' 




June 18 


Connection 

Reserve No. 1 

do 2 

do 3 

Anahan Indians. 


90-00 
960 00 
300 00 

44-35 




"i7-43 


Includes offset, 10 chains. 


.July 1 .... 
Aug. 8 ... 


Reserve No. 1 

do 2 

Stone Indians. 


1330-29 
537-36 


" '22-66' 


Includes offset, 9 - 78 chains, 
do 27-50 do 


.July 21.... 


Reserve No. 1 . . 

Connection 

Reserve No. 2 

Canim Lake Indians. 


929-60 

83-57 

340 00 


"16-91' 




Aug. 27...- 


Reserve No. 1 

Connections 


1020-00 

40-72 

160-00 


"15-26 






Reserve No. 2 






Bonaparte Indians. 








Sept. 21.... 


Reserve No. 3a , , 

Cook's Ferry Indians. 


524-28 


6-55 






Spatsum Reserve, No. 11« 

do Reserves (alterations) 

Highland Valley Reserve, No. 12 

Connection 


205 
69 
389 
140 
360 
187 
300 
43 
340 
173 


67 
12 
79 
80 
46 
15 
00 
75 
00 
17 


"27-62' 


Includes offset, 22 chains. 




do Reserve, No. 13. 

Connection 

do Reserve, No. H ... 

Connection 






do Reserve, No. 15 . . 

Spencer's Bridge Reserve, No. 4a ... . 

Total 






10138-58 


126 03 





Victoria, 9th November, 1891. 



O. FLETCHER, 

D.L.S. 



[part 



175 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Indian Reserve Commission, 

Victoria, B.C., November 17th, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to forward, for your information, my report of the work 
performed during the past year by the Reserve Commission and by the two parties, 
employed in the survey of Indian Reserves in British Columbia. 

As previously reported to you, Mr Devereux and party, acting under my instruc- 
tions, on the 5th April proceeded to the north coast to complete the survey of reserves 
for the Nishgar tribe of Indians which were left unfinished last year. Mr. Pevereux 
commenced his work on the Nass River, and from thence proceeded to Observatory 
Inlet and Portland Canal. He was afterwards employed in a similar manner at the 
mouth of the Skeena River and at Douglas and Gardner Inlets, where he completed the 
work entrusted to him. I had intended that Mr. Devereux should survey the several 
allotments for the Kitkahtla Indians, in which case the work on the entire coast of the 
mainland would have been completed, but owing to the boisterous weather prevalent at 
the time he was unable to visit some of the outlying fishing stations, and the rainy 
season having evidently set in, the party could no longer be worked to advantage. I 
therfore directed him to return to winter quarters. It is to be regretted that this 
course was necessary, as it will entail the expense of sending a party to that district 
next season for work that will occupy only a month or six weeks, should the weather 
prove favourable. 

Taking into consideration that the weather during the whole summer has been so 
unpropitious to surveying operations, Mr. Devereux's returns show that he accomplished 
a fair average of work, and I have reason to be satisfied with him in every respect. 

As directed in your letter of 13th April last, I informed Mr. 0. Fletcher, D.L.S., 
that he had been appointed surveyor to the Indian Reserve Commission, and that gentle- 
man reported himself for duty on the 1st May. With as little delay as possible I fur- 
nished him with the necessary instructions to enable him to commence operations, and 
having formed his party he proceeded to the interior of the mainland. He subsequently 
took the field, and surveyed the various reserves for the bands of Indians resident at 
Chilcotin, Soda Creek, Canim Lake, Bonaparte and Cook's Ferry, returning to Victoria 
on the 3rd November. 

Your telegram of 13th June having conveyed to me your approval of my sugges- 
tions with regard to defining reserves for the Kitkahtla tribe of Indians on the various 
islands situated in Queen Charlotte Sound, I proceeded to Lowe Inlet in the steamer 
" Sir James Douglas," and having taken on board Mr. Agent Todd and an interpreter, I 
visited the island situated in the archipelago between the coast of the mainland and the 
Queen Charlotte group of islands, and I set apart fourteen reserves for the use of 
the above named tribe, in addition to those previously defined by me in 1882. 

The allotment of reserves for Indians on the entire coasts of the mainland and of 
Vancouver Island is now finished. 

To further carry out the arrangement approved by you, I again left Victoria on the 
17th August in the steamer " Islander " and went in her to the mouth of the Skeena, 
and ascended that river in canoes to Hazleton, a distance of 190 miles. At this place 
I was joined by the local agent, Mr. Loring, who accompanied me during my stay in 
his district. 

I visited and completed the allotment of reserves for the several bands of Indians 
resident at Babine Lake and on the Howgwilget River, and I also made reserves on the 
Skeena River at Hazleton, Kitseguecla, Kitsclas and Kitsumkaylum. I found the dis- 
tances to be travelled far greater than I had been led to expect, and the trails in many 
places were almost impassible, which is to be accounted for by the fact that this part of 
the country is very little travelled by white men. These unforeseen difiiculties, and the 
absence of the Indians from some of the villages, rendered it impossible for me to 
accomplish all that I had intended to do. 
176 [part iJ 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



While a few of the Indians objected to reserves being made at all, on the ground 
that the whole country was virtually theirs, by far the greater number appeared glad 
that the land question was about to be finally settled, and expressed themselves well 
satisfied with the extent of the reserves I defined for them. 

I append the reports of the surveyors, Messrs. Devereux and Fletcher, together 
with schedules showing the reserves surveyed and mileage run. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant. 

P. O'REILLY, 
Indian Reserve Conmissioner. 



Penetanguishene Agency, 23rd November, 189L 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement of the 
Chippewa Indians of Beausoleil Band, for the year ended SOth June, 1891. 

The population is now three hundred and fifty-seven, an increase of nine since last 
year. The increase by birth was thirteen, by immigration eight ; decrease by death six, 
by emigration six. The deaths were all from natural causes, there being no epidemic 
of any sort on the reserve. 

Their farm products are a little in advance of last year, and I believe they will now 
give more attention to farming than heretofore, being so much encouraged by the good 
returns they got and the excellent quality of the grain and potatoes. 

The school on the reserve is still conducted by the same Indian teacher, Alfred 
McCue, and he takes great pains, and is certainly bringing the children on well who 
attend regularly. 

Chief Samuel Assance has been elected for another term, and I must say I approve 
of the choice. I have always found him to be most honourable and painstaking, and of 
good moral character. 

From the appearance of this year's crop, together with the fish they usually take, 
I think they will be amply provided for during the coming winter. 

I am much pleased to find, from year to year, that there is much less intemperance, 
and during the past year only two cases of intoxication by Indians of this band came 
under my observation. ■- 

I think in every respect they are becoming more prosperous and comfortable. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

H. H. THOMPSON, 

Indian Agent. 



Manitoba SuPERiNTENDENdY, Office of the Inspector, 

Winnipeg, 28th November, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, . 

Ottawa. 
Sir, — I have the honour to enclose herewith my fourteenth annual report of inspec- 
tion of the different Indian agencies and reserves under my supervision in Treaties 1, 
2, 3 and 5. 

I am pleased to inform you that the advancement in civilization of the Indians 
within this superintendency is reasonably satisfactory, considering their inflexible 
adherence to the wandering and improvident habits inherited for generations unknown 

[part i] 177 

14-12 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



from their untutored ancestors, who followed a roaming life over boundless prairies and 
through interminable forests in pursuit of a precarious subsistence. It is therefore 
evident from their nomadic habits that they had neither gardens nor dwelling-houses 
until the advent of fur-traders and missionaries among them two centuries ago, when 
the first glimmering rays of civilization penetrated through the clouds of ignorance 
and superstition which overshadowed their mental horizon for countless ages. Those 
intrepid English and French pioneers endured untold privations in establishing trading 
posts, missions and schools among these hostile savages, who attributed any calamity 
befalling them to those enthusiastic adventurers, and therefore frequently cruelly 
massacred them. Under those unfavourable and discouraging circumstances, these wild 
hunters and implacable warriors were gradually instructed in cultivating the ground for 
their livelihood, and in building rudely-constructed log-cabins, thatched with native grass 
or covered with cedar bark, for their protrction from the severity of their hyperborean 
winters. Hence, when the Government negotiated with them, about twenty years ago, 
for the surrender of their lands, many of them were domiciled in the vicinities of the 
principal trading posts established throughout the country, and were annually raising 
considerable quantities of potatoes and corn, especially at St. Peters, Fort Alexander, 
Norway House, The Pas, Fairford, Islington, Lac Seul, and at some other trading centres ; 
but their transition from barbarism to civilization has been materially accelerated since 
the Government assumed the management of their affairs, in allotting them valuable 
reservations, giving them a stipulated amount of annuity money, supplying them with 
cattle, -seed-grain, carpenters' tools, agricultural implements, dispensaries and schools ; 
and appointing teachers, physicians, agents, inspectors and superintendents to provide 
for their mental and physical requirements. The progress made by them under this 
intelligent policy resulted in their possessing at present three hundred and nineteen 
horses, two thousand six hundred and thirty head of cattle, six thousand five hundred 
and forty-seven bushels of wheat, seven hundred and sixteen of corn, two thousand 
eight hundred and fifty-two of oats, two thousand three hundred and forty of barley, 
fifty-one thousand two hundred and twenty-eight of potatoes, six thousand four hundred 
and fifty-nine tons of hay, one thousand four hundred and fifty-seven dwelling houses, 
seven hundred stables, fifty school houses, two industrial institutions, some mowers, 
reapers, threshing machines, and a large number of tools, implements, boats and canoes. 
There is no authentic history nor reliable tradition to enable us to determine the origin 
of the Indian race, but it is evident from the grammatical construction of their language 
and the perfection of its conjugations and declensions that they, at some remote period, 
had been a highly-cultivated and enlightened people, but subsequently degenerated to 
barbarism, and all their literature was ruthlessly obliterated by the the waves of time. 
It is therefore difficult for them to regain the social and intellectual position once happily 
occupied by them, and consequently the utmost patience and perseverance are absolutely 
necessary in developing their dormant faculties and in elevating them to the moral, 
physical and intellectual plain of an independent, enlightened and prosperous community. 
The sudden disappearance of the buffalo and the fast-approaching extermination of game 
and fur-bearing animals are accomplishing a wonderful revolution in compelling them 
reluctantly to abandon the unprofitable pursuits of the chase and follow the example of 
those enterprising settlers who are beginning to extensively cultivate these fertile, 
undulating prairies, destined before many years to supply the markets of the world with 
their magnificent productions of horses, cattle, sheep, hogs, fowls, cereals, roots and 
vegetables. 

The opportune and judicious restrictions placed upon fishermen by recent regula- 
tions of the Fishery Department, in limiting their operations for commercial purposes, 
to the northern port of Lake Winnipeg, where they can carry on immense traffic in the 
finest white-fish in the Dominion, without interfering with the fisheries of the Indians 
in other parts of the lake, have largely protected the interests of the Indians without 
diminishing those of fishermen, who I am credibly informed have exported more white- 
fish during the present season, than in any previous one, and the Government is to be 
congratulated on having so admirably succeeded in effecting an amicable solution of 
178 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



this intricate question which seriously threatened the most disastrous consequences to 
our impoverished Indian population who were apprehensive of starvation if this unres- 
tricted traffic continued much longer, unless they were supported out of the public 
treasury, like their dependent kindred in the North- West Territories inasmuch as the 
lakes and rivers of the north lands from which they obtained their principal supply of 
food would, before many years elapsed, be utterly depleted of their choicest fish. I con- 
sider that not only the Indian agents are deserving of the everlasting gratitude of the 
Indians for their faithfulness in reporting to the Department the improvident destruc- 
tion of their fisheries by American fishermen, or their accredited agents, but also his 
honour, Governor Schultz for the profound and uncompromising interest he manifested 
in the protection of their valuable fisheries from depletion, before they would be irre- 
trievably ruined, and towards everything pertaining to their temporal welfare. Mr. 
Superintendent Wilmot likewise deserves a passing allusion for the invaluable services 
rendered by him in ably reporting to his minister the actual condition of the fisheries 
here, and in suggesting practical remedies for their better protection. 

The position of the Indian agents in the superintendency had formerly been only a 
sinecure in comparison to what it recently has been, as the various duties incumbent 
upon them are annually increasing, such as visiting schools, examining quarterly returns 
from teachers, dispensing medicines to the sick, issuing rations to the destitute, giving 
instruction in agriculture, preventing trespasses on fishing and other reserves, making- 
payments of annuities, obtaining statistical information preparing estimates for the 
next ensuing year, attending to the general correspondence of their respective agencies, 
etc., but notwithstanding these accumulated responsibilities, I am happy to inform you 
that those disciplined officers are performing these multifarious and laborious duties in 
^so commendable and satisfactory a manner, that it is very exceptional now when any 
irregularity is discovered in all their transactions. I cannot omit in this connection to 
pay a passing tribute to the sterling worth and uncompromising integrity of the late 
lamented Indian Agents/Messrs. George McPhersoii, sen., of Assabaskasing, Lake-of-the- 
Woods and James McCracken of Coucheching, Rainy Lake, who laid within the present 
year, their unsullied official garments aside in death. 

Since the appointment of Drs. Orton and Hanson as medical superintendents for 
the Claudeboye, Rat Portage, Contcheching and Savanne Agencies, they have been 
periodically visiting the different Indian bands immediately under their charge, and 
occasionally those of other agencies ; prescribing treatment to those requiring it, and 
performing surgical operations when considered necessary. It is certainly due to Dr. 
Orton that I should mention a remarkable instance of a successful operation he per- 
formed at the Pas, in 1890, on a little Indian girl who was suffering from increase of 
the knee-joint and of the entire femural bone, which he carefully removed without in- 
juring the periosteum in which, he assured me, another bone was forming, but I doubted 
his judgment in attempting such an undertaking considering the surroundings unfavour- 
able to the recovery of his patient, until I visited the Indian school there last summer 
and observed her standing in her class apparently in excellent health. 

Messrs. Macrae and Betourney, the Inspectors of Protestant and Roman Catholic 
Indian schools, report that the majority of the teachers employed are incompetent ; that 
the schoolhouses are generally inferior structures ; and that many of them are provided 
with unsuitable furniture ; and therefore recommend that more capable and enthusiastic 
educators be secured, and that better, more attractive and commodious buildings, supplied 
with patent seats, desks and other modern improvements, be substituted in place of those 
now in use. Now, although these representations are mainly correct, yet it must be 
remembered, that it is utterly impossible to secure, at the present salary of three hundred 
dollars per annum offered for a daily average attendance of up to twenty-five pupils, the 
services of efficient teachers to isolate themselves from congenial surroundings and 
live on remote reserves, with nothing except their own wandering thoughts to 
entertain them and while away the dismal hours, and with only that blessed hope for 
better days which springs eternal in the human breast to reconcile them to these 
solitudes, when they can easily obtain double the remuneration for conducting pro- 

[PART i] 179 



14-121 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



vincial schools where the enjoyment of kindi-ed society, and all the advantages of civili- 
zation are accessible to them. I beg respectfully to submit in vindication of the in- 
feriority of the schoolhouses and furniture complained of, that I venture the assertion 
without the slightest apprehension of any successful contradiction, that no public money 
has ever been expended more economically and advantageously by any Government of 
the Dominion, than in constructing and furnishing these buildings for the small amount 
of one hundred dollars appropriated by Parliament for the purpose, and I consider, that 
they were admirably adapted for the temporary purposes for which originally they were 
intended in opening schools on the reserves in compliance with the obligations in the 
conditions of the treaty made with the Indians. It would, in my opinion, be most un- 
warrantable for the Department to incur enormous expenses in supplying every reserve 
in this Superintendency with elegant and elaborate schoolhouses before it had any 
reasonable assurance of a sufficient attendance of pupils to justify such an outlay, more 
especially as the Indians were generally scattered all over the country fishing and hunt- 
ting and would not, therefore, in all probability permanently settle on their reserves to 
any extent until many of these buildings would be rotten. It is a recognized physical 
law that it is necessary for children to creep, before they are capable of walking, so 
likewise it is equally absolutely essential in the intellectual development of the Indians, 
that primitive log schoolhouses should precede elegant structures with modern improve- 
ments and conveniences, but as the usefulness of many of these schoolhouses is gone, I 
respectfully would recommend that more substantial buildings, furnished with all 
modern conveniences be substituted in their places wherever the attendance will justify 
the Department in incurring the necessary expenses in connection therewith. 

The number of Indians within my inspectorate receiving annuity at present is nine 
thousand one hundred and forty-six, of whom three thousand four hundred and sixteen 
are heathens ; three thousand one hundred and eighty-six are Episcopalians ; one thousand 
four hundred and ninety-two Methodists ; one thousand and thirty-eight Roman 
Catholics ; and fourteen Brethren. The number of children* in the sixty-seven bands 
under my supervision is four thousand eight hundred and forty-six ; of legal age to be 
admitted to school, two thousand live hundred and twenty-two ; attending school, one 
thousand one hundred and ninety-eight ; of daily average attendance, five hundred and 
ninety-eight ; of schools established on the different reserves, fifty ; of schools in opera- 
tion now, forty-six ; of acres under cultivation, one thousand eight hundred and fifty- 
five ; of acres of new land broken, one hundred and eight ; of agricultural implements 
in possession of the Indians, two hundred and thirty-five plows, two hundred and fifty-seven 
harrows, two hundred and five waggons and carts, ten fanning mills, twenty-five mowers 
and seven thousand four hundred and three other implements. The number of official 
letters received during the year, is three thousand six hundred and twenty-three ; of 
letters dispatched, three thousand four hundred and ninety-four ; of vouchers forwarded 
for payment, seven hundred and fifty-four ; of annuity pay-sheets checked, eight ; and 
of school returns examined, one hundred and fifty. 

The estimated value of land improvements on the reserves is twenty-eight thousand, 
three hundred and seven dollars ; of personal property, one hundred and sixty-six thous- 
and, four hundred and fifty-eight ; of real and personal property, nine hundred and 
sixty-four thousand, three hundred and seventy-two ; of fish taken during the year, forty 
thousand nine hundred and thirty-five ; and of fur caught, ninety-six thousand one hun- 
dred and forty eight dollars. 

The Industrial School established in the Parish of St. Paul under the management 
of the Bishop and Synod of the diocese of Rupert's Land is ably conducted by the Rev. 
W. A. Burman, the principal of the institution. The number of Indian children in 
attendance is sixty-three who are thoroughly instructed in theoretical and practical 
knowledge by an efficient staff of teachers. The principal industries taught are mixed 
farming, printing, blacksmithing and carpentering. The result of the labour performed 
in these various industries amounts to several thousand dollars. 

The Industrial school at St. Boniface, under the patronage of His Grace Arch- 
bishop Tache is efficiently conducted by the Sisters of Charity, who, in addition to the 
180 . [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



ordinary curriculum, impart instruction to the Indian girls in washing, ironing, sewing, 
knitting and cooking. The building is most comfortable and commodious, and admir- 
ably furnished with all modern improvements, for the convenience of teachers and 
pupils. The ground around the building was plowed in the fall in order to be ready for 
extensive gardening in the spring. It is highly creditable to the authorities of the 
institution the excellent discipline maintained in it, and the tidy and attractive appear- 
ance of everything in connection therewith. The children are elegantly clad in warm 
comfortable suits made in the school. 

For further particulars in reference to the condition of Indian affairs in this Super- 
intendency, I would respectfully refer you to the enclosed tabular statement, and to the 
annual reports of the different Indian agents already forwarded to you. 

I have the honour to be, sir. 

Your obedient servant, 

E. McCALL, 
Superintendent and Insjjector of Agencies and Reserves. 



Indian Office, 

Victoria, B. C, 2nd December, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to forward herewith my report upon Indian Affairs for the 
year ended 30th of June, 1891, which should have been sent in at an earlier date had I 
received the returns from the Indian Agents in time to admit of my doing so. 

Throughout the Province of British Columbia the Indians have been peaceably 
inclined and well conducted ; and with a few trifling exceptions seem contented with 
their condition which is, to a satisfactory extent, improving steadily under the directing 
power of an increased enlightenment, and the consequent better knowledge of such 
industries as are common to civilization and conducive to the advancement of all com- 
munities. 

When engaged upon my official visitations to the following agencies viz : — North 
West Coast, Babine, Williams Lake, Cowichan, Kamloops and Okanagan, Kwaw-kewlth, 
Fraser and Kootenay I was much pleased with the many signs of progressiveness observ- 
able and with the nature of my reception on every occasion ; the different bands express- 
ing their appreciation of my visit, which they considered a practical indication of the 
kindly interest taken in their well-being by the Government. 

With the exception of "la grippe " which during the winter continued to hang round 
certain localities, the sanitary condition of the various bands has been satisfactory. 

The Indian Industrial schools, of which separate reports have been forwarded, are 
doing good work, and are having a highly beneficial effect upon the Indians generally. 
Some of these schools have not as yet had a fair trial, as they are still, to a certain extent, 
" in the rough," being built in some instances upon uncleared and unreclaimed land, which 
cannot be put in order and made fit for cultivation at once. The separation of the 
children from their parents and friends is also a '• new departure " in the experience of 
the aborigines, to which time alone and a proper understanding of the benefits bestowed 
upon their offspring by such training, can reconcile them. 

The reserve for the Indian industrial school at Alert Bay has been laid off, but owning 
to circumstances ; construction has not yet been commenced. 

The Kootenay Indians have been less discontented and apparently better satisfied 
with their circumstances than they have been for years ; and the uneasiness noticeable 
during the winter, which arose from intercourse with their connections and friends south 
of the line, who were at one time very troublesome, has almost entirely disappeared. 

The rapid increase of white settlers south of the border, brought about by the con- 
struction of the Great Northern Railway, will, it is thought, put a stop to the Indian 

[part i] 181 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



alarms and disturbances hitherto of frequent occurrence along the boundary line, and 
proving so injurious to the welfare and quiet of our own Indians. 

It is satisfactoiy to be able to report that the hostile feeling which has for several 
years been exhibited towards the Government on account of land troubles in the North- 
West Coast agency seems to be dying out, and that the Indians, to an encouraging degree, 
are progressive in the pursuit of such objects as tend to their permanent advancement. 

In the vicinity of the Canadian Pacific Railway many of the natives in the Kara- 
loops agency find employment as section hands on that road, and on the occasion of my 
visit I learned that they gave every satisfaction to their employers. 

Freighting by waggons and teams in the Nicola country is mostly carried on by 
the Indians, who, out of their earnings, have purchased excellent outfits. 

At Metlakahtla a new hospital has been built and opened to the public. The build- 
ing is a great improvement upon that used for the purpose of harbouring and tending 
the sick in former years, and will be of inestimable service to such of the whites and 
Indians as may haply require its healing shelter. 

Several buildings, including that occupied by the Indian agent, were destroyed by 
fire last May at that village. Fortunately there was no loss of life. 

The closing of Behring Sea will be a serious loss to the natives on the West Coast 
who have for many years past derived annually a large income from the fur-seal taken, 
by them. 

The Indians throughout the Province continue to be supplied from time to time^ 
with intoxicants in greater or less quantity, notwithstanding the strenuous efforts made 
by the Indian agents and others to check that nefarious traffic. It is well known that 
half-breeds are to a great extent the medium through which the liquor is procured, but 
there being no acknowledged law prohibiting the sale of liquor to them, it is impossible 
to stay the practice to any extent. 

Were the law so framed as to preclude the half-breeds from purchasing intoxicants 
in quantities greater than that which may be consumed on the premises of the vendor, 
there would be some hope of keeping the evil within reasonable bounds, and the half- 
breeds would also be benefited. 

Several attempts have been made to induce the Indians of Victoria to consent to the 
sale of the Songhees reserve for their benefit, but without avail ; and although they have 
been fully informed of the advantages which would accrue to them by such an arrange- 
ment, they still persist in their determination not to acquiesce in any such change. 

The day school opened upon that reserve is doing well ; the children are diligent in 
their studies and regular in their attendance, which is partly owing to the interest 
taken in their progress by their teacher, Mr. Raynes. 

The department steamer " Vigilant " has proved very serviceable in navigating the 
inland waters in the North West Coast agency, and has been much improved by the 
new propeller supplied, as well as by some slight alterations that have been made in her 
machinery. 

The reports and statistical returns of the Indian agents have been duly forwarded 
to the Department. 

North-West Coast Agency. 

The salmon run has been a partial failure this year, which has caused a falling off 
in the amount of wages earned at the canneries. As a compensation, however, for such 
losses, high prices have been obtained for furs, and the advent of white settlers to the 
neighbourhood has afforded additional employment. There is also an abundance of shell 
and other fish, and of venison and other game, to be had without much labour. 

During the winter months there was much suffering from the attacks of an 
aggravated type of influenza. 

The missionary doctors and teachers, while the epidemic lasted, were untiring in 
their attention and kindness to the sick who, in many cases, owed their recovery to the 
careful tending thus bestowed upon them. The usual consideration has been shown 
these Indians by the liberal supply of medicines and garden seeds granted by the 
Department for their use. 
182 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



I append the statistics : — - 

Value of personal property $204,770 

Acres under cultivation 86 

New land broken, in (acresj . 5^ 

Total value of real and personal property — (Indian reserves 
not yet apportioned to the different bands). 

Number of implements 287 

Horses 14 

Pigs 10 

Number of young stock 4 

Value of fish taken $80,110 

Value of furs taken 41,640 

Other industries 194,780 

Potatoes, bushels 3,600 

Turnips, bushels 100 

Vegetables, bushels 950 

Hay, tons 6 

CowicHAN Agency. 

In this agency the Indians are comparatively well off; they are for the most part 
industrious and intelligent, well-conducted, and moral in their habits. 

The agent reports that the death rate has been in excess of other years, although 
they have been visited by no particular epidemic. He also states that the census, which 
has been most carefully taken, shows a decided increase. The above statement seems 
somewhat paradoxical, but may be accounted for by the greater number of children, 
which, if so, is the best indication that can be given of an improvement in the moral 
status of the aborigines. 

During the winter of 1890-91 many Indian families sustained heavy losses by 
the floods which then visited the valley. Saw-logs, which had been collected at Cowichan 
Lake, were swept down the river in large numbers, and in their passage quite an 
extensive area of cultivated land was washed away, as were also houses, fencing and, 
in some instances, the crops raised during the previous summer. At the present time 
I am informed that logs aggregating several millions of feet of lumber are collected at 
the lake awaiting a rise in the river, and as no steps have been taken, as far as I can 
learn, to protect the land during the passage of these logs down stream, it is difficult to 
estimate what damage may yet be done. Several efforts have been made by the Indian 
agent to induce the owners of the logs to take measures for the prevention of future 
damage, but I believe no such measures have been attempted, and it appears that no 
redress can be had regarding such injuries. 

The statistics show a considerable increase in the products of the soil, viz., wheat, 
oats, pease and potatoes, and are appended. 

Value of personal property $78,600 

Acres under cultivation 2,158 

New land broken in, (acresj , 32 

Value of real and personal property $519,020 

Ploughs 102 

Harrows . . . .• 56 

Waggons and carts 109 

Fanning mills 1 

Threshing machines 4 

Number of other implements 3 

Horses 381 

Cows 313 

Sheep 404 

Pigs 198 

Oxen 106 

[part i] 183 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Number of young stock 462 

Value of lish taken and value of furs taken and other 

industries (not enumerated by agent, he stating that 

it was impossible to obtain the same). 

Wheat, bushels 500 

Oats do 9,280 

Pease do 500 

Potatoes do 5,000 

Hay, tons , 700 

KOOTENAY AgEXCY. 

The crops in the Kootenay country have been exceptionally good at the Columbia 
Lakes and at Tobacco Plains. The St. Mary's band, not being prepared with sufficient 
seed grain for their wants, had but a small yield. Considerable effort has been made 
by the Indian agent to induce the Lower Kootenais to cultivate their land? but owing 
to the swampy nature of the reserve it was found that there was very little capable of 
cultivation. 

The prevalence of an aggravated form of influenza caused much suffering during 
the winter. With the coming of summer, however, that trouble had almost entirely 
disappeared. 

The statistics, which, among other things, show an encouraging increase in stock, 
are given below : — 

Value of personal property $56,600 

Acres under cultivation 180 

New land broken in (acres) 34 

Value of real and personal property (not given). 

Ploughs 29 

Harrows 9 • 

Waggons and carts 4 

Horses ' 2,068 

Cows 455 

Pigs 3 

Oxen 127 

Number of young stock 542 

Value of fish taken (not given). 

Value of furs taken $1,100 

Wheat, bushels 235 

Oats, do 1,700 

Pease, do 140 

Potatoes, do 1,230 

Hay, tons 68 

Babine Agency. 

The native people of this agency mostly make a living by fishing, trapping and 
hunting, by packing in the interior, by boating on the Skeena River, by earnings at the 
mines and by working at the canneries on the coast. 

These people are advancing in the knowledge of agricultural pursuits and the bene- 
fits arising therefrom, the result being a considerable increase in the number of their 
garden patches, and in the quantity of land being cleared and prepared for cultivation. 

/There is also an improvement in the class of houses erected during the year, and 
the Indians are becoming more settled and industrious in their habits. 

The general health throughout the agency has been good and the conduct of the 
Indians satisfactory. 

The Statistics are given beneath :— 

Value of personal property $15,500 

Acres under cultivation 107 

184 [part iJ 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



New land broken in, acres . 53 

Horses 14 

No. of young stock ^.-^. 2 

Value of fish taken $31,730 

Value of furs taken 58,800 

Other mdustries 8,550 

No account of agricultural operations given. 

Kamloops and Okanagon Agency. 

Within the year embraced in this report a decided advance has taken place in the 
condition of the Indians, who have been industrious in the cultivation of their land, 
and in such pursuits as add generally to their welfare. 

They have had an abundant supply of salmon ; have been fairly successful in those 
sections where placer mining for gold has been carried on : have had average crops and 
have with few exceptions wintered their stock without loss. 

The Il-kum-cheen Band, as well as others assisted in a like direction, have been 
largely benefitted by the aid given them by the Department towards the construction of 
flumes for the transport of water for irrigating purposes : the kindness thus extended to 
them has been much appreciated and has helped to supply a long felt want and enabled 
them to cultivate to advantage land hitherto almost worthless. 

Following will be found the statistics : — 

Kamloops Agency. 

Value of personal property $46,134 

Acres under cultivation 828|^ 

New land broken in l^^i 

Value of real and personal property $188,708 

Plows 87 

Harrows 40 

Waggons and carts 19 

Fanning mills 2 

Mowers 7 

Number of other implements 1,293 

Horses 2,202 

Cows 234 

Sheep 20 

Pigs 251 

Oxen 92 

Number of young stock 283 

Value of fish taken $8,093 

Valueof furs taken $11,330 

Other industries $47,600 

Corn, bushels 528 

Wheat " 953 

Oats " 1,831 

Peas " .':.., 350 

Beans •' 1,752 

Potatoes " 16,144 

Onions " 287 

Fruit trees each 116 

Hay tons 563 

OKANAGON AGENCY. 

Value of personal property $64,274 

Acres under cultivation 1,384 

[part i] 185 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.J A. 1892 



New land broken in, acres 90 

Value of real and personal property $183,030 

Plows 93 

Harrows 33 

Waggons and carts 21 

Fanning mills 4 

Mowers 10 

Number of other implements 602 

Horses 3,316 

Cows 788 

Pigs 382 

Oxen 216 

Number of young stock 369 

Value of fish taken |1,185 

Value of furs taken |3,070 

Others industries $20,200 

Corn, bushels 869 

Wheat, do 12,210 

Oats, do 2,450 

Pease, do 1,049 

Beans, do 495 

Onions, do 253 

Potatoes, do 1 1,854 

Fruit trees, each 60 

Hay, tons 657 



West Coast Agency. 

In this agency the Indians, especially the children, are reported to be decreasing. 

Of late years many of these Indians have got into the way of visiting distant 

places in search of employment at the canneries and hop-fields, which has resulted in 

irregular habits, to which may be attributed, to a great extent, the decrease in the 

number of children, and the dying out of the older Indians. 

The change in their manner of living has also much to do with the increasing 
mortality among them. 

The catch of fur seal during the year has, on the whole, been large and of con- 
siderable value. 

In the dwelling houses erected lately a great improvement has taken place,''and 
there are many signs of an ameliorated condition noticeable. The statistics are given 
below : 

Value of personal property $75,000 

Plows 1 

Horses 18 

Cows 4 

Sheep 30 

Pigs 76 

Oxen 2 

Number of young stock 5 

Value of furs taken $62,310 

Other industries $13,950 

Potatoes raised (bushels) 1,500 

William's Lake Agency. 

During the year these Indians have been well conducted and free from the com- 
mission of any serious offences. 

The death rate has been higher than usual. Amongst all the bands only one 
showed an increase for the twelve months reported upon, in that one case the increase 
was three only. 
186 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The chief cause of death, except in cases of extreme old age, has been consump- 
tion, which is supposed to be brought on by change in mode of living. In winter their 
dwellings, mostly overheated, expose them to the extremes of heat and cold ; and their 
food is now different altogether from that to which for generations they had been 
accustomed. 

With the exception of the Chilcotins, these Indians have very poor reserves, and 
but little water for irrigating purposes. They mostly maintain themselves by trapping 
and hunting, by desultory mining, and wages earned by working on whitemen's ranches. 
The salmon run has been good, and such limited patches as they had cultivated 
yielded fairly. The Chilcotin Bands are industrious, have good reserves, and are well 
provided for. 

The statistics are given herewith : 

Value of personal property $ 53,900 

Acres under cultivation 1,155 

New land broken in (^acres) 40 

Value of real and personal property $145,882 

Plows , 51 

Harrows 42 

Wagons and carts 13 

Fanning mills 6 

Threshing machines 1 

Number of other implements 276 

Number of horses 3,244 

Cows 531 

Pigs 1,020 

Number of young stock 203 

Value of fish taken Not given. 

Value of Furs taken |12,550 

Other industries (wages and mining) $13,150 

Wheat, bushels 9,725 

Oats, do 3,130 

Barley, do 1,585 

Potatoes, do 5,955 

Pease, do 1,125 

Hay, tons 966 

KWAW-KEWLTH AgENCY. 

The Indians in this Agency have been noted for their tardiness in availing them- 
selves of the means placed within their reach by the Government and the Missionaries 
for their advancement. 

Within the year now reported upon, however, a pleasing change has taken place 
which is evidenced by more exemplary conduct and by a general improvement in their 
condition. 

A school has been built at Gwa-yas-dams village by the Reverend A. J. Hall which 
has, under the able management of the teacher, Mr. A. W. Corker, given the greatest 
satisfaction and encouragement to those interested ; the attendance of pupils has been 
large, the children obedient and anxious to learn, and the parents most desirous for the 
education of their offspring. 

" La grippe " which prevailed with such disastrous results during the winter has 
almost entirely disappeared, and very little sickness in any other form has visited them. 
To such of the natives as are willing to work the Mission saw-mill continues to ofi'er 
remunerative employment. 

The Alert Bay salmon cannery owned and managed by Mr. S. A. Spencer, has 
been a source of considerable revenue to the Indians for several years, the average pay- 
ments disbursed among the native employees amounting to about four thousand dollars 
per annum. 

[part il 187 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The salmon catch has been very light, but fortunately from other sources the food 
supply has been sufficient to meet the wants of the people. 
The statistics are as follows : — 

Value of personal property $85,430 

Acres under cultivation 7^ 

Value of real and personal property $95,730 

Value of fish taken $3,150 

" furs taken $4,450 

Other industries $500 

Potatoes harvested, bushels 460 

Hay harvested, tons 2 

The following schools have received the Government grant during the past fiscal 
year, viz. : — ' 

Kamloops, Industrial. Alert Bay, Anglican, Coqualeetza, Methodist. 

Kuper Island, " Yale, " Port Simpson, " 

Kootenay, " Hazel ton, " Lakalsap " 

Metlakahtla " St. Mary's, Roman Catholic, Bella Bella, " 

Massett, Anglican. Clayoqaht, " Port Essington, " 

Kincolith, " 

These Schools are paid through the Methodist Society at Toronto. 

Medicines. 

The various Agents and Missionaries in the Province who have made application 
for medicines have been liberally supplied and much sufiiering has been alleviated 
thereby. 

Fish and Furs. 

The following are the statistics of fish and furs passed through the Custom House 
-at Victoria for the fiscal year ending 30th June, 1991, viz. • — 

Furs, marine, value $513,471 

Furs, land " $198,563 

Salmon, canned, 12,391,046 lbs $1,347,490 

pickled, 1,158 brls $9,134 

Other fish $525 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

A. W. VOWELL, 
Visiting Indian Siq^erintende^it. 



Office of the Indian Commissioner, 

Regina, N.W.T., 1st December, 1891. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — ^I have the honour to submit my annual report for the fiscal year 1890-91, 
and am glad to be able to present a considerably more favouralJle showing than for last 
year, which, owing to causes beyond control, was, as reported, in some respect, far from 
a prosperous one. 

This year has been marked by decided progress, but I will not further anticipate 
what will be described in detail as the various matters affecting the Indians in these 
Territories are considered in succession. 

Loyalty of our Indians. 

There is no desire to make invidious comparison between the condition of Indian 
affairs on this and the other side of the line which separates us from our neighbours in 
188 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



the United States, and allusion to the trouble caused by the Messiah craze would gladly 
be omitted were it not necessary in vindication of the policy pursued by our Govern- 
ment, which has often been much misrepresented, and in justice to our Indians, who are 
not infrequently maligned, to point out how admirably they behaved during the exciting 
events which took place at no great distance from them, and with the progress of which 
many of them were w^ell acquainted. There was good reason to suspect that emissaries 
from the revolting bands were sent to some of our reserves, but, while a strict, although 
unobtrusive watch was kept, there was at no time during the progt-ess of the stirring 
events referred to, the slightest apprehension felt by those in charge that our Indians 
would swerve from their accustomed loyalty, of which in several cases they voluntarily 
profferred fresh assurance when made aware that unfounded, although perhaps not 
unnatural, apprehension existed among some of the settlers. 

Governments Influence not Dependent upon Chiefs. 

When it is remembered that by the death of Crowfot last year, the Government 
was deprived of a powerful auxiliary in controlling the warlike tribes of the Blackfoot 
nation, and by the loss of North Axe, the chief of the Peigan bands, of another staunch 
supporter, and that these Indians were, by position and ties of kindred, most susceptible 
to influences from across the line, it must be conceded that the Government has gained 
the confidence of the bands most recently taken under its guardianship and naturally 
most impatient of control. 

General Progress — How Estimated. 

In my last year's report mention was made of the many matters requiring to be 
taken into account in endeavouring to estimate the progress made by our Indians, and 
of the various aspects under which it had to be considered. It was asserted that prob- 
ably the fairest criterion by which to gauge advancement was to be afforded by exami- 
nation of the extent to which Indians have succeeded in providing for their own sup- 
port. 

Individual Earnings Increased. 

It is therefore gratifying to be able to direct attention to the following summary 
of results, which will be found given in greater detail in the statement of individual 
earnings, attached to this report, and it should be noticed that earnings of hunting 
Indians, from whom such returns cannot be obtained, and which would considerably 
increase the aggregate, are necessarily excluded. 

Sale of cattle, sheep and ponies % 4,886 12 

" grain and roots 4,619 22 

" fish 143 50 

" furs 6,667 02 

" wood and hay 9,729 24 

" lime, bones and charcoal 424 50 

" seneca root 500 00 

By labour, freighting, &c 1 1,225 44 

Sale of berries and small manufactures 609 1 3 

" beef 2,071 18 

$40,875 35 



Comparison of this with the amount earned last year, viz. : $24,075.55, shows an 
increase of $16,799,80, or of about two- thirds. 

Encouraging Features of Increased Earni^igs. 

A very encouraging feature connected with this progress is that it has been more 
marked with regard to the industries of preparing and selling hay and firewood, than in 
directions which might depend to a greater extent upon more favourable natural con- 

[PART i] 189 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



ditions, and the proceeds from the two sources mentioned have increased by very nearly 
one hundred per cent. 

Another special feature in connection with these earnings, which is of too great 
significance to be passed over without notice, is the new departure made by Indians in 
Treaty 7, in the direction of taking, for the first time, some small contracts for the 
supply of hay, which they completed creditably. 

Coal Mining begins in Treaty 7 . 

Another industry has been opened up in this Treaty, afforded by the coal deposits 
on the reserves. The mine at the Blackfoot Reserve has been worked by these Indians, 
who have supplied the Department's requirements for agencies and industrial schools^ 
within a radius which permits of this being profitably done. The Bloods have made a 
beginning in the same direction, and it is hoped that what has been described, is but 
the beginning of greater things. 

Indians ^produce more of their Food Supijlies. 

It will not be supposed that what is included in the table just referred to, represents, 
by any means, the whole contribution of the Indians towards their own support. 
For various reasons it was considered advisable to sanction the sales of farm produce (as 
shown in the statement), and to allow the investment in food and other necessaries, but 
the bulk of such produce has been directly consumed, and the Government relieved to a 
corresponding extent, of the burden of providing food-supplies. 

Assistance in Food Reduced. 

The amount of such assistance is being steadily, and, all considered, rapidly reduced. 

The following table will, at a glance, make clear the extent to which assistance of 
the staple articles of food, viz : flour, beef and bacon had decreased during the year 
under review, as compared with the proceeding one. It deals with what are known as 
destitute supplies, and does not include rations for employees, which are foreign to the 
comparison being instituted. 





1890-91. 


1889-90. 




Flour, 
Sacks. 


Bacon, 
Lbs. 


Beef, 
Lbs. 


Flour, 
Sacks. 

1 


Bacon, 
Lbs. 






Beef, 
Lbs. 


Birtle 

Moose Mountain 

Pelly . 


180 

136 

616 

474 

167 

221 

425 

813 

677 

1,059 

1,286 

557 

1,125 

995 

819 

1,100 

2,641 

2,391 

1,046 


772 

2,113 

7,716 

7,178 

5,529 

13,956 

6,095 

9,032 

17,646 

24,693 

44,405 

19,300 

15,842 

22,697 

21,075 

7,981 


5,740' 

4,497 

23,205 

16,055 

10,900 

30,000 

32,500 

29.200 

18,000 

45,200 

4,400 

30,000 

40,800 

20,800 

188,500 

626,000 

632,000 

332,400 


232 

271 

671 

^798 

431 

547 

944 

1,078 

924 

993 

1,671 

131 

1,535 

1,374 

1,193 

1,171 

2,491 

2,279 

1,027 


1,009 

4,167 

8,090 

13,460 

6,638 

15,131 

13,642 

13,126 

23,424 

22,046 

48,308 

24,700 

23,471 

38,577 

32,018 

7,717 


10,135 
3,925 


Crooked Lakes 


23,341 
18,347 
22,915 

38,806 


File Hills 

Muscowpetung's 


Touchwood Hills 


38,413 


Duck Lake 

Carlton 

Battleford 


27,562 
22,714 
59,312 
18,979 


Saddle Lake 

Edmonton. 


39,929 
45,809 


Peace Hills 

Sarcee 

Blackfoot . 

Bloods 


35,852 
221,075 
616,653 
693,908 


Peigans.. 


43 


349,068 










16,728 


226,030 


2,090,197 


20,661 


290,567 


2,286,743 



190 



[PART l] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



From the above it is seen that the reduction aggregates 3933 sacks of flour, 64537 
lbs of bacon, 196546 lbs. of beef. The certainty expressed a year ago that, should the 
harvest give as good results as then anticipated, the end of another fiscal year would 
show a saving effected of several thousand bags of flour, with a proportionate quantity 
of beef and bacon, has thus been vindicated ; and what is more gratifying still is that the 
saving has been effected independently of the fulfilment of the condition premised. 

It was pointed out last year, when making a forecast of the then existing prospects 
that over sanguineness required to be guarded against. The wisdom of this caution has 
been proved by the event, for, although root crops were, on the whole, a fair success, 
and wheat, in one or two districts, did unusually well, in other parts of the country it 
fell far short of its promise, whole fields having been destroyed by hail storms in some 
localities, and by drought in others. 

Indians become more Provident. 

Under these circumstances, the possibility of the decrease of assistance shown, may 
surely be, to some extent at any rate, attributed to greater providence upon the part of 
the Indians themselves, which habit is one of the most diflicult to inculcate. 

Ga7ne Disappears. 

This will be the more readily conceded when it is remembered that game has con- 
tinued to steadily disappear, and that as cattle increase in the hands of farming Indians, 
the necessity of tending them through the winter, compels many, who heretofore have 
been in the habit of going in quest of such game as may yet be found, to stay at home. 

Where the conditions are favourable, the Indians, in proportion to the length of 
time they have been under tuition, are providing for themselves to quite as great an 
extent as can reasonably be expected. 

Many Bands largely 8elf-^upportiny . 

In the Birtle Agency, the average per capita assistance given, during the past 
year, has been about 20 lbs. of flour and one lb. of bacon, and probably there exist but 
few communities of whites of equal numbers, where relief to the destitute has been on 
a less liberal scale. 

Space permits of mention of but a few reserves, and I will pass on to Indians in 
•another stage of progress, and notice that, for a period extending over three months, no 
rations were issued on the Assiniboine Reserve, excepting to a few aged and infirm. 

Again, the bands of the Muscowpetung Agency were self-supporting during several 
months of the year, and Pasquah's almost entirely so, for rather more than half the year. 

To take another district, it has been found that George Gordon's and Poor Man's 
Bands, in the Touchwood Hills Agency, provided their own flour for the greater part of 
the winter, and the File Hills Indians did the same thing for a considerable part of the 
year. 

In the vicinity of Battleford, Moosomin's Indians found themselves in flour for the 
whole year, and even at Onion Lake, where the effects of drought were so disastrous, 
some few families managed to do the same. 



"o^ 



The Policy pursued proves Successful. 

In the face of facts which have just been recorded, it must surely be clear to any 
I)ut deliberately prejudiced minds, that the policy pursued by the Government, is rapid- 
ly attaining its intention, and turning out what not so very long ago were hordes of 
savages, into communities of industry, whose members promise, at no far distant date, 
not only to cease to be a burden upon, but to become a source of strength to the com- 
monwealth. 

Limit oj Economy Reached. 

It is however out of the question to expect, for some time to come, that any very 
marked reduction, save in food supplies, can be made in the annual expenditure upon the 

[part i] 191 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Indians of these territories. The limit of economy possible for some time to come has 
been nearly if not quite reached. 

Aged and Injirr)i Must be Fed. 

No doubt if matters continue to progress as there is every reason to expect, further 
and considerable saving will be made in so far as assistance in food supplies is concerned, 
but even with regard to this it must be borne in mind that, until those of the generation 
originally taken into treaty, who, through infirmity or age, can not be made to do any- 
thing for their own support shall have disappeared, it will be impossible to discontinue 
the calls upon the country, which have to be made for their relief. 

More Indians Being Redainned. 

It has to be remembered furthermore, in the same connection, that Indians who 
have heretofore maintained themselves by hunting, are gradually being forced, by the 
disappearance of the game, to come in and settle down to farming, and to these there 
must of necessity be given the same assistance as has been required to enable those who 
are now becoming self-sustaining to arrive at that condition. In five years, between 
1885 and 1890, there have been added some 1,400 to the number of Indians resident on 
the reserves. The largely increased facilities for education necessarily consume a large 
proportion of what would otherwise constitute no small reduction of the aggregate 
expenditure. 

Danger of further Reducing Staff. 

To impair the machinery by which the transformation of savages into citizens is 
being affected would have a most disastrous result. The day will doubtless come, as it 
has elsewhere, when, with comparatively little supervision or assistance, the Indians will 
be able to hold the ground they have gained, but before that can be done they must be 
brought a considerable step further on their road to individuality and relf-reliance. To 
leave them to themselves now would result in a sure and speedy relapse into comparative 
barbarism, and be ruinous to them and to the country at large. 

Difficulty in advancing a stage further. 

To get them beyond their present stage is a task fraught with as much if not more 
difficulty than has been experienced in landing them where they are. 

To do this is taxing to the utmost the energies of those engaged in carrying out the 
Government's policy. Constant watchfulness to discover where a step in the desired 
direction may be made, has to be exercised, and every eifort concentrated to have 
the advance made, when the opening has been found. Length of service, which 
gives experience to the Department's employees, invaluable in the work of handling 
Indians, carries with it an element of danger when it comes to forcing Indians off the 
ground already gained, and compelling them to further progression. Human nature is 
conservative and employees as well as Indians are naturally prone to "rest on their oars", 
and remain satisfied with the long strides already made, instead of being encouraged to 
fresh efforts by success. 

White Emjdoyees already much Reduced. 

The staff of whiti employees now engaged under our agents in the Territories, has, 
between 1885 and 1890, been gradually reduced from 159 to 58, but no further material 
reduction can apparently be made at present, without incurring consequences which have 
been indicated. 

DeiiartAnent acts as Police Force. 

It must be remembered that the Department officers and employees not only 
perform the duties of guardians and instructors, but practically act in the additional 
capacity of a police force, and that they admirably perform the preventive functions of 
the latter, is proved by the comparative absence of crime among the Indian population,, 
192 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



and the imiiiunity froni danger to person and property enjoyed by the settlers, whose 
environment renders them so open to attack in these respects. 

Agricultural Operations. 

Farming operations were vigourously entered upon when the Spring opened. Seed 
liad, wherever possible, been kept over the winter, and, as a consequence, the quantity 
contributed by the Department cost but a trifling sum, about one-fourth of the provi- 
sion made the year before, and that went to supply Indians farming for the first time, 
and those who either had no grain to save, or none worth preserving for seed. 

Area of Cultivation Extended. 

Last year the area under cultivation was shown to have increased by something- 
over a thousand acres and that under crop by rather more than four hundred acres. 
During the year now under review, the area under cultivation has been extended by 
about half as much again, or fifteen hundred acres, while that under crop has been 
added to, by something in the neigbourhood of one thousand acres. 

Policy Relative to Extending Cultivation. 

This extension is fully as large as is consistent with the policy laid down, which 
may be described in the following extract from a letter of instructions addressed two 
years ago to our Agents, written to serve as a reminder to old, and for the guidance of 
new officers and employees in the service. 

" No doubt however, the mainstay of the great majority of Indians must be farm- 
ing, and it is therefore most important to teach this industry in the manner best calcu- 
lated to render them self-supporting when left to their own resources, as well as at the 
present moment. Suppose, therefore, that an Indian confine his operation to a single 
acre. From this he should, in an ordinary year raise, at a moderate computation, some 
eighteen bushels of wheat (where this can be successfully grown) which, after making 
all necessary deductions, will give him nearly, if not quite, five bags of flour." ' 

" Assisted by his family there is nothing to prevent his planting a portion of a 
second acre, with roots and vegetables, sufficient to supplement his flour to the degree 
of making it last for a good portion of the year." 

"Add to this the product of a cow or two, .and the man has made a long stride 
towards independence." 

Use of Labour-saving Implements Discouraged. 

" Yet this is commonly accomplished by peasants of various countries, with no 
better implements than the hoe, the rake, cradle, sickle and flail." 

" The necessary use ot these instruments can never be acquired if Indians be en- 
couraged to contemplate the performance of their work by such labour saving machinery 
as can rarely be obtained and kept in repair entirely from their own resources." 

Although it would seem that the policy here outlined should at once commend itself 
to common sense, no small amount of difficulty is encountered in having it carried into 
effect, for it is only natural that Indians should infinitely prefer to have their work 
done for them by machinery, and that their overseers should be disposed to give way to 
this desire, rather than subject themselves to the labour of overcoming it. 

However, despite all obstacles, and without straining the policy too far, it is being- 
carried out, although there are individual Indians who have arrived at the stage of being 
so far independent of the Government's assistance, that they can not well be restrained 
from purchasing machinery out of their own earnings. 

At the date of writing I am glad to be able to state that it has now become an 
assured fact that, with few exceptions, the bands have had their full share of the bountiful 
return which has this year crowned the efforts of agriculturists in the territories, but 
as this falls, strictly speaking, outside of the limits of the year now under consideration, 
nothing further will be said about it, beyond an expression of confidence that the effects 
will be marked in the direction of enabling a still larger reduction to be made in the 

[part i] 193 

14—13 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



distribution of food supplies, and in giving the Indians the encouragement to persevere 
in their agricultural efforts, which they so greatly stand in need of. 

Stock. 

In no direction has the progress made been more marked and satisfactory than with 
regard to stock. 

Dffiiculty in Teaching Indians to Care for Cattle. 

The extent to which Indians derived their support from the slaughter of the buffalo 
naturally and strongly predisposed them to kill their cattle, nor could they be easily 
taught to recognize any wrong in thus disposing of animals which they considered their 
own property, to be dealt with as might seem well in their own eyes. When this tend- 
ency had been overcome, there yet remained the difficulty of instilling the economy and 
humanity of carefully tending stock into natures, the brutality of which continues to 
manifest itself towards the dumb creation long after some adequate conception of the 
value of human life has been acquired. 

Difficulties Overcome. 

Bearing these facts in mind it will be admitted that there is ample ground for satis- 
faction in regarding the care bestowed upon their stock by the majority of Indians, 
some of whom actually take more pains to secure the comfort of their cattle during the 
winter, than of themselves and families. 

Increase of Stock. 

In the face of the drawbacks indicated, the cattle in the hands of Indians, under 
Government control, increased between the years 1885 and 1890 from 2,225 head to 
5,617 or by 3,492. In addition to these the Indians possess a by no means inconsider- 
able number of stock, classed under the head of private property, and held independently 
of the Government. During the past year the increase has been more marked than 
ever before, and the introduction of several well-bred bulls, has had the best effect upon 
the herds with which they have been placed. 

Effect of Loan System. 

In bringing about this satisfactory state of affairs, the loan system has worked 
wonders. 

Sales Allowed for Encouragement. 

Some of the Indians who have, by means of this system, acquired a fair amount of 
stock, have, as an encouragement to themselves, and to stimulate their fellows, been 
allowed to dispose of some steers, but when this is done, the stipulation is generally 
made that a portion of the proceeds shall be invested in the purchase of a heifer, so that 
an ultimate advantage in the increase of stock accrues. No doubt had such sales or the 
home consumption of stock been allowed on a larger scale, the burden of supplying food 
might have been materially decreased for the last few years, but this would have been 
a very short-sighted effort at economy. 

As it is, from small beginnings, the cattle have so increased that, in the near future, 
their stock will have reached the limit, at which it will be desirable to keep it station- 
ary, and they will be able to do this, and yet supply themselves with beef, and, to some 
extent, procure other necessaries through the sale of it. 

Success of Government Herds. 

The succees which has attended the experiment made some three years ago, when 
some cattle were sent out to the Muscowpetung's and Onion Lake Agencies, as nuclei 
for the formation of Government herds, has been such as to produce the conviction that 
the plan could be greatly extended with much profit. The object had in view was to 
make the Agencies produce their own beef, and to furnish economical means of dis- 
194 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



tributing more cattle among Indians. So successful has the result been, that the two 
Agencies referred to are confidently expected next year to be off the assisted list, so far, 
at any rate, as beef is concerned. 

Stock- jRaising the Future Mainstay in Treaty 7. 

In no direction could this system be more profitably extended than with regard to 
Treaty 7, and there exists the following cogent reasons why this should be the case : — 

In the first place the quantity of beef consumed is proportionately much greater in 
that Treaty than in any other. 

Again, while the self-maintenance of all farming Indians must depend upon stock- 
raising to some extent, in Treaty 7 it must do so almost, if not entirely. 

Situated as they are, little, if any, dependence can be placed in agriculture, even 
supposing the strong disinclination of these Indians to such a pursuit, could be overcome. 

This was foreseen when the Treaty was made with them, and to meet their peculiar 
circumstances additional cattle, in lieu of other things given in other Treaties, were 
promised them. 

That stock-raising can be made a success by these Indians has been proved experi- 
mentally on the Peigan Reserve, since the institution of a system of close-herding. 

Naturally enough these Indians would prefer being fed, to undertaking the care of 
stock, but it is manifestly impossible to continue to maintain them in idleness, not only 
on account of the cost to the country, but because to do so will surely be followed by 
the loss of the finer traits of Indian character which they possess. Able-bodied men, if 
treated as paupers, will, before long, become demoralized, and a continuation of such 
treatment would ensure a yet worse condition for the rising generation. The time would 
therefore seem to have arrived to compel them to take over and tend their cattle. 

Many of them would be perfectly willing to do this now. The Peigans, who have 
learned in the manner just referred to, the value of stock, agreed to my suggestion to sell 
some of their ponies and purchase more stock, but unless some one from the east can be 
found with capital to purchase the ponies, the idea cannot be carried out. By the 
furnishing of cattle, this Treaty would before long supply its own beef, have animals to 
sell, the proceeds of which would be applied to the maintenance of Indians, and contin- 
gent industries would spring up, such as the establishtnent of cheese and butter factories 
in the neighbourhood. 

Failing this, little result can be expected from the necessarily limited and uncertain 
agricultural operations possible, including the sale of hay, or the only other industry so 
far discovered, coal mining, which, as already stated, has been commenced on a small 
scale. 

Agricultural Exhibitions. 

The agricultural exhibition held here this year excited the usual interest among the 
Indians of the district. The Crooked Lakes, Assiniboine, Touchwood Hills and Mus- 
cowpetung's Agencies were all well represented. 

Regina Exhibits. 

Lest I may be suspected of speaking too highly of their exhibits, I niay quote the 
opening and closing sentences of the local press report of the Indian exhibit. The 
report begins. " To report what has now become almost a time worn saying, the Indian 
exhibit was the best part of the show," and concludes with " there was not a poor speci- 
men in the whole exhibit." The wheat grown by an Indian at Crooked Lakes was pro- 
nounced by the judges to be the best in the show, although, through a misunderstanding, 
he failed to exhibit a sufficient quantity of it to entitle him to the prize. The potatoes 
shown were described as superb, onions ranged about two to the pound, butter was good, 
bread of excellent quality, especially some sent all the way from Moose Mountain Agency. 
Mitts, socks, gloves, comforters, shirts, dresses and so forth elicited much praise, one of 
the judges remarking that the workmanship would not disgrace any white woman in 
Ontario. 

[part i] 195 

14-131 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The Touchwood Hills Indians while not behind in other industries seemed to have 
made a specialty of work in mats, baskets and straw hats. 

A significant departure in the direction of the ornamental, as exhibited in the 
manufacture of some few articles such as lamp stands and table mats was observed with 
pleasure. 

A Touchwood Hills Indian, to his surprise and pleasure, found that he had carried 
off the first prize against all competitors, for a yoke of work oxen. 

Batthjord. Exhibition. 

At the Battleford Exhibition this fall, an Indian took the first prize for the best 
yoke of oxen, another secured second prize for a pair of fat cattle, while a third secured 
the first and second prizes for sheep. Here too, as at Regina, the best wheat at /the 
show was exhibited by Indians. 

Winnipeg ExJiibition. 

Some few exhibits, hurriedly got up, were sent to the Winnipeg Exhibition from 
Birtle, Crooked Lakes and Assiniboine Reserves, and from the Qu'Appelle Industrial 
School. 

Had competition at this show been contemplated before the last moment, a much 
better showing could have been made, but even as it was, the Indian exhibits proved a 
revelation to the visitors, the majority of whom had, until then, but little idea of the 
progress attained by our Indians in the territories. 

The greatest interest centered in the children from the Industrial school, and visitors 
thronged round the little girls to watch them sewing, knitting by hand and by machine, 
carding and spinning wool, and doing crochet work. Specimens of the boys' carpenter- 
ing and blacksmithing work were greatly and universally admired. The Winnipeg Free 
Press, referring to a first prize for vegetables taken by the school, remarked "such a 
prize is a credit to any one, but more so to an Indian Industrial institution, specially when 
it is in competition with all the gardeners of Winnipeg and Manitoba." 

It occurs to me that I have omitted to mention that at the Regina Exhibition this, 
school, in open competition, carried off for vegetables three first prizes, two second and 
one special. 

The effect of these exhibitions upon the Indians is a most excellent one, because- 
members of bands are not only stimulated to a healthy competition among each other, 
but one reserve is excited to try and surpass another, and to find that they can hold their 
own with the settlers has a most encouraging effect, and strongly tends to mitigate 
any disappointment arising from poor crops : it would greatly discourage them did 
they feel that poor crops were an evidence of their inferiority to the white race. 

Industries. 

Great stress is laid upon the duty devolving upon farming instructors and their 
wives, to teach the Indians of both sexes to employ their spare time in some useful 
manner. If nothing more than the prevention of idleness and of the mischief which 
surely emanates from that condition were thus secured, unquestionably a great dea 
would have been gained. 

However the articles which the men are encouraged to manufacture are of practical 
benefit to them, and would otherwise have to be purchased. They comprise handles of 
axes and hay forks, brooms, sleighs, ox-collars, harness and so forth, and if somewhat 
crude, they answer the purpose sufficiently well and the making of them for themselves 
teaches the Indians to depend upon their own resources. 

The women are taught to cut out and sew plain garments, and some of them can 
make dresses, shirts and other articles of clothing in a way which would not disgrace a 
white woman. 

They are particularly quick at knitting such articles as mitts, socks and comforters,, 
and some of them are quite expert in the manufacture of baskets, mats and hats. But- 
ter making and tanning cow hides are also among the useful occupations of the women. 
196 [part i] 



55 Victoria. - Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A, 1892 



It is not intended to convey the impression that the skill in the various directions indi- 
cated is very generally possessed, but every year some addition is made to the number 
of Indians who occupy thus usefully time which would otherwise be passed in idleness, if 



nothing worse. 



Dress, etc. 



In dress and habits of personal cleanliness improvement continues to be noticed. 
The women are encouraged to practice tidiness in their houses, and in washing their 
■clothes and dishes and other kindred details of domestic economy, but inculcation of habits 
or personal cleanliness is uphill work. 

Buildings. 

Every year sees some advancement with regard to the erection of new buildings or 
the imjDrovement of old ones. The progress in this direction naturally depends, to a 
considerable extent, upon the facilities for getting logs and lumber, but the Indians are 
not slow to avail themselves of such facilities when aftorded them. The Blackfoot 
Indians have perhaps been under greater disadvantages in these respects than any other, 
but owing to arrangements made to supply them with logs, which have been given as a 
reward and encouragement for the cultivation of a certain quantity of land, a number 
of good houses have been put up. 

Among the Peigans many new buildings have been erected, and marked improve- 
ments have taken place, in the way of shiiigling roofs and partitioning into rooms the 
houses of the Bloods. 

The production of lumber by the saw mills established at the Carlton and Onion 
Lake Agencies respectively is creating a transformation in the buildings. 

Throughout it is found that a not inconsiderable proportion of earnings is 
•expended in the purchase of doors and windows, and of lumber for the improvement of 
houses or manufacture of furniture. 

Nor are these effects by any means confined to increasing theii' own personal 
oomfort, but are extended to securing that of their stock. 

Health. 

With regard to health, a much more satisfactory report can be given than was 
possible for last year. The effects of the epidemic of "la grippe," which invaded every 
reserve last year, with hardly an exception, were felt during a part of the year now 
under review, particularly upon those of consumjDtive constitutions ; however, they 
may be said now to have ceased. On some reserves measles and whooping cough made 
their appearance, but were attended with but few fatalities. At File Hills, chicken pox 
of so virulent a character as to have at first been mistaken for small pox broke out. 
Until the true character of the disease was ascertained, a good deal of apprehension was 
felt, and a detachment of Mounted Police was promptly put at our disposal by the 
Commissioner of that force, with a view to the establishment of a strict quarantine. 
One effect, which need not be regretted, was the opportunity afforded, during the 
prevalence of the alarm, for vaccinating a number of Indians, who, so long as they 
thought the danger of that scourge remote, had obstinately resisted efforts to have them 
submit to that operation. 

As usual, at the time of making treaty payments, great attention was given to the 
vaccination of Indians not already operated upon, and no relaxation has been allowed 
with regard to other sanitary precautions about the dwelling houses. Excepting a mild 
form of bronchitis among the Bloods, and a skin disease in the Battleford District, little 
sickness, beyond what has already been described, has prevailed, but scrofula and con- 
sumption continue only too successfully to resist all efforts made to eradicate them. 

Conduct. 

The conduct of the Indians has been, generally speaking, most exemplary. In fact, 
unless in Treaty 7, little or nothing in the way of crime has required cognizance on the 

[part i] 197 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) - A. 1892 



part of the police ; active measures adopted by them to put a stop to the raids over 
the border, which used to be too common among the Bloods, have been crowned w^ith 
success, and few, if any, stolen horses have been brought into the country by these' 
Indians. 

ComparatiA^ely little has been heard of the slaughter of cattle on the ranches, and 
there is no doubt that the employment of some Indian constables, by the Mounted Police- 
force, has not only resulted in putting a stop to this practice on the part of the Indians, 
but has served to prove the truth of what has all along been contended, that much of 
the cattle killing attributed to them, has in fact been perpetrated by white criminals. 

Agency and Farm Buildings. 

With regard to agency and farm buildings not much has been done, because the 
requirements in these directions have already been fairly well provided for. At Moose 
Mountain, the agency headquarters have been removed from Striped Blanket's to White 
Bear's Reserve. The agency house at the former reserve is now occupied by the farmer, . 
a new one having been erected at White Bear's for the agent. This arrangement 
permits much better supervision of the agency, and is in every way much more convenient 
than the aid one. 

The agency buildings for the Fort Pelly District have been completed at Cote's 
Reserve, and the agent finds that he can handle his work in consequence with greater 
ease to himself and benefit to his reserves. A comfortable dwelling house has been 
built for the agent on the Peigan Reserve. 

Blacksmith and carpenter shops have been built at the Onion Lake and Assiniboine 
Agencies, respectively, and a much needed new dwelling for the farmer at Pasquah's. 
Reserve put up. 

Mills. 



The mills at Onion Lake and Carleton, the erection of which was noticed in my 
report for last year, have proved of the utmost benefit in the production of lumber, and 
in providing the means of gristing grain, the want of which was so severely felt by the 
Indians in both these districts. 

The plan of giving bonuses for mills, although probably the best that existing cir- 
cumstances admitted of, in the cases where it has been tried, cannot be said to have 
proved so successful as to invite any extension of its adoption. The opposite has been 
the experience with regard to the establishment of mills on agencies, and during the past 
year one has been erected at Crooked Lakes. That at Saddle Lake, referred to last year 
as unfinished, is now on the point of completion and will be ready in time to grind the 
recently gathered harvest. 

By the establishment of these mills the excessive toll which is taken in the Terri- 
tories is avoided, the Indians get the full benefit of their industry, are saved the loss of 
time consumed in going to the mills and hanging about them waiting for their grists, 
and a feeling of pride and independence is engendered. 

Surveys. 

The assistant surveyor was engaged during the summer and autumn in Manitoba 
in making alterations in certain reserves as originally defined, in changing the location 
of others, and in the establishment of their boundaries by means of iron posts. 

Subdivision of Reserves. 

In the spring he was occupied with the subdivision, into forty-acre lots, of parts of 
Erminekin's and Sampson's Reserves, in the Peace Hills Agencies. Another surveyor, 
temporarily engaged, made similar subdivisions of reserves at Moose Mountain and Indian 
Head. 

The Indians now begin to recognize for themselves the advantage of thus having 
their improvements secured to themselves and their heirs, and feel much more interested 

198 [PART i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



in making permanent improvements than when there was nothing to distinguish between 
lots farmed in severalty and the lands held in common by the band. 

The chief surveyor subdivided the Paspasschase Reserve at Edmonton, with a 
view to its being offered for sale. This, as you are aware, was subsequently done, but 
after a few lots had been disposed of the remainder were withdrawn from auction, 
because the prices realized failed to reach the value which the lands are expected to attain 



to before long. 



Contract Supjolies. 



Full value has been received for the contracts let for supplies, and, as a rule, they 
have been obtained without trouble or dispute, although contractors sometimes feel dis- 
posed to accuse us of being a little too exacting with regard to the fulfilment of agree- 
ments in minute details. 

The successful working of the plan by which deliveries are made by contractors at 
Regina, and thence distributed to the agencies, tried for the first time last year, has 
now become assured, and not only have the advantages then pointed out been realized, 
but a very considerable saving in quantities formerly consigned to agencies has been 
rendered possible. 

Education. 

During the fiscal year now under review, their has been a large increase in the 
number of children who have been brought directly under the educational influences of 
the several classes of Indian Schools. 

In 1889-90 the number who attended school for some portion of the year was two 
thousand and eighty-eight, during 1890-91, two thousand seven hundred and forty-six, 
showing the large increase of six hundred and fifty-eight. The aggregate average 
attendance has been one thousand six hundred and fifty-three, as against one thousand 
one hundred and eighty the year before, the increase of four hundred and seventy-three 
proving that, in no direction, has the general progress been more marked than with 
regard to education, upon which rests the hope of the rising generation. 

The grading of the two thousand seven hundred and forty-six pupils was as 
follows : — 

Standard 1 1,635 as against 1,165 in 1889-90, gain 470 

do 2 501 do 425 do do 76 

do 3 316 do 271 do do 45 

do 4 i^l3 do 160 do do 53 

do 5 81 do 67 do do 14 

It will be seen from this that progress has not been in numerical attendance only. 

Schools Opened and Closed. 

Schools closed during the year are as follows : — 

At Big Plume's village in the Blackfoot Agency, at Blood Reserve, at Stony 
Reserve, Battleford, or three schools in all. 

On the other hand there have been opened the Presbyterian Industrial School at 
Regina, day schools at Eagle Rib's village in the Blackfoot Agency, Cold Lake in the 
Onion Lake Agency, Joseph's (late Alexis') Reserve in the Edmonton Agency, Little 
Pine's Reserve in the Battleford Agency, Meadow Lake in the Carlton Agency, One 
Arrow's Reserve in the Duck Lake Agency, (Boarding School) at the Peigan Reserve, 
Sturgeon Lake in the Carlton Agency, for the Sioux at Prince Albert, Thunderchild's 
Reserve in the Battleford Agency. A grant has also been given to the school at Lac la 
Ronge, and allowance made for the reception of a number of Indian pupils into Emmanuel 
College at Prince Albert. 

Thus it is seen that thirteen schools have been added to our number, against three 
closed, making a total gain of ten. 

[part i] 199 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Industrial Schools. 

It may be remarked with regard to the three Industrial Schools (forAthat recently 
opened in Regina may be left out of consideration in this connection) established in the 
Territories, that, although in a very satisfactoiy condition, and making quite as much 
progress as could, from their age and the circumstances of the Territories, be reasonably 
expected, it is too soon to look for any considerable results. 

Premature to Expect lauch Result. 

The 8t. Joseph's Institution has only been in operation since 1884, and it has been 
a most tedious and labourious process to try and overcome the prejudice so strongly felt 
by the Indians of Treaty 7, for whose benefit it was established, to parting with their 
children and sending them to the Institution. In so far, however, as the Blackfoot 
Indians are concerned patience and perseverence have at length been crowned with a 
large measure of success and the school is now filled to the extreme limit of its accom- 
modation. 

The Battleford Industrial School, although founded in 1883, to all intents and 
purposes only dates from after the Rebellion in 1885, for by the disturbance caused 
by that unfortunate event, the labour expended prior to that date was thrown away, 
and a fresh start had to be made. This school, however, is to-day filled to its utmost 
capacity. 

It must be remembered too that at all these schools, in order to get them established 
and set in operation at all, it was necessary to take pupils without regard to their 
suitability in respect of age and health, which, under other circumstances would have 
been carefully considered. Many of those originally received have died from the effects 
of hereditary disease. Some who were admitted were too old to be influenced, and con- 
sequently had to be allowed to go without having received any marked permanent 
benefit. On the other hand the great majority have been received at a considerably 
younger age than is desirable for industrial training, and consequently it is only recently 
that any number of them have begun to receive distinct instruction of that nature. 



Results Already Appearing. 

From Qu'Appelle School, which has been more favourably situated than the St. 
Joseph's and was not so greatly disturbed by the Rebellion as the Battleford Institution, 
better results might be expected, and in this we are not disappointed, for despite the 
difficulty — which it shared in common with the others — of getting suitable chil- 
dren at the outset, it is beginning to turn out no small number of pupils prepared to 
make their own way in life. From the Qu'Appelle School there are now fourteen girls 
out at service in neighbouring settlements, and they are all doing well. Battleford has 
made a start in the same direction having sent out three girls to service, and this is the 
beginning of a movement which, in the near future, will be much extended. Compara 
tively few boys have gone out to service or to work at trades. The majority of those 
who have left the Institution have returned to their reserves, no doubt more or less 
benefitted from such training as they had, although for reasons already stated it was 
necessarily far short of what the present inmates are gaining. Such boys, however, as 
have gone into service or worked at trades have been doing well. I may instance a lad 
from the St. Joseph's School, who works as a carpenter at the Blackfoot Reserve, two 
from the Battleford Institution who have been doing excellent work as assistant mill- 
wrights at various points in the Territories, one from Qu'Appelle who is employed as a 
blacksmith at the Muscowpetung Agency and another from the same institution who is 
engaged in the Department's warehouse here. 

Danger of Letting Ruprils Returri to Reserves. 

As already stated howevor, the majority of the boys have returned to their 
reserves, and if this is to be the case with lads now undergoing the more extended course 
200 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



of training, which the tinn establishment of the schools now rendei^s possible, it is much 
to be regretted because the benefits of their training will necessarily be to a considerable 
extent lost. 

Of course the case is very different in parts of Canada and the United States, which 
have been settled up for many years, and where the Indians are pretty well on a par 
with their white brethren in respect to civilization. There no difficulty exists about 
finding employment for lads turned out by the Industrial Schools, for in fact their 
services are in no small demand. 

Colonies for Pujnls after Leaving School Froposed. 

Years must necessarily elapse before even under the most favourable conditions, 
that (jan become the case in a new country of such extent as this, and consequently it 
is difficult to see how their return to the reserves, with the attendant waste of benefits 
can be avoided, unless lands can be set apart at a distance from the Reserves, and the 
pupils established on them in colonies, after leaving the institutions. 

No doubt, if necessary, it could be arranged to return to the Government an area 
of the existing reservations to compensate for what would be required for the establish- 
ment of such colonies as suggested, and while without doubt the eventual gain to the 
commonwealth would be comparatively great, the first cost of giving the discharged 
pupils a start in life would be no more than that of providing them with the means to 
become self-supporting as farmers on their reserves. 

In this connection it may be remarked that by banking the annuities of pupils, 
when parents will consent to this course, and encouraging them to deposit at any rate 
a share of what they may make in work outside of the school, provision is being made 
to furnish them with an outfit to enable them to prosecute their trades or otherwise 
start in life when they leave the institutions. 

Accounts have thus been opened with seventy-eight pupils, and the amounts 
deposited by them already aggregate $918.98. 

Parents Unsettling Pupils. 

Before passing from the subject of these Industrial Schools wholly supported by 
the Government, I must not forget to notice the success attained in preventing Indian 
visitors hanging about the schools, and so unsettling the minds of the children, as well 
as too often insisting upon carrying them off for visits to their homes, from which 
they would only be recovered with much difficulty if at all. It was constantly repre- 
sented to me by those in charge of the institutions that to prevent such visits and to 
refuse to let parents take away their children as the whim might seize them, would 
bring the schools into bad rejDute, and render it impossible to secure new pupils. 

I felt convinced, however, that the Qu'Appelle and Battleford Institutions have now 
been so firmly established that such risk might well be incurred in view of the advan- 
tages to be derived from putting a stop to the practices referred to, and I am glad to 
say that the measures taken to that end have been attended with considerable success, 
without the direful consequences anticipated in some quarters. 

Industrial Schools receiving a $100 per cajnta Grant from the Governinent. 

These are at Elkhorn, St. Paul's, Winnipeg and St. Boniface respectively, and the 
assistance given to Emmanuel College, Prince Albert, on account of Indian boarders, 
is on the same scale. It is perhaps unnecessary to particularize with regard to these 
schools, and it may suffice to say that they are doing excellent work, and are in a 
flourishing condition. 

Boarding Schools. 

The McDougall and St. Albert Orphanages, the boarding schools at Round Lake, 
Birtle and Crowstand continue the good work done by them in the past years. 

[part i] "201 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



The Muscowpetung boarding school moved last year to Lake's End has been largely- 
drawn upon for pupils who haA^e been transferred in order to afford them the necessarily 
superior advantages to be obtained at the Regina Industrial Institution. 

A marked improvement has taken place with respect to the boarding school at 
File Hills. The Indians at that agency have, a§ a rule, evinced a strong dislike to hav- 
ing their children educated, but in so far as securing pupils for the boarding schools is^ 
concerned, this has been overcome, and the means available could now be more than 
utilized. 

Conclusion. 

In conclusion I beg to inform you that the several statements accompany this 
report. , 

Mr. Inspector McColl will make his customary annual report on Indian Affairs 
within the Manitoba Superintendency. 

The work in the territories which has necessarily kept increasing as more Indians 
have settled on the reserves, more agencies been sub-divided and more schools opened 
has rendered it at times difficult to keep abreast of the press of business at head 
quarters with the staff available, but extra exertions demanded by the strain have 
always cheerfully been responded to by my assistant and others of my staff, and so the 
work has been kept from going behind. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

HAYTER REED, 

Commissioner. 



Lower Eraser Agency, B.C., 

New Westminster, 1st December, 189L 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for the year ended 30th June, 
1891, with tabular statement and list of Government property under my charge at that 
date. 

I am glad to say that the Indians belonging to this agency are progressing very- 
fa vourably. They have during the past year made many and substantial improvements, 
not only in building houses, but in clearing new land, fencing and planting fruit trees, as. 
well as road making. At Chehalis village fourteen new houses have been built since 
my last report. 

The Indians of To-yle have built a bridge across the Chilliwhack River, and a road 
from this bridge to their reserve, at an expenditure of fifteen hundred dollars. This band 
has also purchased a threshing machine, which cost them six hundred and fifty dollars. 

The Ohamelle Band have also made very satisfactory progress during the past year, 
more especially in planting fruit trees. The different bands in Chilliwhack and Sumas 
districts have also made considerable improvements in clearing, fencing and ditching. 
The Matsqui, Sangley and Towassen, as well as the Musquim bands, are all doing well ; 
so are the Yale, Hope, Ewa-hoose and Skowall bands. 

The above-mentioned bands I have called special attention to as being the most 
progressive. 

Other bands are making some slight progress, but nothing compared to those 
specially mentioned. I have to report (with a feeling of regret) that there are a few 
bands making very little progress in any shape on their reserves. 

The Keitsey, Capitauo Creek, Seymour Creek, False Creek, Popcum and Squattetts, 
are neither building, fencing nor clearing. 
202 [part iJ 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



A considerable number of Indians have been employed at the canneries dur- 
ing the fishing season. They did well, and purchased a good supply of provisions for the 
winter, so that there is nothing to be apprehended on the score of scarcity of food. 

They have plenty of tish, potatoes and other articles for their comfort, and there is 
apparently no element of discontent amongst them. 

The prompt manner in which the white squatters on Sea Bird Island reserve 
Avere removed, and the visit of Superintendent Vowell seems to have given general 
satisfaction. ' 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

P. McTIERNAN, 

Indian Agent. 



White Whale Lake, N.W.T., I6th December, 1891. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa. 

SiE, — I have the honour to transmit the following report on the surveys of Indian 
Reserves in Manitoba and the North-West Territories this season. 

In pursuance of instructions from the Department, I left Ottawa on the 1 8th July, 
for Regina, where I arrived on the 23rd, and consulted with Mr. Reed, Indian Com- 
missioner, in reference to contemplated surveys. 

In order to save the expense of obtaining a new outfit, consisting of camp equipage 
and transport, for Mr. Assistant Surveyor Ponton, who was detailed for sub-division 
work on the reserves north of Carleton, it was thought desirable to hand over to that 
gentleman the outfit I had been using myself for some years back in making surveys 
of reserves ; seeing that the work under my own immediate supervision, lay for the 
most part near the railways, which now make remote parts of the country easy of access, 
it was found to be less expensive and more expeditious to hire transport when necessary, 
than to take an outfit from Regina to the various points where work had to be done. 
In consequence of this I remained at Regina until Mr. Ponton's return from Saskatoon 
and Prince Albert, where he had been examining some land, in order to give him in- 
structions, and to hand over to him the outfit. 

On the 1st of August I proceeded to the Rockies for the purpose of selecting a 
timber limit for the Blackfoot Indians. I was accompanied by Mr. Begg, the Indian 
Agent, who met me at Calgary. We went to Castle Mountain, where I had seen 
much timber, suitable for building and fencing purposes, some years ago. An inspection 
of the country was made and we found that, although a great deal of timber had been 
tat en off, there is still enough for the Indians on the tract selected on this occasion. An 
objection, which I have already pointed out, is that this limit is far from the reserve,, 
and there would be a considerable expendituro involved in transporting the timber. It 
was thought some years ago that a limit might be acquired for these Indians at the 
gap or entrance to the Rockies, beyond the Stoney Reserves at Morley, on the ground 
covered by Major Walker's license, in the event of its being abandoned ; but that gentle- 
man informed me last summer that he had timber enough yet on these limits for three 
years' lumbering operations. A report accompanied by a sketch of the timber lands 
selected has been already submitted. 

I returned to Regina on the 6th August and left for Oak River the following day 
to define the limits of the Sioux Indians' Reserve, and to sub-divide it into forty-acre 

[part i] 203 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



lots. The boundaries of this reserve were originally surveyed in 1876, by Mr. William 
Wagner, D.L.S. I found that a descrepancy in plotting Mr. Wagner's survey of the 
Assiniboine River, which forms its westerly boundary, made the area of the reserve 
appear on the plan much smaller than it really is, as will be seen by comparing the 
plan of the orignial survey with the re-survey of the boundaries made this season ; or 
with the plan now on file in the Department, prepared for the purpose of being litho- 
graphed. I also found that a re-survey of the westerly boundary was made in 1884, by 
which a triangular piece of land, the whole length of that boundary and adjacent there- 
to, was improperly added to the reserve. The line of mounds of the last mentioned 
survey, together with the marks placed on the westerly limit of the road allowance, left 
along the west side of the reserve by the contract surveyor who sub-divided the adjoin- 
ing lands, made the matter perplexing to the Indians. As a consequence the Indians 
have encroached upon this road allowance, and some of the white settlers, not only upon 
the road allowance but also upon the reserve. Mr. Wagner's original lines are now 
defined by posts and mounds and the complications no longer exist. 

Indians only were employed on the survey. 

These Indians have large fields of grain. Some of them harvested six hundred to 
one thousand bushels this year. 

I found that it would probably be unsatisfactory to the Indians to proceed with 
the subdivision whilst the grain was standing, as we would necessarily have to chain 
through the fields. I therefore considered it better to postpone the work until after the 
harvest, and I proceeded to Regina to report the state of affairs to the Indian Commis- 
sioner. 

On the 30th August, at the request of the Indian Commissioner, I went to the 
Industrial School at High River for the purpose of laying out a new road towards Calgary, 
as it was feared by the principal of the school that the ascent from the river bottom or flat 
on which the buildings stand to the plains, would be difticult by the surveyed trail, and 
that an easier grade and a safer road could be found by way of a certain couUe. At 
my request I was accompanied by Mr. Dennis, Inspector of Dominion Land surveys. 
We carefully examined the surveyed trail and the couUe. A better road might be 
made vici the coulee than the one proposed, but the grade of the surveyed trail is com- 
paratively easy, and if the road were properly constructed there would be no danger of 
vehicles tumbling over the bank, as feared by the principle of the school. 

After being hospitably entertained we were shown over the institution by Pere 
Merens, the principal. Everything seemed in splendid condition and the children 
remarkably well. 

I returned to Regina on the 4th September, and received further instructions from 
the Indian Commissioner in reference to the survey of a strip of land along the 
Qu'Appelle River (on Indian Reserve N'o. 71, Chief " Ochapawace ") in order to 
ascertain the exact extent of such land as will be affected by damming the river a mile 
-and a half below Round Lake for milling purposes by Mr. Alfonse Reason, of White- 
wood. I left Regina on the 7th September and on my arrival at the place selected by 
M. Reason for a mill site. I found that the dam was nearly completed. I examined 
the lands indicated and duly reported on the matter when I returned to Regina. A 
grist mill at this point would be a boon to some Indians, as well as to the neighbouring- 
settlers ; and the lands bordering the river would be improved by the increased volume 
of water.. 

In accordance with instructions from the Indian Commissioner, I proceeded to 
Brandon on the 19th September and conferred with Mr. A. M. Patterson, barrister-at- 
law, in regard to a half-section of land adjoining the Experimental Farm there, which 
has been selected for the location of an Indian industrial institution, under the auspices 
of the methodist church. Mr. Patterson informed me that the half-section indicated 
had been purchased from the owner by the municipal corporation of Brandon, and that 
it would be transferred to the Department in exchange for the section in Southern 
Manitoba, set aside by order in council for industrial school purposes. Mr. Patterson 
and I carefully examined the land and fixed upon a site for the main building. This 
204 [part i] 



55 Victoria. ISessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



site has the approval of the Indian Commissioner ; and, I am told, the same spot was 
also chosen by Dr. Sutherland, of the methodist church. A survey was made to 
ascertain the differences of level between the Assiniboine River and the site selected for 
the several buildings, as well as the springs for water supply, and various other points 
about which information will be useful. A report and original plan of the above 
survey were prepared and forwarded to the Indian Commissioner at Ottawa by his 
request. 

I left Brandon on the 28th September and went to Oak River where, after- 
engaging a party of Indians, I resumed the sub-division of the Sioux Reserve. A few 
days of snow and rain retarded surveying operations by rendering the work difficult 
and unpleasant. Mr. Green, D.L.S., who had been sent by the department to assist me, 
arrived shortly after, but his theodolite was delayed on the way from Ottawa, and did 
not come to hand until the 10th October. In the meantime I carried on the work 
assisted by Mr. Green. 

On the arrival of the instrument I proceeded to Regina, to which point I had been 
ordered to report myself to receive instructions then on the way from Ottawa in 
reference to certain surveys in the Edmonton district. Before proceeding to Edmonton, 
it was thought desirable to fulhl instructions already given to me to visit the Blood 
Indian Agency, and re-detine the boundaries of the timber limit on Belly River, as it had 
been reported by the North- West Mounted Police that the lines could not be found by 
them, and that trespass was being committed. On my arrival at the timber limit I 
pointed out the boundary lines to Corporal Alexander, who, in accordance with my 
request, was sent with me by Major Steele. Mr. Interpreter Mills also formed one of 
the party. These boundary lines were run four years ago, and do not require to be re- 
surveyed. The country is much burnt and grown over with young poplar and spruce, 
yet the lines are easily recognizable. I did not see any trespass. 

On my return to the Blood Agency, I visited the coal banks on the St. Mary's 
River, where some Indians are mining. I located the position of these mines and 
pointed out to Mr. Agent Pocklington the method of staking off claims for individual 
Indians, on which subject he had received instructions from the Department. 

Having concluded what I had to do in the Macleod District, I left for Edmonton. 
Whilst at Calgary I made arrangements with Mr. Donald McLeod, of Edmonton, for 
transport for the work in that district. On my arrival at Edmonton I organized a party 
and purchased the necessary supplies from the Hudson's Bay Company. Final instruc- 
tions were received on the 20th November in regard to the surveys already referred to, 
and in consequence of severe weather and recent snow storms. Sleighs were procured, 
after some delay, from Mr. McLeod, instead of the waggons with which I was already 
supplied for the expedition, and we started for White Whale Lake on Monday the 23rd. 
The road, although heavy, was fairly good as far as the agency, which is situated on 
Sand Lake, near the centre of La Potac's reserve, where we stopped the first night out 
from Edmonton. Snow and sleet fell during the afternoon and evening, and the party 
was glad to camp in a snug vacant house, which M. le Comte de Cazes, Indian agent, 
kindly placed at our disposal. 

In driving through La Potac's Reserve it was pleasing to notice the marked 
improvement that has taken place during the last few years. Where a short time ago 
scarcely a building was to be seen there is now quite a settlement, and the wilderness 
has become a smiling plain. The houses, too, are well and substantially built, the 
fences strong and in good repair. What is also gratifying' is the neatness of all the 
workmanship and the general tidiness everywhere discovered. It was also observed 
that a great deal of fall ploughing had been done. 

The route then lay across Stony Plain. This is gently rolling prairie, with occas- 
sional bluffs of poplar and spruce. The soil is a rich, warm loam, suitable for wheat 
growing, and there are several well-cultivated homesteads, chiefly of Germans. The 
prairie chicken is plentiful. 

About sixteen miles from the Agency we entered heavy woods, consisting chiefly 
of white and black poplar and spruce of good size and excellent quality. Other trees 

[part i] 205 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



noticed were the white birch, balsam and black cherry. All throughout the bush the 
wild pea grows in the greatest profusion and the utmost luxuriance, many of the vines 
being six feet high, and some of them still green even at this late period of the year. 
Partridge and prairie chicken were plentiful and we also noticed deer-tracks and rabbit- 
runs. The distance through the heavy woods is about twelve miles, the westerly portion 
of which is hilly. On emerging from the thick bush the trail passes over a roughly 
rolling strip of comparatively open country for about seven miles, now hruU, but recently 
covered with heavy timber, with which the country is clothed as far as the eye can reach. 
After crossing a corduroyed muskeg we travelled over a comparatively level tract bor- 
dering Mink Creek for about a mile and a half, and arrived at the Indian settlement 
four miles to the east of White Whale Lake, and made Paul's shanty, temporarily 
vacant, our headquarters. 

On the following morning, Thursday, the 26th, I proceeded over some very rough 
country to White Whale Lake to make a survey of the reserve and fishing station for 
the members of Chief Alexis' band, to whom a reserve had not yet been allotted. These 
for the most part are followers of Paul, one of Chief Alexis' headmen. I began the sur- 
vey of the eastern shore, the ice being sufficiently strong to bear a team. My party 
halted at noon near a half-breed's house, which, the weather being cold, was offered to 
us in which to prepare and partake of our luncheon. He also gave me useful information, 
and extended to us other other marks of kind attention. The survey of the eastern shore 
was continued the two following days, and on my return to camp on the Saturday, I 
found M. de Cazes had arrived in accordance with an arrangement previously made by 
us that he should meet me here. M. de Cazes was accompanied by Major McGibbon. 
I immediately prepared a plan of the eastern shore of the lake. This, with information 
I had gathered from an examination of the country for some miles around, together 
with the knowledge of the locality possessed by the Indian Agent, enabled us, after 
ascertaining the views of the Indians, to show them precisely on the plan, which they 
said they perfectly understood, the land that would be a fairly good reserve and fishing- 
ground. Panl and the others present at the conference expressed themselves well- 
pleased with the reserve purposed to be set aside for them. 

It may be well to observe that in 1880, Mr. George Simpson, D.L.S., surveyed a 
reserve at Lake St. Anne for Alexis and ninety one souls. Mr. Simpson reported that 
the other members of the band, who were then absent, had elected to take their portion 
of the reserve at White Whale Lake, where they have always hunted and fished. The 
yearly average number of Indians in Alexis' band, including Paul and his followers, for 
the last ten years, I find by the pay-sheet to be 208; last year the number was 219, 
and upon this basis the allotment of land has been made. 

M. de Cazes left the following day, and on Monday I proceeded to define the 
boundaries of the reserve and fishing station, and continued to do so day by day until 
to-day, when the work was completed. 

Two Indians were employed on the survey, so that the band might know the 
boundaries, and afterwards Paul joined the party, but unfortunately he cut both his legs 
severely with his axe on the second day and for the time being was incapacitated from 
further usefulness, either as guide or axeman. I may add that the Indians rendered 
every assistance in their power to facilitate the work. 

The reserve and fishing station adjacent thereto are bounded as follows : Beginning at 
an iron post, ninety-one chains and seventy -five links, more or less, due north of the north- 
easterly corner of Township fifty-two in Range four, west of the Fifth Initial Meridian ; 
thence south ten (10'75) chains and seventy-five links, more or less, to an iron post ; 
thence east fifty-nine chains and ninety, eight links, more or less, to an iron post ; thence 
south eighty-one chains, more or less, to an iron post ; thence east four hundred and 
twenty-six chains, more or less, to an iron post ; thence south three hundred and 
twenty-one chains, more or less, along a line of posts to the intersection in a lake of 
the said line of posts with the line of the posts forming the southern boundary of the 
reserve ; thence west along the said boundary seven, hundred and twenty-two chains 
and fifty-eight links, more or less, to a point on the eastern shore of White Whale 
206 [part i] 



55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 



Lake, five chains and forty-six links due west of an iron post ; thence north-westerly and 
north-easterly along the said shore, as shown on the plan of survey to a point thereon 
iifty-eight links due north of the point of beginning and thence due south to the said 
point of beginning, containing an area of thirty-two aud three quarters square miles, 
more or less. 

Iron posts were also placed on the southern and eastern boundaries of the reserve, 
near the intersection of these boundaries with the westerly and northerly shores respec- 
tively of the lake situated at its south-easterly corner. 

The land within the limits of the Reserve may be described generally as rough and 
hilly. It is heavily wooded with poplar and spruce ; fine specimens of the latter were 
frequently met with, having a diameter of thirty inches. There is also some white 
birch and tamarack. The undergrowth is principally willow. Nearly one-half of the 
Reserve has been over-run by bush fires. There is a tract containing an area of about 
seven square miles of level to undulating land, partially open bruU, in the easterly part, 
bordering White Whale Lake Creek and Mink Creek, and extending north-easterly across 
the Reserve, passing into true muskeg as the high lands are approached. In the muskeg 
water rose within a foot of the surface in the pits chopped out to mark the position of 
the posts on the boundaries. In the south-westerly part small patches of rich level land 
occur, but these are heavily wooded. The soil generally is a sandy clay loam, support- 
ing a thick growth of tall grass, mixed with pea vine wherever the bush fires have 
destroyed the timber. The Reserve is well watered by creeks and numerous lakes and 
ponds of good water. Small hay swamps and muskegs are frequently met with. Exten- 
sive hay lands are found bordering Mink Creek, near the north-easterly corner. The 
Indians are settled near the centre of the easterly half of the Reserve, not far from the 
junction of White Whale Lake Creek and Mink Creek, on the level tract already 
mentioned, which is the spot selected for them by the Department, and is by far the 
best part for agricultural purposes. Paul and others showed me some fine samples of 
wheat, barley, oats, potatoes and turnips, but as yet their farming operations are on a 
small scale. Prairie chickens, partridges and rabbits were seen, but not in very great 
numbers. White Whale Lake abounds in whitefish and large pike, though the Indians 
say that the quantity is diminishing. Geese and ducks are also plentiful in the hunting 
season. A good sized lake near the north-easterly corner of and partly in the reserve, 
called Johnny's Lake, from which flows Mink Creek, and another large and irregular 
sheet of water, also partly in the reserve at the south-easterly corner, are said to con- 
tain large quantities of pike. Large game is very scarce, though bear is occasionally 
killed, of which I had an interesting proof. One day whilst at luncheon on the line we 
were joined by the wife of one of the Indians (Thomas^ working on the survey, and 
another squaw. Cold as it was they had been out three days hunting with gun and 
dogs, and each one had a papoose on her back. Among the spoils of the chase they 
were bringing to camp were thirty partridges and a three year old bear that had been 
killed by Thomas' wife with an axe. Some of the party partook of the bear, a portion 
of which was kindly offered, and w^e were also presented with a few partridges. The 
bear had been cut up, and was being carried by three pack dogs. The hide was valued 
at twenty dollars. 

I hope in a few days to close the season's operations by visiting Chief Alexis' reserve 
at Lake St. Anne, and also by surveying the claim of Mr. L'Hirondelle in the reserve 
of Chief ''Michel." 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

JOHN C. NELSON, 

In charge Indian Reserve Surveys. 



[part i] 207 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 























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208 



[part i] 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



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PART l] 



CiOlCS- 



209 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



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210 



[part i] 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 









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[part i] 



211 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14. 



A. 1892 



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[part i] 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



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PART l] 



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213 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Statement of Earnings of Indians 



Agency. 


Band Name. 


No. 


Sale 

of 

Cattle and 

Sheep. 


Sale 

of 

Grain and 

Roots. 


Sale 

of 

Fish. 


Sale 

of 
Furs. 


Sales 

of 

Wood and 

Hay. 


Pelly 


Cote 

Key 


64 
65 
66 

68 
69 
70 
71 

72 
73 
74 
76 


$ cts. 
552 00 


$ cts. 

9 00 
1,269 85 


$ cts. 


$ cts. 


S cts. 


Birtle 

Moose Mountain 


Keesickouse 

All Bands 

Pheasant Rvimp 

Striped Blanket 

White Bear 

Ochapowace 




585 50 


343 70 




80 00 




101 50 


7 00 


251 75 








Crooked Lake. 


188 00 

95 00 

348 00 

346 00 


333 30 
690 52 
932 07 
451 97 
42 51 
17 85 


247 00 




Kakeewistahaw 

Cowesess 

Sakimay ■ ... 






39 50 









30 00 
81 50 




Jacks 

All Bands. . ..... 






131 75 


File Hills. 


57 00 






44 00 


Muskowpetung 


Piapot 

Pasquahs 

Muskowpetung. 


75 

79 

80 

78 

87 

88 

85 

89 

86 

95 

96 

97 

99 
100 
100a 

98 
101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
109 
108 
113 
114 
116 
112 
115 
119 
124 
125 
127 
126 
128 
130 
131 
135 
132 
134 
133 
133a 






2,587 35 


29 00 
80 00 




44 50 
12 50 

6 00" 
6 30 

46 75 


...... 




1,662 80 
602 35 


Touchwood Hills. 


Standing Buffalo 

Day Star 

Poor Man. 

Muscowequan 

Yellow Quill 

Geo. Gordon 

One Arrow 

Okemasis 

Beardy 

Jno. Smith 

Jas. Smith 

P. Chapman 

Chakastaypaysin 

Wm. Twatt 

Petequakey 

Mistawasis 


159 25 












Duck Lake 


1 20 00 




■■28500' 

282 00 

75 00 

192 00 

65 00 

45 00 


8 00 

'40 OO' 
88 25 






30 00 




40 00 















































20 00 




Kopahawakemum 

Keeneemotayo 

Pelican Lake 

Stoneys ... 
















■ 43"96' 

5 00 

136 55 








Battleford 




■ 204'i6 


"966'97" 




Red Pheasant 

Sweet Grass 

Poundmaker 

Little Pine. 


"'lll'4i 

1 90 00 

63 00 
51 00 


390 50 
290 94 








10 00 




103 40 

121 80 

90 00 









Mioosomin . 


48 00 




Thunder Child 

Seekaskootch 

Chipeweyans 

Saddle Lake 

Blue Quill 

Wahsatanow 

Janies Seenum 


96 50 


Onion Lake 






80 00 












Saddle Lake 


1 84 22 






ni 00 

257 00 

63 50 

470 00 

1,573 00 


117 50 
































Beaver Lake 

Enoch 

Michel 

Alexander.. 

Alexis (now Joseph) 

Paul's 










Edmonton 








12 00 























1,313 00 
455 00 
135 00 




















Carried forward . . 






2,234 63 


4,363 77 


101 50 


6,118 10 


8,319 61 



214 



[part i] 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



for Year ended 30th June, 1891. 



Sales 
of 

Lime, 
Bones and 
Charcoal, 


Sale 

of 

Seneca 

Root. 


Labour 
and 

Freight- 
ing. 


Mis- 
cellaneous 
Earning 

Sale of 
Manufac- 
tures. 


Sale 

of 

Beef. 


Total. 


How Expended. 


$ cts. 
47 50 


$ cts. 
/ 


$ cts. 

549 40 
390 00 

1^3i3 16' 

770' 

40 00 
50 98 
47 00 
479 44 
59 76 

144 35 
234 60 
373 44 

'84 00 
13 50 
54 11 

'253'29' 
34 69 

275 44 

52 36 

5 00 

20 00 


$ cts. 
8 70 

"l34 6o' 


$ cts. 
267 89 

"io2 6o' 

"53"76 
76 95 


$ cts. 

873 79 
3,149 75 

1,989 "41' 

954 70 

1,067 37 

1,547 30 

1,096 07 

878 60 

590 84 

2,773 70 

2,139 40 

1,158 24 

232 25 

247 46 

111 45 

87 46 

■" 390'76 
457 31 

891 72 

163 36 

237 00 

85 00 

45 00 

■"l85'50 
376 70 
110 51 


Provisions and clothing, and bought 
3 waggons. 

Provisions, clothing, purchase of wag- 
gons, bob-sleighs, mowers, binders, 
seed grain, ploughs, harrow, fanning 
mills, lumber, harness, team work, 
horses, stoves, &c. 

Provisions, clothing, &c. 








f 

■■i25"00 
125 00 
125 00 
125 00 


Provisions and clothing, 2 team Cana- 
dian horses, harness, heifers, lumber, 
binder, waggons. 

Provisions, clothing, mower. 

Provisions, clothing, bob-sleighs, cat- 
tle, 2 mowers, rake, tinware, &c. 

Provisions, clothing, payment of debts, 
horses, heifer, grinding of wheat, 
lumber, tents, implements, &c. 

Provisions, clothing, debts, mower, 
binder, waggons. 








61 25 

8 00 
44 25 

5 25 

'67'25" 
14 50 




36 60 

180 65 
406 98 

42 00 

"75'45" 
73 00 

157 46 
91 65 
25 35 

" 137 '47 

G6 62 

116 28 






101 25 














31 00 

63 00 

5 00 


Provisions, clothing, 5 heifers. 
















Provisions, clothing, building mate- 
rials, tools, waggons. 






185 50 

376 70 

90 51 


























31 00 

189 75 

36 00 




20 50 

105 30 

55 00 

37 00 


9 90 

" 'l5'56' 

9 00 

51 53 
3 00 




1,012 27 
894 65 
645 40 

152 00 

265 93 
309 05 
245 00 


Provisions, clothing, waggons, blan- 
kets, towels, bob-sleighs, cattle, 
mowers, lumber, stovepiping, gun, 
set of harness. 


6 00 





13 00 




23 75 
75 00 




Provisions, clothing. 














236 37 


43 00 


97 21 


689 30 

257 00 
172 42 
470 00 

1,573 00 

204 94 

65 22 

1,464 00 
455 00 
135 00 


do cart, mowers. 












45 00 


•;;;\;:;;; 


63 92 














192 94 

65 22 

151 00 






Provisions, clothing. 






































424 50 


500 00 


6,142 41 


574 13 


2,071. 28 
1 PART 


30.849 83 

1I 


215 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Statement o± Earnings of Indians for 



Agency. 


Band Name. 


No. 


Sale 

of 

Cattle, 

Sheep 

and 
Ponies. 


Sale 

of 

Grain and 

Roots. 


Sale 

of 

Fish. 


Sale 

of 

Furs. 


Sale of 

Wood and 

Hay. 


Peace Hills 


Brought forward . . 
All Bands (6 months) . . 




$ cts. 

2,234 43 

12 00 

) 


$ cts. 

4,363 77 

6 00 

249 45 


$ cts. 

101 50 

42 00 


$ cts. 

6,118 10 

38 92 

510 00 


$ cts. 
8,319 ^61 


Sarcee., 


Sarcees 

Stoneys .. 


ri42 

\ 143 

1 144 

145 

146 

148 

147 


365 50 
493 89 


Blackfoot 


Blackfeet 

Bloods.. ...- 

Peigans , 

(Sale of ponies). 










Bloods 

Peigans 

Blackfoot Agency . 


1,139 49 
1,500 00 








503 49 
46 75 












Total 








4,886 12 


4,019 22 


143 50 


6,667 02 


9,729 24 











216 



[part I 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Year ended 30th June, 1891 — Concluded. 



Sale of 

Lime, 
Bones and 
Charcoal. 


Sale 

of 

Seneca 

Root. 


Labour 
and 

Freight- 
ing. 


Mis- 
cellaneous 
Earnings. 

Sale of 
Berries 
and Manu- 
factures. 


Sale 

of 

Beef. 


Total. 


How Expended. 


$ cts. 
424 50 


$ cts. 
500 00 


$ cts. 

G,142 41 

146 00 

128 00 

197 60 

2,593 44 

620 24 

1,397 75 


$ cts. 

^74 13 

10 00 

25 00 


^ $ cts. 
2,071 28 


$ cts. 

30,849 83 

254 92 

742 95 

1,201 49 
2,593 44 
1,123 73 

2,608 99 
1,500 00 


do 

do horses ainniuniti(.)n. 












Provisions, clothing. 











labour, hire of horses, 
Pi'ovisions, heifers, waggons, cook- 


1 










424 50 


500 00 


11,225 44 


609 13 


2,071 18 


40,875 35 





[PART t] 



217 



55 Victoria. 



^Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



TABULAR STATEMENT ISTo. 1, 

Showing the Number of Acres of Indian Lands sold during the Year ended 
30th June, 1891 ; the total amount of Purchase Money, and the approxi- 
mate quantity of surrendered surveyed Indian Lands remaining unsold at 
that date in the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec. 

PROVINCE OF ONTARIO. 











Approxi- 






Counties 


Numbef 


Amount 


mate 




Towns or Townships. 


or 


of 


of 


Quantity 


Remarks. ' 




Districts. 


Acres Sold 


Sale. 


remaining 
unsold. 




' 






$ cts. 


Acres. 




Albemarle 


Bruce 


1,110 40 


1,513 90 


2,605-65 


Some of these lands 


Amabel 


do 


295 00 


285 00 


794 00 


were resumed by the 


Eastnor . 


do 


3, 082 00 


2,195 00 


2,587 -96 


Department, the con- 


liindsay 


do 


2,734 00 


2,678 00 


2,037 00 


ditions of sale not 


St. Edmund 


do 


1,852 00 


1,601 95 


35,502 00 


having been complied 


Bury, Town Plot 

Hardwicke, Town Plot 


do ... 






1,767-25 

1,111 00 

89 00 


with, so that in cer- 


do 






tain cases there ap- 


Oliphant do .... 


do 




pears to have been 


Southampton do 


do 


82-05 


483 08 


2-55 


more land remaining 


Wiarton do 


do 






77 -00 
2,939-85 


unsold at the close of 


Keppel 


Grey 


635-00 


964 50 


the last fiscal year 


Saugeen Fishing Islands 


Lake Huron and 








than remained un- 




Georgian Bay, 






880-50 


sold according to the 


Cape Hurd Islands 


do 






7,702-50 


previous year's* re- 


Mississaga Reserve 

Thessalon 








1,173 64 


port. 


do 






5,398 00 




do 






13,584 00 




Archibald. ; 


do 






,2, 900 -00 




Dennis 


do 






3,349 00 




Fisher 


do 






9,602 00 




Herrick 


do 






7,267 53 




Havilland 


do 






3,821 00 




Kars 


do 






9,479 -00 




Apaquosh, Town Plot 

Laird 


do 






316-91 




do 






9,926-78 




Macdonald 


do 


226-75 


123 00 


2,527-85 




Meredith., . 


do 






7,695-70 
18, 131 00 




Pennefather 


do 








Tilley 

Tupper 

Fenwick 


do 






12,691 00 




do 






2,800-00 




do 






12,948-50 




Vankoughnet . . . . 


do 






10,850-50 






do 






269 00 
7,205 -00 


"Includes small islands. 


Bidwell 


Manitoulin Dist . . 


200 -00 


100 00 




Rowland 


do 






4,066 00 




Sheguiandah 


do 


440 00 


135 90 


11, 915 00 




do Town Plot 


do 






300-35 

5,882-00 




Billings 

Assiginack 


do 








do 


100 00 


50 00 


6, 787 -00 




Campbell 


do 


495-00 


89 50 


9,373 -00 




Manitowaning, Town Plot . . . 


do . . 


•80 


275 00 


36-25 




Carnarvon 


do 


200-00 


100 00 


10, 820 00 




Tekummah 


do 


400 00 


31 00 


8,707 -00 




Sandfield 


do 






6, 932 00 




Shaftesbury, Town Plot 


do 


2 84 


150 00 


157-24 




Tolsmaville 


do 


4-56 


94 50 


1,569-43 




Allan 


do 


306 00 


150 00 


4, 288 00 


' 


Burpee 


do 


100-00 


100 00 


14,611 00 




Barrie Island 


do 


290 00 


125 00 


3,303 00 




Gordon 


do 


143 -00 


31 00 


3, 572 00 




Gore Bay 


do 


14 40 


127 00 


2-43 




Mills 


do 


1,058 -00 


169 35 


9, 441 00 




Cockburn Island 


do 






29,897 00 





218 



[part 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Tabular Statement No. 1. — Showing the I^umber of Acres of Indian Lands 
sold during the Year ended 30th June, 1891 — Concluded, 

PROVINCE OF 0^1! AKIO— Concluded. 



Towns or Townships. 


Counties , 

or 
Districts. 


No. 

of 

Acres Sold 


Amount 

of 

Sale. 


Approxi- 
mate 
Quantity 
remaining 
unsold. 


Remarks. 


Dawson 

Robinson 

Neebing 


Manitoulin Dist.. 

do 
Thunder Bay Dist. 


113 00 
898-00 


i cts. 

22 60 
327 10 


Acres. 

31,590 00 

55,978-00 

3,778-00 






21-65 

•08 

'" 59-54 


2,157 00 
75 00 

■■■■388'38 


Surrendered as sold. 


Sarnia, Town Plot 

Anderdon 


do ..... 

Essex 

Haldimand 

do 

do 

Haldimand . ... 

do 

do 
Brant . . . 




1-31 

100 -00 

250 00 

143 10 

590 -05 

7-80 

1,675-80 

35 00 

225 00 

9-43 

-25 

6-20 

766-82 

2,276-41 
198 00 

■ 327-35 
421 12 




Cayuga, Town Plot 

Cayuga 

Azoff, Village 

Dunn 

Caledonia, Town Plot 




Brantford 








Bronte 

Port Credit 

Deseronto 

Islands in River St. Lawrence 

Islands in River Otonabee and 

its lakes. . * 


Halton 

Peel 

Hastings 

Province of Ontario 

Peterboro', &c 

Lake Simcoe ..... 

Lake Simcoe and 
Georgian Bay. . . 
Georgian Bay 


3 53 
25 

"■5343 

18-95 

52 00 


44 50 
50 00 

"354 70 

442 00 

651 00 




Thorah Island. . 

Islands in Lake Sinicoe and 
Georgian Bay 

White Cloud Island 


These islands are sur- 
veyed as sold. 


Sultana Island 


Rainy Riv. District 
















14,991-93 


16,084 96 


430,072-11 





PROVINCE OF QUEBEC. 



Ouiatchouan 
Colraine . . . 
Dundee 
Lorette ... 



Chicoutimi . 
Megantic . . . 
Huntingdon 
Quebec 



"3,957-60 

1-85 


"9, 892 '47 
500 00 


10,095-20 

1,203 00 

16, 496 -00 


3,958-85 


10,392 47 


27,794-20 



Right of way, Q. and L. 
St. J. R. R. 



RECAPITULATION. 



Ontario 

Quebec 




14,991-93 

3,958-85 


16,084 96 
10,392 47 


430,072 -11 
27,794-20 












18,950-78 


26,477 43 


457,866 31 





L. VAI^KOUGHE^ET, 

Deputy Supt.-Gen. of Indian Affairs, 
J. D. McLean, 

In Charge of Land and Timber Branch. 

Department of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa, 30th June, 1891. 

[part ll 



219 



r 

55 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1892 

ANNUAL EEPOET— LAND AND TIMBEE BEANCH. 



The laud sold during the year amouuts to 18,950.78 acres, and the sales to 
$26,477.43. 

The quantity of surrendered laud still in the hands of the Department, in round 
numbers, is 457,866 acres. 

Agents' returns (for land, timber and rent) examined and 

enteied 614 

New sales entered 197 

Number of sales cancelled , 81 

Cancellations of sales revoked 2 

Number of leases issued and entered 23 

Number of timber licenses issued 2 

Number of timber licenses renewed. 31 

Number of payments on leases entered 581 

Number of payments on old sales entered 430 

Number of notices to purchasers in arrears prepared and 

sent out 3,029 

Assignments of land examined and entered 286 

Assignments of land registered 299 

Descriptions for patents prepared and entered 303 

Number of patents engrossed 318 

Number of patents registered 318 

Number of patents despatched... ./. 332 

Number of patents cancelled 6 

Location tickets issued and entered 27 

Number of files dealt with 3,600 

The total collections on account of old and new sales, on rents and on timber, 
amounted to $98,175.23. 

The total purchase money and interest thereon in arrears on land sales on the 
30th June, 1891, amounted to $223,343.05. 

Principal $120,688 22 

Literest 102,654 83 

Total $223,343 05 

L. A^ANKOUGHNKT, 

Deputy Supt.-Gen. of Indian Affairs. 
J. D. McLean, 

In Charge of Land and Timber Branch. 
Department of Indian Affairs, 
Ottawa, 30th June, 1891. 



220 [part f 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Tabular Statement !N"o. 2. — Showing the Condition of the various Indian 

Schools. 

SUMMARY OF STATEMENT No. 2. 





Provinces. 


Pupils 


Ontario 

Quebec 


2,210 
562 


Nova Scotia 


121 
99 


Prince Edward Island.. .... .... 


21 


British Columbia . ... 


685 


Manitoba 


1,519 
2,337 

7,554 


North- West Territories . . . . 


Total 





L. VANKOUGHI^ET, 

Deputy Supt.-Gen. of Indian Affairs 
John McGirk, 

Clerk of Statistics. 
Department of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa, 30th June, 1891. 



[part i] 



221 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1802 



TABULAR STATE 
Showing the Condition of the varioas Indian Schools in the Dominion (from 



Schools. 



Ontario. 



Alnwick 



Names 

of 

Teachers. 



Salary 

j per 
Annum. 



Back Settlement 

Bear Creek 

Buzwah's Village 

Cape Croker 

Caradoc .. 

Christian Island 

Fort William, boys 

do girls . ._ . 

do orphanage . . 

French Bay 

Garden Ri\er 

do 

Georgina Island 

Gibson 

Golden Lake 

Hiawatha 

Kettle Point 

Lake Nepigon 

Lower Mnncey 

Mattawa 

Miller (Henvey's Inlet) 



OOO 



John Lawrence 



Elsie Cobban . ... 

Lucy Fisher 

Agatha Gabow .... 

E. A. Jones 

Joseph Fisher, . . 
Alfred McCue. .. 

Zoe Castilloux .... 

Sister M. Ursula. . 
Rev. Moth. Claudia 
Helena Cameron . 
Helena E. Brown . 

Rev. T. Ouillett. , . 

Robert Mayes ... 

Mitchel White 



Minnie E. Quinn. 
Edward Cragg . . 

Henry Fisher. . . . 

Rev. R. Renison. 
Helen M. Crane . 



Sister St. Thecla. 
A. M. Nicholson. 



$ cts, 



Reserve on which 

situated 

and Fund from which Paid. 



200 00 Caradoc, Co. Middlesex. Paid by 

Band 

200 OOj do do 

200 OOiManitowaning Bay. I. S. Appro- 

I priation . . 

300 00 Nawash, Co. Bruce. Paid by Band. 



200 00 



275 00 



200 00 



Caradoc, Co. Middlesex. Paid by 
Band 

Christian Island, in Georgian Bay. 
I. S. Appropriation and Metho- 
dist Missionary Society 

Fort William, Lake Superior. I. S. 

Appropriation 

200 00 do do 

500 00 do do 

300 OOSaugeen, Co. Bruce. Paid by Band. 

300 00 Garden River. Garden River Band 

I and I. S. Appropriation 

300 OOjGarden River. Batchewana Band 

I and I. S. Appropriation 

300 00 Georgina Isly.nd, in Lake Simcoe. 
I. S. Appropriation and Methodist 
Missionary Society . 

Gibson, Muskoka District. I. S. 
Appropriation and Methodist 
Missionarj' Society 

Golden Lake, Co. Renfrew. I. S. 
Appropriation 

Rice Lake, Co. Northumberland. I. 
S. Appropriation and Methodist 
Missionary Society 

Sarnia, Co. Lambton. Paid by 
Chippewas of Sarnia 

Lake Nepigon. I.S. Appropriation. 

Muncey, Co. Middlesex. I. S. Ap- 
propriation and Church of Eng- 
land . . :■ 



250 00 



300 00 



250 00 



250 00 



200 00 
200 00 



100 00 Upper Ottawa, I.S, Appropiiation, 

250 00 Henvey's Inlet, Parry Sound Dis- 

I trict. I. S, Appro] )riation and 

Band 



PART 






250 00 Alnwick, Co. Northumberland. I.| 
S. Appropriation and Methodist! 
Missionary Society 41 



13 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 18D2 



MENT No. 2. 

which Returns have been received) for the Year ehded 30th June, 1891, 







.i 




, 




t; 








1 




i 


F 


s 1 




o 


be 










< 




i 


EC 


1 


P 






be 


be 


tp 


^ 




be 


be 


be 


Denomination 




1 


4J 


•^ 












of 


Remarks. 


k 






^ 


c3 


fe 




Schools. 




Ph 


^ 


^ 


a^ 


^ 


!> 


iibb 


^ 










^ 


;^ 


^- 


s^ 




^ 






s . 


J 


i 


i 


^ 


^ 


^•a 


^ 






g ^ 


- 


s 


£ 


5 


g 


2-" 








"Z -^ 


^ 


c 




^ 


s 


SCD 


3 






:2; 


^ 


/^ 


;z; 


^ 


^ 


z 


^ 






37 


38 


29 


12 


12 


8 




4 


Methodist ... 


Salary paid from a special grant 
of one-half the amount from the 
Indian School Appropriation to 
the Methodist Missionary So- 






































ciety. 


21 


21 


20 


f> 


2 


2 






Government .... 




11 


11 


5 


3 


3 




9 




. do 


Scripture Object Lessons and Lit- 
erature taught. 


9 


11 


9 


5 


1 




6 




Roman Catholic. 




19 


22 


17 


8 


8 


3 




T-2, 


Government . . . 


Literature, Orthography and Com- 
position taught. 


16 


16 


12 


3 


2 




.... 


1 


do ... 


Dictation and Composition taught. 


28 


28 


26 


8 


8 


8 


28 


28 


Methodist 


See remarks opposite Alnwick. 


11 


15 


10 


7 


7 








Eoman Catholic . 


Catechism taught. 


15 


15 


10 


6 


6 




15 


15 


do 


Sewing do 


18 


18 


13 


10 


10 




18 


14 


do 


do do 


.31 


31 
31 

38 

24 


12 
31 

38 

18 


5 

38 

7 


7 
5 
4 

7 








Government . . . 
Ch. of England . 
Roman Catholic 

Methodist 




31 








26 










23 




24 


18 


See remarks opposite Alnwick. 


15 


15 


10 


1 


.... 








do 


do do 


19 


19 


17 


11 


2 








Roman Catholic . 


Ccjmposition, Dictation and Spell- 
ing taught. 


18 


19 


13 


7 


3 


6 


4 




Methodist 


See remarks opposite Alnwick. 


16 


16 


8 


3 


3 








Government . . . 


Composition taught. 


10 


10 


8 


9 


4 


■ 


9 


10 


Ch. of England. . 


Scripture taught. 


13 


18 


18 


J) 


4 


1 




12 


do 


Scripture and Object Lessons 


















taught. 


24 


24 


24 


17 


17 








Roman Catliolic. 


Catechism taught. 


30 


30 


16 


9 


3 






3 (lovernnient . . . 


Dictation and Composition taught. 




















; Only three returns received. 



[part i] 



223 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (Xo. 14.) 



A. 1892 



TABULAR STATE 
Showing the Condition of the various Indian Schools in the Dominion (from 



Schools. 



Ontario — Continued. 



Misbissauga (New Credit). . jMaggie ]Meehan . . ' 



Names 

of 
Teachers. 



Salary 

per 

i Annum. 



Reserve on which 

situated 

and Fund from which Paid. 



do 

Mohawk Institute and In- 
dian Normal School 



Moravian . . 

do Mission 

Mount Elgin Industrial In- 
stitution 



Nipissing 

Oneida, No. 1. . . 



Nellie Donoghue . . 

Rev. R. Ashton, 

Principal 

W. N.Tobias. .. 
Dora Miller 



% Cts, 



300 OOiMississauga, Co. Brant. Paid by 

I Band 

250 OOjMississauga River, North Shore, 
Lake Huron. I.S. Appropriation. 



350 00 



Rev. W. W. Shep- 
herd, Principal. . 4,800 00 



do No. 2. 
do No. 3. 



Pic River 

Port Arthur . . . 



Port Elgin. 
Rama . . . . 



Clara Martin 

M. A. Beatty .... 

M. A. Chambers. . 
Catherine Jackson 



J. A. Blais . . . . 
Sister M. Teresa 



At Brantford, New England Co . . . 
Moravin, Co. Kent. Paid by Band 
do Paid by Mora- 
vian Society 



At Munceytown. »S'fe Remarks. 



280 00 Nipissing. I. S. Appropriation . . . 

250 00 Oneida Co., Middlesex. I.S. Appro- 
priation and Methodist Missionary 
Society 

200 00 Oneida, Co. Middlesex. I.S. Appro- 
I priation and Church of England. . 

250 00 Oneida, Co. Middlesex. I. S. Ap- 
propriation and Methodist Mis- 
sionary Society 

250 00 Pic River, Lake Superior. I.S. Ap- 
propriation 



David Craddock. 
H. Taylor 



Red Line E. Hyndman 



Red Rock 



Ryerson .Josephine Goode. 



Sagarnook 
Saugeen . . 



Scotch Settlement. 
224 



At Port Arthur. Is paid $12 per 

annum (per cap.) from T.S. Appro- 

])riation 

250 00 Nawash, Co. Bruce. Paid by Band. 

250 OOjRama, Co. Ontario. I.S. Appropri- 

I ation and Methodist Missionary 

j Society 

250 OOjSix Nation, Co. Brant. I.S. Appro- 
I priation and Methodist Missionary 

i Society 

.J. A. Blais ! 250 00 Red Rock or Helen Island, about 70 

j miles from Port Arthur. I.S. Ap- 

I propriation 

250 00 Parry Island, Parry Sound District. 

j Band and I.S. Appropriation.... 

. . . . IH. Atchitawis .... 200 OOjSpanish River. I.S. Appropriation. 

|R. H, Savage 300 00 Saugeen, Co. Bruce. I. S. Appropri- 

j j ation and Methodist Missionary 

1 I I Society 

I John B\irr 300 00 Saugeen, Co. Bruce. Paid by Chip- 

I I I pewas of Saugeen . . . 



300 00 ; 
[PAHT 



29 



21 



13 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



MEISTT m. 2— Continued. 

which Returns have been received) for the Year ended 30th June, 1891. 



1 


g 
1 


.0 
< 

s 


1 



1 

J 

1 

12; 


S 
t 

'3 

1 

3 


1 
.3 

i 
1 


1^ 
be 
1-1 


bib 

1 

;-( 

g 
1 


! Denomination 
1 of 
Schools. 


Remarks. 


24 
11 


25 
21 


25 
21 


13 


7 


4 




16 


Government 

Roman Catholic . 


Composition and Temperance 

taught. 
Catechism and Prayers taught. 

Only three quarters received. .... 
Object Lessons, Temperance and 
Composition taught. 


"■49 
15 


"49 

16 


■■■l9' 
12 


■'19 
9 


"■9 
1 




.... 


■49 


Undenomina'al. 
Government 

MoravianSociety 


88 


«7 


87 


16 


14 


13 






Methodist 


An Industrial and Boarding 
School. $60 per annvim allowed 
from Indian Funds andl.S. Ap- 
propriation for each of 80 pupils. 
Boys taught trades and farming, 
girls, sewing, housework, &c. 


12 


12 


11 


(5 


6 






4 


Government 


Three quarters only received. 


28 


28 


21 


10 


5 






28 


Methodist. ..... 


Sec remarks opposite Alnwick. 


19 


19 


11 


8 








17 


Ch. of England . 
Methodist 




22 


25 


14 


3 


3 








See remarks opposite Alnwick. 


7 


11 


7 












Roman Catholic. 


Part of two quarters only rec'd. 


11 

18 


11 

18 


10 

18 


13 


7 
3 




8 


8 
13 


do 
Government 


Only three returns received. 
See remarks opposite Alnwick, 


29 


29 


29 


15 


4 


1 


21 


26 


Methodist . . . 


21 


21 


18 


16 


7 


1 




16 


do 


See remarks opposite Alnwick. 


10 


13 


10 


2 


. . . . 


.... 






Roman Catholic. 


Part of three quarters only rec'd. 


19 

17 


19 
24 


19 
10 


2 

3 


4 






4 


Government 

Roman Catholic. 


Z!omposition taught. 
Catechism taught. 

Sec remarks opposite Alnwick. 


16 


12 


10 


1 


1 








Methodist 


23 


22 


21 


12 


3 








Government.. . . 


Ronk-kpHi)ine" t.aiiP-ht, 








PART 


l] ^ - ^^^ 



14—15 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



TABULAR STATE 

SHO^ylNG the condition of the various Indian Schools in the Dominion (from 



Schools. 



Ontario — Continued. 
Serpent River 

Shawanaga 

Sheguiandah . . . 

Sheshegwaning 

Shingwauk Home 



Sidney Bay. 



Six Nations, No. 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 

Skene.. 



No. 3 
No. 5 
No. 6 
No. 7 
No. 8 
No. 9 
No. 10 
No. 11 



South Bay .... 

Spanish River 
Stony Point . . 

Stone Ridge . . 



St. Clair 

Sucker Creek. 

Thessalon 

Thomas 



Names 

of 

Teachers. 



Mary Cada. 



Isabella Johnson . . 

James Keatley . . . . 

Rev. S. Dufresne. . 

Rev. E. F. Wilson, 
Principal 



J. H. Soadv. 



C. Maracle . . 
L. Weatherell 
Elam Bearfoot 
Thos. A. Miller 
Sarah Russell . 
Maggie Davis . 
Mary J . Scott 
Sarah Davis . 
Frances Davis 

E. M. Nicholson, 
M. Atchitawis. . . 



J. H. Esquimaux. 
Annie Vance .... 



C. Monture . 



F. L. Welsh. 



ie Lewis. 
V. Wakegijig. 
John Miller. . 



226 



Salary 

per 
Annum. 


$ cts. 


250 00 


250 00 


300 00 


200 00 


4,020 00 


' 250 00 


1 


1 

r 


J 

200 00 


200 00 


200 00 
200 00 


250 00 


275 00 


200 00 


300 00 


362 50 



Reserve on which 

situated 

and Funds from which Paid. 



Serpent River, North Shore, Lake 
Huron. I. S. Api^ropriation . . . 



Shawanaga, Parry Sound district. 
I.S. Apjjropriation and Band 

Sheguiandah. Ojibbewas and Otta- 
was of Manitoulin Islands 

Sheshegwaning. Ojibbewas and Ot- 
tawas of Manitoulin Islands 



Garden River, District of Algoma. 
See Remarks 



Nawash, Co. Bruce. Paid by Band. 



Six Nation, Co. Brant. See Rem'rks ^ 



Parry Island, Parry Sound Distiict. 
Paid by Band 

South Bay, Manitoulin Island. I. 
S. Appropriation 

Spanish River. I. S. Appropriation. 

Sarnia. Co. Lambton, I. S. Appro- 
priation 

Six Nation, Co. Brant, I. S. Appro- 
priation and Methodist Missionary 
Society 

Sarnia, Co. Lambton. I. S. Ap- 
propriation and Methodist Mis- 
sionary Society 

Sucker Creek, Manitoulin Island. 
I. S. Appropriation 

Thessalon, north shore of Lake Hu- 
ron. I. S. Appropriation 

Six Nation, Co. Brant. Paid by 
Band 



15 



[part I 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



MENT No. 2— Continued. 

which Eeturns have been received) for the Year ended 30th June, 1891. 





o 












a; 




a 








+^ 




h 




< 


be 


be 


s 


H 








s 
1 


t^ 


!^ 


z 


^ 


fl 


s 






^ 


;z; 


17 


9 


19 


19 


23 


11 


29 


29 


38 


38 


15 


15 


48 


28 


32 


24 


36 


26 


24 


19 


37 


37 


25 


24 


35 


35 


39 


.39 


32 


30 


9 


7 


16 


10 


13 


12 


10 


11 


12 


10 


44 


37 


14 


12 


19 


3 


62 


62 



32 



15 



32 



a-s 



27 



25 



17 



18 



15 



39 



Denomination 

of 

Schools. 



20 
PART 



Remark 



Rcyiian Catholic. Catechism, English Translation, 
j Knitting, Sewing and Crochet 
taught. 

Government Language Lessons, Dictation and 

I Object lessons taught. 

Ch. of England..! 

Roman Catholic. Only two returns received. 



Ch. of England.. An Industrial School; all pupils 
resident ; $60 per annum for 
each of 67 pupils, contributed 
from Indian Fvmds and I. S. 
Appropriation. The boys learn 
farming, trades, &c. Only thi-ee 
returns received. 

Dictation, Literature and Object 
Lessons taught. Only two re- 
turns received. 

The salaries of the teachers of 
those 9 schools are paid from 
special grants from the Indian 
School Appropriation, the funds 



Oovernment . . . . 

1 r 



'Undenom'al -{ 



Government , 



Roman Catholic. 
Ch. of England.. 

Government . . . . 



Methodist , 



do 

Ch. of England.. 
Roman Catholic. 
Government . . . . 



of the Six Nations and the N« 
England Co., respectively ; the 
first named contributing $400, 
the second .$1,500, and the thii"d 
$1,000 per annum for that pur- 
pose. Object Lessons. 

Only three returns received. Com- 
position and Dictation taught. 
Catechism taught. 

do and English taught. 



See Remarks opposite Alnwick. 



do do 

Dictation and Composition taught 

Only three returns received. 

Composition and Object Lessons 
taught. 

227 



14-151 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



TABULAR STATE 

Showing the Condition of the various Indian Schools in the Dominion (from 











1 


1 










"o 








Salary 


Reserve on which 


CO 


< 


Schools. 


Names of Teachers 


per 


situated 




>^ 






Annum. 


and Funds from which Paid. 












a 

1 


> 
< 


Ontario— Co ncl uded. 




$ cts. 








Tyendinga, No. 1 


Ella Began 


150 00 


Tyendinaga, Co. Hastings. Mo- 












hawks of the Bay of Quinte 


30 


16 


do No. 2 


Maud Wilson 


250 00 


do do . . 


27 


12 


do No. 3 


Minnie Fletcher . . 


150 00 


do do 


2!) 


15 


Walpole Island, No. 1 


Peter Thomas. ... 


300 00 


Walpole Island, in River St. Clair. 












Band and Church of England .... 


28 


24 


Walpole Island, No. 2 


Nancy Osahgee . . . 


250 00 


Walpole Island, in River St. Clair. 
I. S. Appropriation and Methodist 












Missionary Society 


28 


18 


do No. 3. ... 


William Peters. . . . 


300 00 


Walpole Island, in River St. Clair. 






Wawanosh Home 


Rev. E. F. Wilson, 




Paid by Band 


40 


22 




Principal 


600 00 


Garden River, District of Algoma. 
Paid by I. S. Fund and I. S. Ap- 












propriation 


20 


16 


West Bay 


Emma Donohue. . . 


200 00 


West Bay, Ojibbawas and Ottawas 












of Manitoulin Island 


24 


12 


Whitefish Lake 


Celina Lemoine . . 


200 00 


Whitefish Lake, north shore, Lake 


- 










Huron. I. S. Appropriation 


20 


12 


do 


Jabez. Agar ... 


200 00 


Whitefish Lake, north shore. Lake 
Huron. I. S. Appropriation and 












Methodist Missionary School 


13 


8 


Wikwemikong, boys. ..... 


John McDonald. . . 


300 00 


At Wikwemikong, Manitoulin Is- 












lands. I. S. Appropriation 


63 


44 


do girls, Indl. 


C Leymann 


600 00 


do do 


65 


48 


Wikwemikongsing 


Sophia Peltier. . . . 


200 00 


Wikwemikongsing do ... 


21 


12 


Wikwemikong Industrial 












Institution . . . . 


Rev.D. Duronquet, 












Principal 


1,800 00 


At Wikwemikong do <S><? Re- 












marks 


72 


43 


Jack Fish Island 


Mrs. Luke Bovicher 


250 00 


At head of River Nepigon 


19 


12 






Total Ontario 


27,71250 


2,210 


1,324 


Total, Ontario, 1890... 





26,63750 




2,155 


1,301 


Quebec. 






Becancour 


Ledas Genest 


80 00 


Becancour, Co. Nicolet. I. S. Ap- 












propriation and Band 


15 


13 


Caughnawaga 


Ovide Roy 


450 00 


Caughnawaga, on St. Lawrence 
River, opposite Lachine. I. S. 












Appropriation 


56 


34 


do girls 


Josephine Parent.. 


300 00 


do do . . 


79 


53 


do Prot. Mission 


John A. Diome — 


250 00 


Caughnawaga, on St. Lawrence 
River. I. S. Appropriation and 












Methodist Missionary Society. . . . 


25 


16 



128 



[part I 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



MENT 'No. 2— Continued. 

which Returns have been received) for the Year ended 30th June, 1891. 









>5 

1 


u 

5 




1 


be 






c8 




< 


^ 


u 
O 


W 


g 


« 






&J0 


be 
s 


be 


bo 


be 

P3 


be 


^ 


be 


Denomination 




1 


1 


§ 


c3 




c3 






of 
Schools. 


Remarks. 


^ 




^ 


% 


O) 


^ be 


^ 






^ 


^ 


u 


;-i 


u 


u 


;- c 


^ 






^ . 


% 


^ 


% 


% 


^ 


^•bt 


^ 






S'^ 


s 


s 


S 


a 


s 


s-s 


s 






3-S 


;3 


3 




3 


;3 


ncc 








^ 


1^ 


iz; 


;z; 


iz; 


;z; 


^ 


^ 






30 


30 


30 


7 


4 


2 




19 


Govermiient .... 


Dictation, Composition, Hygiene 
and Temperance taught. 


27 


27 


27 


7 


4 


4 




27 


do 


Language, Composition and Tem- 
perance taught. 


29 


29 


29 


12 


12 


5 




18 


do 


Hygiene, Temperance and Agri- 
culture taught. 


27 


28 


27 


12 


4 








Ch. of England.. 




28 


28 


28 


9 


9 








Methodist 


See remarks opposite Alnwick. 


40 


40 


37 


15 


3 


4 








Increase of salary from $250 per 
annum to $.300, from 1st Ai)ril, 






































1891. 


19 


20 


20 


14 


14 








Ch. of England. 




16 


24 
13 


24 
6 












Roman Catholic, 
do 




12 









10 




Only three teturns received. 


13 


13 


13 


2 










Methodist 


See remarks opposite Alnwick. 


51 


61 


63 


9 


9 


5 


25 


49 


Roman Catholic. 


Catechism and Drill taught. 


65 


65 


53 


19 


19 


27 




5 


do 


Catechism and Composition taught 


11 


21 


10 








11 




do 




66 


65 


58 


28 

■ 


28 


25 






do 


An Industrial andBoarding School 
•f 1,800 per annum, paid from In- 
dian School Ap])ropriation. The 
boys learn trades, farming, &c. ; 
the girls, sewing, housework, &c. 


19 
















do 


Only one return received. 














1,942 


2,044 


1,709 


702 


489 


178 


388 


714 




1,904 


1,200 


1,683 


711 


517 


145 


415 


598 






10 


13 


4 


2> 


3 


2 






do 


Catechism and Correspondence 




















taught. 


56 


56 


23 


9 


8 


11 




7 


do 


Increase in salary, from $350 per 
annum to $450, from Jan. 1, '91 


79 


67 


27 


64 


65 


57 




51 


do 


Vocabulary andTranslation taught 


25 


25 


13 


4 










Methodist 


See remarks opposite Alnwick. 



[part i] 



229 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



TABULAR STATE 

Showing the condition of the various Indian Schools in the Dominion (from 



Schools. 



Quebec — Concluded. 

Chenail 

Cornwall Island 

do 




Lake St. John . 
Lorette . ... 
Maniwaki . 
Maria 



Oka Village .. 
Oka Country . . 
Restigonche . . . 

St. Francis . . 



do 
St. Regis.. . 



do Island . 
Temiscamingue., 

do 



Mi.' 



Reserve on which 

situated 

and Fund from which Paid. 



JosephinePeets . 

Annie Back 

Louis Benedict ... 

Eugene Roy 

Josephte Dubeau. 
James McAuley. . 
Josephine Audet. 



Lucey Geoffrey.. . , 
Victoria Roy.. ... 
Katie Murray. . . 

Edwin Benedict. . 

Sister St. Lawrence 
Mary J. Powell. . . 

Josephine Leclair. 
John King . . ... 

Sister St. Alfred . . 



Total, (Quebec 

Total, Quebec, 1890 



Nov.i Scotia. 

Bear River 

Eskasoni . 

Middle River .... 

New Germany 

Salmon River 

Whycocomagh ... . 



Total, Nova Scotia 

Total, Nova Scotia, 1890. 



T. C. Kerr 

R. McMillan . . , 
M. A. McEachen 

M. A. Shea 

Angus C. Mclnnis 
John McEachen . 



8 cts. 
200 00 
200 00 
200 00 

150 00 
200 00 j 

300 00 
150 00 



200 00 
250 00 



290 00 
200 00 



200 00 
250 00 



100 00 



St. Regis, Co. Huntingdon, on St 
Lawrence River. Paid by Band.. 

St. Regis, Co. Huntingdon. Paid 
by Band 

St. Regis, Co. Huntingdon. I. S. 
Appropriation and Methodist 
Missionary Society 

Lake St. John, Co. Chicoutimi. I. S. 
Appropriation 

Lorette, Co. Quebec. I. S. Appro- 
priation 

River Desert, Co. Ottawa. Paid by 
Band 

Maria, Co. Bonaventure. I. S. Ap- 
propriation 

Oka, Co. Two Mountains 

do do . . 

Restigouche, Co. Bonaventure. I. 
S. Appropriation 

St. Fran9ois du Lac, Co. Yamaska. 

I. S. Appropriation ... 

do do . . 

St. Regis, Co. Huntingdon, on River 

St. Lawrence. Paid by Band 

do do . . 

Temiscamingue, Lake Temiscamin- 
gue. I. S. Apijropriation 

do do . . 



3,970 00 
3,970 00 



264 00 

I 

200 00 

200 OOj 

300 00 

200 00; 

I 
200 00 



1,364 00 
1,364 00! 



Bear River, Co. Digby. I. S. Ap- 
propriation 

Eskasoni, Co. Cape Breton, 



I. S. 



Appropriation. 
Middle River, Co. Victoria. I. S. 

A Impropriation 

New (Germany, Co. Lunenburg. I. 

S. Appropriation 

Salmon River, Co. Richmond. I. S. 

Appropriation 

Whycocomagh, Co. Inverness. I. C. 

Appropriation . 



16 


5 


16 


10 


16 


10 


41 


26 


52 


42 


24 


15 


24 
24 
24 


11 
14 
19 


41 


22 


16 

28 


9 
27 


30 

12 


14 
5 


18 
5 


12 
4 


562 
516 


361 

291 



121 
121 



280 



[part iJ 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



MEKT No. 2— Continued, 

which Returns have been received) from the Year ended 30th June, 1891. 



i 

bo 

s 

1 


1 

S 


a 
.s 

1 

u 

1 


1 

-I 
S 

a 


a 
a 

o 

bo 

s 

■g 
J 

1 


Number learning History. 


1 

bo 

II 

pJ/2 


1 

Q 

bo 

'S 

i 
1 

1 


Denomination 

of 

Schools. 


Remarks. 


16 
15 


16 
16 

16 
40 

52 

20 

24 
24 
24 

41 

16 

28 

30 

12 

18 
3 


16 
16 

11 

40 

30 

5 

24 
17 

20 

33 

11 
22 

24 

7 

12 

2 


16 
3 

3 

6 

18 

2 

5 

7 
6 

7 

5 
6 

12 

7 

10 


3 






16 
3 

"3 
3 

3 

8 
19 

6' 


Roman Catholic, 
do 

Methodist 

Roman Catholic. 

Roman Catholic. 

do 

do 

Methodist 

do 

Roman Catholic. 

Ch. of England.. 
Roman Catholic. 

do 
do 

do 
do 

Roman Catholic, 
do 
do 

do .. 
do 
do 


Composition, Dictation and Re-- 

citation taught. 
Dictation taught. 

See remarks opposite Alnwick. 
Catechism taught. 
P]nglish taught. 

Catechism taught. 

do 

French & Indian language taught 
English translation taught. 

Dictation & mental arith. taught. 


12 

12 

45 

24 

• 24 
19 
24 

41 

14 
24 

27 


8 

22 

3 

1 
6 
4 

1 

5 
14 


12 

20 

5 

2 

25 

' 5 
12 


"' 


11 

16 

28 

7 


12 


2 

"l 


.... 




Catechism taught. 


18 
5 






English language taught. 












502 
439 


541 
250 


357 
327 


192 
120 


146 
73 


154 
111 


62 
32 


119 
32 




19 


19 
5 

16 
14 
30 
22 


18 
2 
7 

14 

15 

9 


3 

1 

10 

7 

7 


1 

10 

6 

2 










16 
11 
14 
32 


6 




6 


Book-keeping and Botany taught. 


15 










107 
92 


106 
47 


65 
68 


28 
33 


19 

20 


6 
3 




6 

7 





[part i] 



231 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



TABCJLAR STATE 

Showing the Condition of the various Indian Schools in the Dominion (from 



Schools. 



Names 

of 

Teachers*. 



Prince liDWAKD Island, 

Lennox Island 

Total, Lennox Island, '90 j 
New Brunswick. 

Burnt Church 

Eel Ground 



J. Leclercq, 



Kingsclear 

St. Mary's 

Tobique .... . 



Flora Campbell . . 

Michael Flinne . . 

J. M. McNulty.. 
M. H. Martin . . . 
S. T. J. Davis . . . 



Total, New Brunswick . . 
Total, New Brunswick, 1890 . 
British Columbia. 



Alert Bay 
Bella Bella. 
Clayoquot . 



Coqua Leetza Home 

Hazelton 

Kamloops Indus. Institu'n. 



A. W. Corker. . . . 
Geo. F. Hopkins . . 
Rev. W. M. L. 

Heyman 

Laura Elderkin . . . 



Rev. J. Field . . . 
M. Hagan, Prin 



Kincolith W. H. CoUison.... 

Kitkathla (Lak Lau) Rev. F. L. Steph- 
enson 

Kootenay Indus. School . . . Rev. N. Coccola, 
Principal 



Kuper Isld. Indus. Institu. Rev. G. Donckele, 
Principal. 

Massett Mary Kinaskelas. . 

Metlakahtla Indus. Institu. J. R. Scott, Prin. . 



Naas River (Lak Alsap] 

Nanaimo 

Oiath (Barclay Sound). . 

Port Essington , . 

Port Simpson 

Soughees (Victoria) . . . 
St. Mary's, R. C. Mission.. 
Yale 



E. Beavis. ....... 

Gordon Tanner.. . . 

R. F. Verbeke.... 

Kate Tranter 

Wm. John Stone. . 

John E. Raynes . . 

. Rev. E. C. Chirouse 

Sister Alice 



Total, Brit. Columbia . 



Total, Brit. Columbia, 1890. 

232 



Salary 

yjer 
Annum, 



Reserve on which 

situated 

and Fund from which Paid. 



$ cts 
200 00 
200 00 

200 00 

250 00 

250 00 
250 00 
240 00 



1,190 00 
1,190 00 









%n 

^ ^ G 

SI, s« ce 



,^. 



^" CI 

c ^ 



Burnt Church, Co. Northumberland. 

I. S. Appropriation 

Eel Ground, Co. Northumberland. 

I. S. Appropriation 

Kingsclear, Co. York. I. S. Appro. 
St. Mary's do do . . 

Tobique, at mouth of Tobique River, 

I. S. Appropriation and Band. . . . 



Set Remarks. 



do 



Consolidated Fund : 
some also receive 
salaries from other 
sources. 



do 



do 



do 



13 

12 
18 
22 

34 

99 

101 



685 



491 



[part 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



MEN'T N'o. 1-^Continued. 

which Returns have been received) for the Year ended 30th June, 1891. 



1 

m 

i 

be 

q 

1 


"■+3 


% 

< 
he 

£ 


1 -^ 

i 

be 

8 
o 

be 

a 

J 


S 

1 

J 

12; 


s 

bo 

s 




1 ^ 

be 

! fi 

!l 

-=i be 

s ^ 


Q 
be 

1 

G 
1 


Denomination 

of 

Schools. 


Remarks. 


16 


14 


9 


8 


2 








Roman Catholic. 

Roman Catholic. 

do 
do 
do 

do 

Ch of England . . 
Methodist .... 

Roman Catholic. 
Methodist 

Ch. of England. 

Roman Catholic. 

Ch. of England . 

do 


Dictation and Catechism taught 
Only three Returns received. 


14 


5 

13 

12 
18 
22 

34 


7 

13 

9 
18 
22 

34 


6 

4 

5 

13 

4 

5 


2 

4 

4 

18 
17 

6 








13 

12 
15 
13 

34 


4 




"18' 
22 


13 

11 

18 
19 

11 


Only three returns received. 

Dictation taught. 
Sewing and useful trades taught. 
Sewing, Printing and Catechism 
taught 










87 
76 


99 
52 


96 

84 


31 

28 


49 

29 


4 

9 


40 
23 


72 

63 




4 
36 

17 
51 

12 

24 

56 

47 


15 
45 

21 
31 

20 

24 

43 

76 

27 

23 

46 
25 

]9 
21 
21 
50 
96 
12 
27 
22 


5 
45 

17 
25 

23 
17 
59 
14 
17 

21 

25 

19 
16 

32 
96 
18 
17 
20 


1 
6 

'"20 
11 


16 




21 
34 

32 




Only three returns received, 
do two do 

do one do 
Receives a grant of $130 per annum 

for each of 10 pupils. 
$12 per capita per annum up to 25 

p\;pils. 
Receives a grant of $130 per annum 

for each of 25 pupils. 
Only two returns received, 

do one do 


27 










Receives a grant of $130 per annum 


23 

29 
25 

1!) 
19 


4 

9 
25 

""6 

"i6' 
24 I 

'"'10' 

8 , 


1 

'"9 

1 
1 

1 




46 

8 

'21 

50 


46 

'17' 


Roman Catholic. 

Ch. of England . 

Non-denomina - 

tional 

Methodist 

do 
Roman Catholic. 
Methodist 

do 
Ch. of England. 
Roman Catholic. 
Ch. of England. 


for each of 25 pupils. 
Receives a grant of $130 per annum 

for each of 25 pupils. 
Only three returns received. 

Receives a grant of $130 per annum 

for each of 25 pupils. 
Only two retvirns received. 

do three do 

do one do 

do three do 


96 


18 

7 




do do do 


15 
26 
22 


■■■'o' 


"22 

18 


do one do 

Receives a grant of $60 per annum 
for each of 25 pupils, 

233 


555 
395 


664 
273 


486 
316 


140 i 
154 


61 I 

60 ; 


6 
6 


252 
244 


63 

50 
PART 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



TABULAR STATE 

Showing the Condition of the various Indian Schools in the Dominion (from 



Schools. 



Manitoba. 

Assabaska 

Beren's River .... 

Big Eddy 

Black River .... . . 

Broken Head River. 

Chemawawin 

Coutcheeching . . . . 
Crane River 



Cross Lake 

Ebb and Flow Lake . . 

Fairford, Upper 

do Lower 

Fisher River 

Fort Alexander 

do Upper. 

do 

♦ Frenchman's Head . . 



Grand Rapids 

Grassy Narrows 

Hollow Water River 

Hungry Hall 

Islington 

Jack Head 

Lac Seul 

Lake Manitoba 

do (Boarding) 

Lake St. Martin . . 

Little Forks 

Little Saskatchewan .... 

Long Saiilt 

Manitou Rapids 

Muckle's Creek 

Netley Creek 

Norway House 



Pine Creek . 



Pine Creek (Boarding). 

Poplar River. 

Portage la Prairie 



R. B. Grant 

Charles French . . 
C. J. Pritchard . . 
Douglas Allan . . . 

A. K. Black 

Robert Bear . . . 
J. O. Fitzpatrick. 
E. H. Molony . . . 



Names 

of 

Teachers. 



Geo. Garrioch 

John Favel . . . . 
Rev. Geo. Bruce. 
Wm. Anderson . . 

H. S. Heise 

A. W. Kincaid. . . 
W. H. Dallas. .. 
Leo. Schanus . . . . 
John Hill 



Salary 

per 
Annvim. 



Reserve on which 

situated 

and Fund from which Paid. 



do (Boarding). 

Rosseau River 

Ross ville (Norway House). 

St. Boniface Industrial 

School 



St. Paul's Industrial School. 
St. Peter's, North 

234 



James Settee, jr 
Henry Kelly . . . 
Adrian Neison .... 

Robert Miles 

D. E. Spence 

Wm. Wood 

Rev. T. Pritchard. 

Wm. Coutu 

do Principal 
John Moar . 

Wm. Wood 

Colin Sanderson. . . 
Walter J. Southam 

Robert Gill 

K. McKenzie 

J. M. Gow 

C. J. Bouchette . . . 

Thos. Hart 

Rev, J. A. Dupont. 

Rev. J. A. Dupont. 

F. A. Disbrowe . . . 
Bessie Walker . . . 

do 
Mrs. J. B. Gauthier 
S. D. Gaudin 



cts, 



S ? !» _-»S 

S 2 § "a, 

c 5 ^ 

S =5 t^ '"o 

^■^^ -^^ 

^ C O « IT" 
C S^ O r^ 

w D "T w O 

^ § ° fl c 

1^1 i = 

i, <3J ^ ^ 



Assabaska, Treaty No. 3 

Beren's River do 5. ... 

Pas do 5 

Black River do 5 . . . . 

Broken Head River, Treaty No. 
Chemawawin do 

Coutcheeching (Rainy R. )do 
Crane River do 



B 

2 «s S P 
§ o 



Rev. Sister Hamel, 
Principal.. 

Rev. W. A. Bur- 
man, Principal. . 

G. L. Haskard. . . . 



S^ 



2 S^.^ g 

_(N <V o ^ 

o 1— ' ^ o s 



Hi 



■^ >i 



Si P 

eg cS 



Cross Lake 

Ebb and Flow Lake 

Fairford 

do 

Fisher River 
Fort Alexander 

do 

do 
Lac Seul 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



Grand Rapids do 5, 

Grassy Narrows do 3, 

Hollow Water River do 5 
Hungry Hall do 3 

Islington do 3 

Jack Head do 5 

Lac Seul do 3 

Lake Manitoba do 2. 

do do 2. 

Lake St. Martin do 2 

Little Forks(Rainy River )do 3 
Little Saskatchewan do 2 
Long Sault (Rainy River) do 3 
Manitou Rapids do 3 

St. Peters do 1 

do do 1 

Norway House do o 

Pas do 5 

Pine Creek (Agent Martineau'i 

Agency) Treaty No. 4 

Pine Creek (Agent Martineau'i 

Agency), Treaty No. 4 

Poplar River, Treaty No. 5 . 

At Portage la Prairie do 1 . 



do 
Rosseau River 
Norway House 



do 1 
do 1. 
do 5 



At St. Boniface. — See Remarks. 

At St. Paul's do 
St. Peter's, Treaty No. 1 



I 



28 
39 
35 
17 

25 
27 
39 
19 

27 
22 
26 
35 
61 
29 
21 
30 
32- 

38 
39 
20 

7 

34 
18 
37 
17 

5 
20 
21 
19 
24 
17 
13 
12 
35 
31 

20 

13 
34 
16 

17 

9 

53 



PART 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



MENT Ko. 2— Continued. 

which Returns have been received) for the Year ended 30th June, 1891. 









15 

16 

5 I 






II 



CO cS 



.§c 



(y 



Lbs. 

5781 
533^ 
1,222 

668 

mi 

887h 

1,2824 

574i 

742 
1,13U 

. 870| 
677i 

'422^' 
404i 
615 
370 

1,1284 
88| 
126 
1184 
680| 
450Jg 
364S 
2654 



Denomination 

of 

Schools. 



469| 
646A 
502 
281| 
6291 
367 
144 
l,154i 
1,226 

590 



463 



456 



Episcopal 

Methodist 

Episcopal 

do 

Government 

Episcopal 

Roman Catholic. . 
Government 

do 

do 

Episcopal 

do 

Methodist 

Episcopal ... . . 

do 

Roman Catholic. . 
Episcopal 

do 

Roman Catholic. . 
Episcopal 

do 

do 

do 

do .... 
Roman Catholic. . 

do 
Episcopal 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Roman Catholic. . 

Government 

Episcopal 

Roman Catholic. . 

Roman Catholic. . 

Government 

Presbyterian 

•do ..... 
Roman Catholic. . 
Methodist 



Roman Catholic. . 

Episcopal 

Government . . . 



Only three returns received. 



Remarks. 



do 



do 



do do and taught only 

19 days in December quarter. 



Only three retiirns received. 



do do and taught only 

50 days in September quarter. 
Only three returns received, 
do do 



do 



do 



[part i] 



do do 

Only one return received. 



Only two returns received. 



Only three returns received. 

Only two returns received, September and 

Jvine quarters 
Government grant, $1,000 per annum, being 

20 pupils at $50 each. 
Only two returns received. 



Grant of $100 per annum for each of 80 
pupils. 

do do 



235 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



TABULAR STATE 
Showing the Condition of tlie various Indian Schools in the Dominion (from 



Schools. 



Names 

of 

Teachers. 



Salary 

per 
Annum. 



Reserve on which 

situated 

and Fund from which Paid. 



Manitoba— Concluded. 

St. Peter's, South 

do East 

do do ....... . 

Wabigoon 

Wabuskang 

Washakada Home Indus 
trial School 

Water Hen River 

do (Boarding) 

Whitefish Bay 

Oxford House 

Total, Manitoba 

do 1890. . . 



North-West Territories. 

Alexander 

Alexis 

Armadale Mission 

Battleford Industrial Insti- 
tution 

Battle River 

Bear's Hill 

do 

Beardy and Okemasis 

Beaver River 

Birtle Industrial School. . . . 

Blackfoot (Old Sun's Camp) 



Rev. H. Cochrane, 

H. McKenzie 

R. Chevrefils 

Henry J. Johns . . . 
D. W. Wood 

Rev. E. F. Wilson, 

Principal.. 

J. H. Adam 

do Principal. 

W. G. Gow 

C. G. Simpson . . . 



do 

do 

do 

Blood . 

do . 

do . 
do . 



(Big Plume's do ) 
(Eagle Rib's do ) 
Crossing. . . 



Crow Stand (Boarding) 



Day Star . . . 
Eagle Hills 

236 



Pere Blanchet 

Peter Sutherland. 
C. J. McKay.... 



$ cts. 



St. Peter's, Treaty No. 1 
do do 1 . 

do do 1 . 

Wabigoon do 3 . 

Wabuskang do 3 . 



Rev. T. Clarke, 

Principal 

A. L. Degraff 



C. E. Somerset. . 
Ada Latulippe . . 
F. Ladret 



Thos. W. Harris.. 

Rev. G. G. Mc 

Laren, Principal. 

F. Swainson . . 

W. R. Haynes.... 

John Forbes 

T. Robbe 

E. F. Hillier 



Edward Wells . . . 

J. Hinchliffe . . . 
Rev. Em. Legal. . . 
Rev. G. A. Laird, 

Principal 



300 00 



300 00 
300 00 



Sec Rmrks 

do 

300 00 
300 00 

300 00 

See Rmrks 

300 00 

540 00 
300 00 
300 00 
540 00 

iSee Rmrks. 

300 00 
300 00 

See Rmrks. 



James Slater. 
Mary Price . . 



At Elkhorn. — See Remarks 

Water Hen River, Treaty No. 2 . 
do do 2. 
Whitefish Bay do 3. 
See Remarks . . . . . 



1,519 
1,267 



Alexander, Edmonton District, 
Treaty No. G 
Alexis, Edmonton Ag'cy do 6. 
Mistowasis, Carlton Dist. do 6. 



At Battleford do 6. 

Sampson's, Peace Hills Ag. do 6 . 

Muddy Bull do do G..' 

Ermineskin do do 6.. 

Beardy and Okemasis, Duck Lake 
Agency, Treaty No. 6. . i 

Cold Lake, Onion Lake Ag. do 6..| 

At Birtle, Birtle Agency do 4 . . | 

Blackfoot, Treaty No. 7 



do do 

do do 

do do 

Blood, Treaty No. 7 . . 



300 00 
300 00 



[part 



do 
do 



No. 7 

No. 7 

No 7 



Near Pelly (S. end Cote's Reserve) 
Fort Pelly Agency, Treaty No. 4 

Day Star, Touchwood Hills 
Agency, Treaty No. 4 

Near Red Pheasant's Reserve, 
Battleford Agency, Treaty No. (> 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



MENT Fo. 2— Continued. 

which Returns have been received) for the Year ended 30th June, 1891. 



M 



383 
317 



Ph . 



219 

188 



~ o 

12; 



121 

152 



12; 



11 






Lbs. 

1,666* 

742'^ 
384 
2791 
2921 



Denomination 

of 

Schools. 



962 

'527*' 



26,832H 



Episcopal 

do 
Roman Catholic 
Government . . 
Episcopal 

do ..... 
Roman Catholic 
do 

Episcopal 

Methodist .... 



Remarks. 



Only taught 37 days in September quarter, 
1890. 

Grant of $100 per annum for each of 80 
pupils. 

Only three returns received. 
Outside Treaty limits. 



381§ Roman Catholic. . . Government grant. 

189g JRoman Catholic. . . jOnly three returns received. 

562^1 Presbyterian ..... Government grant. 



875 

499 
437i 

650-B 
1,230 



1,487M 

962^ 
1,743^2 
67o| 
560| 

21 

554| 
876| 



430J 
912^ 



Episcopal 

Methodist... 

do 

Roman Catholic. 

do 
do 

Presbyterian . . . . 

Episcopal... .-. . 

do 

do 

Roman Catholic. 
Episcopal 

Methodist 

Episcopal ... . . . 

Roman Catholic 



Presbyterian 
Episcopal ... 



do 
[part i] 



Government grants $12 per capita per an- 
num up to 25 pupils. 

do do 

Government grant. 



do 
do 



$60 per annum for each 



do 
of 25 pupils. 
Government grant and Church Missionary 
Society, $240. 

do do 

Government grant. 

Government grants $300 and Church Mis- 
sionary Society $240. 

Government grants $12 per capita per annv;m 
up to 25 pupils. 

Government grant. 



Government grants $60 per annum for each 

of 30 pupils. 
Government grant. 



do 



237 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



TABULAR STATE 

Showing the Condition of the various Indian Schools in the Dominion (from 



Schools. 



North-West Terri- 
tories — Con. 

Eagle Hills 

Emmanuel College 

File Hills (Boarding) 

Fort Chippewayan 

Good Fish Lake 

Gordon 

do (Boarding). 

Isle-a-la Crosse. 

Jack Fish Creek 

John Smith 

James Smith 

Keys' 

Kee-see-Kovise 

Lac la Biche 

Lac la Ronge 

Little Pines. 

Meadow Lake 

Morley Mission, No. 1 

do No. 2 ... . 

Muscowpetung (now Lake's 
End — Boarding) 

Muscowequan's (Semi- 
boarding) 

Muskeg Lake 

do (Boarding).. 

McDou^all Orphanage and 
Training Institution. . . . 

238 



Names 

of 

Teachers. 



M. McConnell.... 
Rev. J. A. Mac- 
Kay, Principal. . 
Alex. Skene, Prin. 

Richard Young . . . 

Peter Erasmus 

Rev. O. Owens. . . . 

do Prin. 

Sister Langelier. . . 

E. R. Applegarth. 

M. Wilson 

J. F. D. Parker. . . 
Rev.T. W. Cunliffe 
Frank Jordens . . . 
Sister St. Augustin 

Joseph Hunt 

C. A. Lindsay .... 
Baptiste Morin . . . 

A. G. McKitrick. . 

Mrs. E. R. Stein - 

hauer 

Rev. W. S. Moore, 
Principal 

F. W. Dennehy, 
Principal 

Rev.J.P.Paquette. 

do 

J. W. Butler, Prin. 



Salary 

per 
Annum. 



I cts. 

300 00 

-S^eeRmrks. 
do .. 

500 00 

-S'ecRmrks. 

700 00 

.SecRmrks. 

300 00 
400 00 

300 00 

300 00 

600 00 

300 00 

300 00 

300 00 

300 00 

300 00 

.SecRmrks. 
do .. 

do .. 

do .. 

300 00 

iSeeRmrks. 

do 
[part I 



Reserve on which 

situated 

and Fund from which Paid. 



Stony, Battleford Agency, Treaty 

No. 6 '. 

At Prince Albert, Treaty No. 6 . . 
Little Black Bear's, File Hills 

Agency, Treaty No. 4 

Athabasca District, outside Treaty 

limits 

James Seenum's, Saddle Lake 

Agency, Treaty No. 6 

George Gordon's, Touchwood Hills 

Agency, Treaty No. 4 



do 



do 



Outside Treaty limits 

Moosomin's. Battleford Agency, 

Treaty No. 6 

John Smith's, Duck Lake Agency, 

Treaty No. 6 

James Smith's, Duck Lake 

Agency, Treaty No. 6 . 

Keys', Fort Pelly Agency, Treaty 

No. 4 

Kee-see-Kouse, Fort Pelly Agency, 

Treaty No. 4 ..." 

Lac la Biche, Saddle Lake Agency, 

Treaty No. 6 

Lac la Ronge, Carlton Agency, 

Treaty No. 6 

Little Pines, Battleford Agency, 

Treaty No. 6 

Ko-pa-ha-wa-ke-num, Carlton 

Agency, Treaty No. 6 



Stony, Sarcee Ag'cy, Treaty No. 7 

do (south side of 

Bow River), Treaty No. 7. . . 

Near Muscowpetung Reserve 
Muscowpetung Agency, Treaty 
No. 4 

Muscowequan's, Touchwood Hills 
Agency, Treaty No. 4 

Petequakey, Carleton Agency, 
Treaty No. 



do 



do 



Stony, Sarcee Ag., Treaty No. 7. 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



jMENT ]^o. 2— Continued. 

which Returns have been received) for the Year ended 30th June, 1891. 



-^ 


13 


t 


TS 


'h 


-c 


c 




s 




<x> 


c3 


c3 


S 


ee 


c8 


o 














m 


m 


m 


a? 


m 




c 


c 


s 


c 


s 


-fj 


cc 


!» 


X 


(K 


35 


? u 














Q* 


&( 


S 


a 


P. 


pq>^ 




s 


^ 


s 


;3 


PM . 


pin . 


Ph . 


Ph . 


P^' X 






.«<?^ 


^co 


^H ^ 


^^ 


'^■f 


P 


i^ 


8^ 




^ 6 

8^ 




S'^ 


S'^ 


S'ki 


S'H 


s'k: 


i^ 


C e3 


S <A 


5 05 


S c3 


p =« 


g^ii 


^ 


^ 


;^ 


^ 


^ 


G' 


18 


2 
2 








240 


1 


1 


1 


3 


9 


2 






■• •• 




5 


4 


1 


4 


3 




19 


13 


6 






780 


7 


4 


5 


12 


5 


1,098 


3 


1 


5 


6 


1 




6 


6 


3 






501J 


2 


1 


5 


1 


3 


411 


10 


4 


3 


8 


3 


742 


6 


12 









3561 


7 


1 


4 


2 




57U 


8 


3 


4 


5 





320| 


7 


2 
Wr'tg 










Re'dg 


Arith. 








16 


6 
2 


5 








13 






465i 


Re'dp: 


Wr'tg 


Arith. 








6 


10 


4 








Ke'dg 


Wr'tg 


Arith. 


Geog. 


Music 




39 


36 


16 


4 


15 




Red'ff 


Wr'tg 
44 


Arith. 




Music 
38 





16^ 


10 




25 


6 


7 


4 


5 




5 


4 


3 


2 


1 




7 


3 


3 






513| 


Re'dg 


Writ. 


Arith. 


Geog. 


Gram. 




2 


2 


2 


1 


1 




Re'dg 


Writ. 


Arith. 








22 


22 


17 










Denomination 

of 

Schools. 



Episcopal. . . . 

do 
Presbyterian . 
Episcopal. . . . 
Methodist . . . 
Episcopal . . . 

do 
Roman Catholic 
Episcopal .... 

do 

do 

do 

Roman Catholic, 

do 
Episcopal 

do 

Roman Catholic 
Methodist 



do 



Remarks. 



Presbyterian . . . 
Roman Catholic 

Roman Catholic . . 
do 

Methodist 

[part i] 



Only two Returns received. 
Government grants $1,000 per annum. 

do $60 do for each 

of 20 pupils. 

Government grants $200 and Church Mis- 
sionary Society $300. 

Government grants $12^er capita per annum 
up to 25 pupils. 

Government grants $400 and Diocese of 
Qu'Appelle $300. 

Government grants $60 per annum for each 
of 10 pu^jils. 

Government grant. 

Government grants $300 and Church Mis- 
sionary Society $100. 
Government grant. 

do 
Government grants $300 and Church Mis- 
sionary Society $300. 

(jrovernment grant. 

do 



Government grants ^12per capita per annum 
up to 25 pupils. 



do 



do 



Government grants $60 per annum for each 

of 40 jjupils. 
Government grants $60 per annum for each 

of 9 boarders. 

Government grant. 

Government grants $50 per annum for each 
of 10 pupils. 

Government grants $60 per annum for each 
of 25 pupils. 

239 



55 V^ictoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



TABULAE STATE 

Showing the Condition of the various Indian Schools in the Dominion (from 



Schools. 



Names 

of 

Teachers. 



North-West Territories 
— Continued. 

Oak River (Sioux) 

One Arrow 



Onion Lake, 
do 



Piegan 

do (Boarding) 



do ... 
Poor Man 



Poundmaker 

Qu'Appelle Indus. Instit'n 
Riding Mountain 

Round Lake Indus. Instit'n, 



Saddle Lake 

Sandy Lake 

Sarcee 

Shoal River 

Sioux Mission 

Standing Buffalo (Sioux) 

do (Boarding) 
Stony Plains 

do (Boarding .... 

do 

Sturgeon Lake 

Svi^eet Grass 

St.-Albert Industr'l School 



240 



0. H. Hartland. 
P. L. Lafond.. . . 



John Hope 

Wm. Todd 

Rev. H. T. Bourne, 
do 

Rev. D. Foisy . . . 

L. F. Hardy man . . 

Pere Vachon 



Rev. J. Hugonnard, 

Principal 

M. S. Cameron . . . 



Rev. H. McKay, 
Principal 



O. German. 



Alex. Seymour. 

S. J. Stocken . . 
E. H. Bassing . 
Lucy M. Baker. 
Norman Leslie , 



do Prin. 
M. Anderson 



do 

Thos. Ridsdale 
Thos. Badger . . 
J. Pritchard . 



Rev. J. J. M. Les 
tance, Principal. 



Salary 

per 
Annum. 



I cts. 

300 00 
300 00 

300 00 

300 00 

300 00 
/S'ecRmrks. 

do 

500 00 

300 00 

600 oi)' 

iS^ecRmrks. 
do 

500 00 

540 00 
300 00 



Reserve on which 

situated 

and Fund from which Paid. 



Oak River, Birtle do No. 4, 

One Arrow, Duck Lake Agency, 

Treaty No. G 

Oo-nee-pow-hayo's, Onion Lake or 

Fort Pitt Agency, Treaty No. 6 
Puskee-ah-kee-he-win's, Onion 

Lake or Fort Pitt Agency, 

Treaty No. 6 

Piegan, Piegan Ag., Treaty No. 7. 
do do No. 7. 



do 



do 



No. 
Hills 



Poor Man's, Touchwood 
Agency, Treaty No. 4 . . . 



Poundmaker 's,Battleford Agency, 
Treaty No. 6 



At Fort Qu'Appelle, Treaty No. 4. 

Kee-see-ho-wenin, Birtle Agency, 

Treaty No. 4 



At Round Lake, Crooked Lakes 
Agency, Treaty No. 4 



350 00 

ASecRmrks, 
GOO 00 

SeeRmrks. 

300 00 
300 00 
300 00 

(SecRmrks. 

[part i] 



Saddle Lake, Saddle Lake Agency, 
Treaty No. 6 

Atakakoop, Carlton Agency, 
Treaty No. 6 

Sarcee, Sarcee Ag., Treaty No. 7. 

Keys',FortPellyAg. do ' No. 4. 

Near Prince Albert do No. G. 

Standing Buffalo, Muscowpetung 
Agency, Treaty No. 4 



do 



do 



Enoch-la-potac, Edmonton Agen 
cy, Treaty No. G 



do 



do 



do do . . 

Twatt's, Carlton Ag. , Treaty No. 6. 

Sweet Grass, Battleford Agency, 

Treaty No. 6 

Orphans, Edmonton Agency, 
Treaty No. G 



24 

12 

20 

171 

19 

37 

25 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



MENT 'No. 2—ContinuecL 

which Returns have been received) for the Year ended 30th June, 1891, 



1 


1 

m 


■73 

1 


1 


T3 






CO 

So 

11 


Si 






03 

1! 

A S-i 


0^ 


Denomination 

of 

Schools. 












Lbs. 




14 


3 








244§ 


Episcopal 

Roman Catholic. . . 


10 










219H 


5 


3 


2 


1 




399| 


Episcopal 


14 

35 

2 


7 
9 
4 


11 

2 
2 


3 




?S| 


Roman Catholic. . . 

Episcopal 

do 


16 


3 


5 






4561 


Roman Catholic. . . 


^ 


4 


3 






376.1 
6401 


Eni senna.! 


7 


3 


5 


3 


2 


Roman Catholic, . . 


38 


40 


39 


33 


21 




do 


6 


6 


5 


2 




452i 


Presbyterian .... 


90 




5 


5 






do 




3 


10 


2 




232^ 


Methodist 


10 
36 
34 
17 


6 
4 
3 

5 


1 
1 


4 
■ 3' 


2 


708f 
622 
980 
2301 


Episcopal 

do 

do 

Presbyterian 


9 


4 

Writ. 

5 


2 

Arith. 

3 






3341 




Re'dg 

2 


Geog. 
1 




do 


8 


2 








32111 


Presbyterian 

do 


8 


1 

8 
4 








18 








425 


Roman Catholic. 


6 








Episcopal 

Roman Catholic. . . 


11 


8 


6 






835 


10 


16 


7 


11 


6 




do 
[part i] 



Remarks, 



Government grant. 



do 



do 
do 
This school is allowed rations instead of a 

money grant. 
Government grants $12 per capita per an- 
num up to 25 ijupils. 

Government grants $.300 and Diocese of 
Qu'Appelle $200. 



Government grant. 



Government grants $300 and Presbyterian 
Church $300. 



Government grants $60 per annum for each 
of 40 pupils. 

Government grants $12 per annum per 
capita up to 25 pupils. 

Govt, grants $400 and Ch. M. Society $100. 
do $300 do $240. 

Government grant. 



Government grants $300 and Roman Cath- 
olics $50. 

Government grants $50 per annum for each 
of 10 pupils. 

Government grants $300 and Presbyterian 

Church $300. 
Government grants $60 per annum for each 

of 9 pupils. 
Government grant. 



do 



Government grants $60 per annum for each 
of 50 pupils. 

241 



U— 16 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



TABULAR STATE 

Shoaving the Condition of the various Indian Schools in the Dominion (from 



Schools. 



Names 

of 

Teachers. 



North- West Territories 
— Concluded. 

St. Joseph Industrial School 
Thunder Child 



Pere N a e s s e n s, 
Principal . . . . . . 



W. R. Taylor. 



do J. Dandilin 

Touchwood Hills jF. W. Dennehy . . 

Vermilion, Irene Training! 

Institution JRev. E. J. Law- 

I rence, Principal. 



White Cap (Sioux) Mrs. W. R. Tucker 

White Fish Lake ! John S. Dobbin. . 

Regina Industrial School . . 

Lesser Slave Lake 

Fort Resolution (Boarding) 



Total, N.-W. Territories. 
Total, N.-W. Ter., 1890.. 



Rev. A. J.McLeod, 

Principal 

Rev. A. Di 



esmarais 
LillianG. Lawrence 



Salary 

per 
Annum. 



$ cts. 



500 00 



300 00 
400 00 



500 00 

ASecRmrks. 
do .. 



200 00 



Reserve on which 

situated 

and Fund from which Paid. 



At High River (near Calgary), 
Treaty No. 7 62 

Thunder Child, Battleford Agency, ! 
Treaty No. 6 , 24 

do do . . j 25 
Muscowequan's, Touchwood Hill 
Agency, Treaty No. 4 \ 28 

Athabasca District, outside of 
Treaty limits | 13 

White Cap (near Saskatoon),; 

Treaty No. 6 . . . . . . j 14 

James Seenum's, Saddle Lake' 

Agency, Treaty No. 6 { 27 



Near Regina ' 32 

Athabasca District, outside Treaty 

limits ... 13 

Great Slave Lake, outside Treaty 

limits 



2,337 1 1,231 
2,001 1,162 



242 



[part i] 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



ME:N'T ISTo. 2— Concluded. 

which Returns have been received) for the Year ended 30th June, 1891. 



1 

s 

i 

° 6 
1^ 

11 


Number of Pupils in Stand- 
ard No. 2. 


i 

•a 


1 

in 

-i 

■ft 

^,- 


m 
■ft 
^ o 


Quantity of Biscuit issued 
during the Year. 


Denomination 

of 

Schools. 


Remarks. 


18 


Writ. 

21 

5 

8 

7 

2 

3 

Writ. 
15 

12 

Writ. 

9 

2 


Arith. 
18 

1 

3 

9 

2 

Arith. 
6 

3 

Arith. 

5 

2 


Geog, 


Gram. 
13 


Lbs. 

636f 
198i 

9071 

762 

407i 


Roman Catholic. . . 
Episcopal. 


Government grants $300 and Church M. 

Society $200. 
Only two returns received. 

Government grant. 

Government grant $200 and Church M. 
Society $300. 

'xovernment grants $12 per cap. per anu. 
up to 25 pupils. 

do do 

Only one return received, June quarter. . 

do do 


13 

8 

5 
12 


1 

3 

4 

4 

Oeog. 
4 

5 
Geog. 


1 
Gram. 


Roman Catholic . . 
do 

Episcopal 

Methodist 

do 

Presbyterian 

Roman Catholic . . 


Re'dg 
13 

4 


Gram. 
5 










1,300 
1,221 


554 

626 


351 

486 


197 
203 


148 
137 


31, 134 A 


• 



14-161 



[PAR'J 



243 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



TABULAE STATEMENT ]^o. 3. 

Census Return of Resident and Nomadic Indians ; Denominations to which 
they belong, with approximate number belonging to each Denomination, 
in the Dominion of Canada, by Provinces. 

PROVINCE OF ONTARIO. 



Indians. 



Algonquins of Carleton 

do Golden Lake . 
do Renfrew 

Chippewas of the Thames . 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



Muskoka 



Walpole Island 

Sarnia 

Snake Island 

Rama 

Saugeen 

Nawash 

Beausoleil 

Iroqvxois and Algonquins of Gibson, 

District 

Moravians of the Thames 

Mississaugas of Mud Lake . . 

do Rice Lake 

do Scugog 

do Alnwick 

do New Credit 

Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte 

Munsees of the Thames 

Oneidas of the Thames 

Pottawattamies of Walpole Island 

do Aux Sauble 

Ojibbewas and Ottawas of Manitoulin and Cock- 
burn Islands, at — 

Cockburn Island 

Sheshegwaning 

West Bay 

Sucker Creek 

Sheguiandah 

Sucker Lake . . 

South Bay 

Wikwemikong . 

Wikwemikongsing 

Obidgewong 

Ojibbewas of Lake Superior, at — 

Fort William . . . 

Red Rock or Helen Island 

Pays Plat 

Lake Nepigon 

Pic River 

Long Lake 

Michipicoton and Big Heads 

Ojibbewas of Lake Huron, at — 

Thessalon River. 

Maganettawan 

Spanish River 

White Fish Lake 

Mississagua River 

Onewaiegoes . 

Serpent River. 

French River . . . 

Tahgaiewenene 

White Fish River 

Parry Island. , , 

Shawanaga 

Henvy's Inlet 

Lake Nipissing 



Census Pro- 
Returnsi testant. 



26 
90 
673 
436 
640 
480 
125 
226 
385 
394 
357 

154 

303 

168 

83 

42 

242 

255 

1,076 

129 

724 

188 

34 



165 

247 

110 

152 

21 

70 

875 

204 

24 

359 
203 
53 
513 
253 
357 
327 

177 

171 

568 

HI 

153 

50 

98 

97 

150 

79 

87 

119 

189 

165 



436 
610 
470 
125 
213 
364 
272 
215 

154 

303 

168 

83 

41 

242 

255 

1,076 

129 

724 

180 

34 



94 
148 



30 



52 





177 




171 


71 


459 


31 


90 




124 




50 




98 


82 


15 




150 


79 




39 


26 


72 


47 


53 


136 





165 



Roman 
Catholic 



244 



* Religion \xnknown. 

[part i] 



90 



13 

21 

122 

142 



36 
165 
247 

16 





21 


15 


55 




875 




204 


18 


341 


40 


143 




53 



150 
253 
275 

275 



Pagan. 



24 



20 
333 

"82' 



22 



Denomination 
of Schools. 



1 Roman Catholic. 

Protestant, 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 

do 
do 
do 
do 

do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



Roman Catholic. 

do 
Protestant, 
do 

Roman Catholic, 
do 
do 



do 

do 

do 
Protestant. 
Roman Catholic. 



Roman Catholic. 

do 
Protestant. 
Prot. and R. C. 
Roman Catholic. 

do 
Protestant. 

do 
do 
do 
do 
Roman Catholic. 



! 



i 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Tabular Statement ISTo. 3. — Census Return of Resident and I^omadic Indians ; 
Denominations to which they belong, &c. — Continued. 

PROVINCE OF ONTARIO— Conc^uc^cc/. 



I 



Indians. 


Census 
Return. 


Pro- 
testant. 


Roman 
Catholic 


Pagan. 


Denomination 
of Schools. 


Ojibbewas of Lake Huron, at— 

Temogamingue 

Dokis 

Garden River 


90 

61 

423 

360 

X 3,440 

* 98 


■ '149' 

22 

2,592 


90 

61 

274 

338 


"" 790' 


Prot. & R. Catholic. 


Batchewana Bay 

•Six Nations on the Grand River 

Wyandotts of Anderdon 


Roman Catholic. 
13 Protestant. 










Total 


17,915 


9,681 


6,007 


1,372 









PROVINCE OE QUEBEC. 



A benakis of St. Francis ... 

do Becancour 

Algonquin s of — 

Desert 

Temiscamingue 

South Pontiac. 

North do 

Bigelow, Wells, Blake, McGill, County of 
Ottawa 

Beauman, Villeneuve, County of Ottawa 



I 



Mulgrave, Derry 

Ste. Angelique 

Hart well 

North Nation 

River Rouge, North 

Hull, City 

Hull 

Gatineau, Village 

Wright 

Aumond 

Unorganized Territory 

Argenteuil 

Shefford 

Bagot 

Danville, Village 

Victoriaville 

St.Medard 

Megantic 

LTslet 

Beauce 

Kamouraska 

St. Timothee 

Cdteau Landing, Village. 

St. Urbain . 

Point au Pic, Village ... 

St. Joachim 

Quebec, City 

do County 

Chaiiiplain 

Montreal, City. . 

Laval 

Rimouski 

St. Sylvestre 

Three Rivers 

Stanstead 

Montcalm 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



Religion unknown. 

58 Non-denominational. 



PART I 



I 



377 
47 

448 

133 

1,028 

1,028 

14 

1 

15 

6 

25 

11 

31 

3 

5 

1 

8 

1 

320 

24 

2 

1 
2 

8 
1 
2 

21 
2 
2 
2 
4 
4 
4 
1 
5 

33 
379 

13 
1 

39 
2 

IJ 

9 


70 
3 


307 
47 

445 
133 




-;;- 






„. 






* 











•i;- 




. . . 


* 






■i:- 






* "■■■" 










* 






* 






■s;- 


















,i 






* 

* "... . 












«- 






* ... 






* 

■sc- 










* 






* 






* 






■i:- 






* 







-;;- 






* 












-;;- 







1 Prot., 1 R. C. 
1 Roman Catholic. 

Roman Catholic, 
do 



•245 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Tabular Statement 'No. 3. — Census Return of Resident and ]S"omadic Indians^ 
Denominations to which they belong, &c. — Continued, 

PROVINCE OF QUEBEC- Conc^urfed. 



PROVINCE OF NEW BRUNSWICK. 



Indians. 


Census 
Return. 


Pro- 
testant. 


Roman 
Catholic 


Pagan. 


Denomination 
of Schools. 


Algonqiiins of — 

Joliette 


1 

53 

7 

18 

174 

10 

2 

73 

111 

299 

1,767 

1,202 

375 

71 

101 

448 

393 

54 

40 

304 

403 

158 

2,860 

353 


■jf 






Berthier 


* 










* 








Maskinonge , . . 









St. Maurice 




Compton 

Portneuf . . 


* 

* 
* 

4" 

21 

85 

225 








Anialecites of Temiscouata. 








do Viger 

Hurons of Lorette 


iii 

295 
1,746 
1,117 

" 150 




1 RriTYia.Ti Catholic. 


Iroquois of Caughnawaga 


2R. C.. IProt. 


do St. Regis . 

do and Algonquins of the Lake of Two 

Mountains 

Micmacs of Gaspe 

do Maria . . 

do Restigouche 

Montagnais of— 

Betsiamits 




1 Prot., 4 R. C. 

2 do 




46 

4" ' 


101 

448 

393 
54 
40 
304 
357 
158 


i 

1 ....... . 


1 Roman Catholic, 
1 do 


Escoumains 

Godbout 

Grand Romaine 

Lake St. John 

Mingan 


1 do 


Seven Islands 


1 


353 










Total 


13,361 


454 


6,559 





PROVINCE 


OF NOVA SCOTIA. 






Micmacs of - 












Annapolis 


67 




67 






King's County , 


73 




73 






Queen's 


81 




81 






Lunenburg . . 


58 




58 




1 Roman Catholic. 


Halifax 


110 




110 





1 do 


Hants 


182 




182 






Colchester 


100 




100 






Cumberland ... 


60 




60 






Pictou 


189 
169 




189 
169 






Antigonish and Guysboro' 




Richmond 


240 




240 




1 do 


Inverness 


137 




137 




1 do 


Victoria 


140 




140 




1 do 


Cape Breton 


178 




178 




1 do 


Yarmouth 


80 




80 






Shelburne 


58 




58 






Digby 


154 




154 

2,076 




1 do 


Total 


2,076 





Micmacs of — 

Restigouche 

Gloucester 

Northumberland 

246 



31 

27 
394 



31 

27 
394 



2 Roman Catholic. 



PART l] 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Tabular Statement No. 3. — Census Return of Resident and [N'omadic Indians ; 
Denominations to which they belong, &c. — Continued. 

PROVINCP] OF NEW BRUNSWICK— Conc^urfed. 



Indians, 


Census 
Return. 


Pro- 
testant. 


Roman 
Catholic 


Pagan. 


Denomination 
of Schools. 


Micmacs of— 

Kent 

W^estinoreland . 


313 
74 

38 
189 
84 
29 
14 
328 

1,521 







313 
74 

38 
189 
84 
29 
14 
328 

1,521 






Amalecites of — 




Victoria 

Carleton . . - 

Charlotte 

St. John 

York, Sunbury, King's and Queen's County. 

Total 


1 Roman Catholic. 

2 do 





PROVINCE OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 




Micmacs 


314 


314 




1 Roman Catholic. 



PROVINCE OF MANITOBA AND THE NORTH-WEST TERRITORIES. 



Chippewas and Crees of Treaty No. 1. 
do do 2. 



Chippewas and Saulteaux do 3 

Chij^pewas, Saulteaux and Crees of Treaty No, 4. 

do do 5. 

Plain and Wood Crees do 6t 

Blackfeet do 7. 

Resident Sioux^^ 

Stragglers in the vicinity of Maple Creek, Medi- 
cine Hat and Swift Current* 



Total 



Peace River District 

Athabasca do 

McKenzie do 

Eastern Rupert's Land 

Labrador, Canadian Interior. 
Arctic Coast 



2,427 

692 

2,892 
4,501 
3,081 
.5,400 
5,217 
755 

230 


1,328 
357 

610 
1,105 
2,414 

1,857 
571 


461 

183 

237 

888 

71 

2,178 


638 
152 

2,045 

2,508 
596 
886 

4,646 














25,195 

2,038 
8,000 
7,000 
4,016 
1,000 
4,000 


8,242 

* 


4,018 


11,471 


* 






* 






* 






* 







7 Prot. ; 4 R. C. 
4 do 2 do and 

2 Gov' 
11 Prot. ; 2 R. C. 

8 do 4 do 
13 do 

16 do 14 do 
11 do 3 do 



PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. 



WEST COAST AGENCY, 

Ahhousaht 

Clao-qu-aht 

Chaic-cles-aht . 

Ehatt-is-aht 

Emlh-wilh-laht 

Hosh-que-aht 

Howchuk-lis-aht 

Kel-seem-aht 

Ky- wk-aht 

Match-itl-aht 

Mooach-aht 

Nitten-aht 

Nooch-alh-laht 

Oi-aht 

Opitches-aht = 

Pacheen-aht 

Too-qu-aht 

Tsesh-aht 



Total 2, 



274 

256 

130 

112 

179 

210 

41 

88 

470 

67 

214 

197 

105 

199 

66 

81 

22 

153 



693 



693 



2,171 



2,171 



2 Roman Catholic. 



t Religious belief of 479 Indians not given. 

[part i] 



Religious belief not given. 



247 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Tabular Statement l^o, 3. — Census Return of Resident and I^omadic Indians 
Denominations to which they helong, &c. — Continued. 

PROVINCE OF BRITISH COIjUMBI A- Concluded. 



Indians. 



ERASER RIVER AGENCY, 



Assylitch 

Burrard Inlet, Reserve No. 

Capitano Creek 

Cheani 

Chehales 

Co-qua-piet 

Coquet-lane 

Cla-hoose 

Douglas 

Ewa-hoos 

Em- Alcorn 

False-Creek 

Haisting's Saw Mills . . . . 

Harrison Mouth 

Hope , 



Katsey 

Langley 

Matsqui 

Mission — Burrard Inlet 

Misqueam . . . . 

New Westminster . . 



Ohamille 

Pemberton Meadows . . . , 

Popkuni 

Semiahmoo 

Schurye 

Sechelt 

Skokale 

Skowall 

Skukum Chuck 

Skulteen 

Seymour Creek 

Squah 

Squattets 

Squamish — Howe Sound. 

Sliammon 

Slumagh 

Squehala . . 

Squeam 

Sumas, No. 1 

do No. 2 

do No. 3 

Syuay 

Texes Lake 

To-ylee 

Tsonassan 

Wadington Harbour 

Whonock 

Yak-y-you 

Yale 



Total 



Census 


Pro- 


Return. 


testant. 


26 


26 


26 




74 




135 




129 


23 


30 




39 




97 




116 




56 




76 




70 




75 


33 


57 




135 




67 




98 




60 




240 




126 


26 


99 




35 




77 


21 


180 




22 


22 


59 




26 




237 




44 


29 


61 




118 




125 




37 




90 




73 


27 


209 


49 


252 




79 




25 


11 


41 




26 


8 1 


48 


16 


57 


57 


60 


20 


40 




56 


40 


67 




84 




72 




77 


32 


130 


30 


4,338 


470 



Roman tj„„„„ 
Catholic ^^^^"• 



26 

33 

135 

106 

30 

39 

97 

116 

56 

7-6 

62 

"57' 

135 

67 

98 

60 

240 

100 

99 

35 

56 

180 



59 

26 

237 

15 

61 

118 

125 

12 

90 

46 

115 

252 

79 

14 

41 

18 

32 



40 
40 
16 
67 
84 
72 
45 
100 

3,707 



41 



25 



45 



161 



Demomi nation 
of Schools. 



1 Roman Gatholi 



1 Protestant. 



1 do 

1 Roman Catholic. 
1 Protestant. 
1 do 



1 Roman Catholic. 
1 Church of England. 



248 



[part i] 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Tabular Statement JSTo. 3. — Census Return of Resident and J^omadic Indians 
Denominations to Avhich they belong, &c. — Continued. 

PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA- Con^/uwrt/. 



Indians. 


Census 


Protes- 


Roman 


Pagan. 


Denomination 


Retur-n. 


tant. 


Catholic 


of Schools. 


KAMLOOPS AGENCY. 












Chataway 

ChomoK 


10 





10 






23 

120 


23 








Chukchuqualk 


120 






Haliiha 


8 


8 








Halaut. 


127 




126 


1 




Haltkum. . . 


139 




137 


2 




Hlukhlukatan 


72 


70 





2 




Kamloops 


225 




225 




1 Roman Catholic. 


Kamus 


56 


40 





16 




Kapatsitsan 


35 


30 


5 






Kekalus 


21 


18 


3 






Kittsawat . . . . .... 


16 
64 


8 


62" 


8 

2 




Kuaut 




Mpaktam. 


9 


9 








Nepa 


20 


10 




10 




Nesikeep 

Nhumen . 


33 


33 








21 


19 




2 




Nikaomin 


26 


24 




2 




Nkaih , 


2 

99 






2 
2 




Nkatsam 


97 






Nkumcheen 


81 


76 




5 




Nkya 


45 


43 




2 




Nquakin 


48 


46 




2 




Paska 


12 
45 


12 
44 








Piminos and Pakeist 




1 




Shahshanih 


87 


84 




3 




Siska -. 


33 


20 




13 




Skaap 


13 


13 








Skappa 


20 


18 




2 




Skichistan 


67 




67 






Skuwha . , 


10 
64 




10 
64 






Skuzzy 




Snahaini 


13 


13 









Spapiuni 


24 


22 




2 




Spaptsin 


20 


20 








Speyam 


20 


16 




4 




Spuzzam 


129 


90 


37 


2 


• 


Stahl 


58 


58 








Strynne 


51 


48 




3 




Sunk 


^ 19 


19 








Tikumcheen 


148 


100 


45 


3 




Tluhtaus , 


L34 




134 






Tquayaum 


124 


60 


60 


4 




Yout . . . . 


10 


10 
















Total 


2,401 


1,201 


1,105 


95 








COVVICHAN AGENCY. 








Che-eino 


72 
75 




1 




Comea-kin 






Clem-clemalats 


144 


The majority have been 




Coniox 


46 


baptized into the Roman 




Cowichan Lake 


12 


Catholic Church. Many 




Discovery Island 


29 


attend R. C. Missions, 




Esquimalt 


24 


Wesleyan and English 
Church, as they may feel 




Galiano Island . . 


20 




Hel-lalt 


35 


inclined ; but a very 




Hatch Point 


3 


large number attend no 




Kil-pan-hus .... 


15 


church whatever, and 




Kee-nip-saim , 


65 


are, in fact, pagans. 




Kok-si-lah 


29 






1 


PART l" 








249 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Tabular Statement 'So. 3. — Census Return of Resident and !N'omadic Indians ; 
Denominations to which they belong, &c. — Continued. 

PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA— Continued. 



Indians. 


Census 
Return. 


Protes- 
tant. 


Roman 
Catholic 


Pagan. 


Denomination 
of Schools. 


COWICHAN AGENCY— Concluded. 
Tiul-leets , 


78 
15 
56 
22 
18 

179 
53 
69 

114 
45 

275 

26 

5 

39 

11 

100 

136 
30 
83 
49 
31 
45 

2,048 








, 


Ll-mal-ches 










Lyach-sun 

Mala-hut ... . 

















Mayne Island . . 


















Newcastle Toronsite 

Pan-que-chin 



















Punt-ledge 




















Qual-i-cum , 

Saturna Island 




























Sno-uo-wus. . . 




















Songhees. . . , . 










Sooke 




















Tsart-ilp 

Tse-kum 


















Tsussie 










Total 


127 








KWAWKEWLTH AGENCY. 

A.li-kno\v-ali-niisli 


127 

150 

80 

26 

50 

37 

55 

75 

164 

1S4 

163 

94 

147 

139 

67 

101 

123 


1 Protestant. 


Kose-kenioe. . ... 




150 
80 
26 




Klah-wit-sis 


so' 

37 

55 

75 






Kwawt-se-no 

Kwaw-she-la 

Kwaw-kewlth 


I2 do 


Kve-ah-kah 

Mateelpi . , 












164 
134 




Na-knock-to . 








Nini-keesh 


163 




1 do 






94 
147 




Ta-nock-teuch 








Tsati-waw-ti-neuch 


139 




1 do 


Waw-lit-sum, Saich-kioie-tachs 

We-wai-ai-kum do 


67 
101 
123 






We-wai-ai-kai do 




Total 


1,732 


646 


291 


795 




OKANAGAN AGENCY. 

Chu-chu-way-ha 

Ker-e-meus . . 

Na-aik 


64 
60 
99 
29 

165 
15 

131 
23 
26 
40 


"53 


62 
58 
40 
29 

110 
15 

131 
23 
26 
40 


2 
2 

6 

■■■55' 


• 


Nkam-ip 

Nkam-a-plix . 




Nzis-kat 




Quin-sha-a-tin 

Quis-kan-aht 

Shen-nos-quan-kin , 





250 



[part i] 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Tabular Statement ISTo. 3. — Census Eeturn of Resident and Nomadic Indians ; 
Denominations to which they belong, &c. — Continued. 

PROVINCE or BRITISH COLUMBIA— Con^mucc/. 



Indians. 


Census 
Return. 


Protes- 
tant. 


Roman 
Catholic 


Pagan. 


Denomination 
of Schools. 


OKANAGAN AG¥.J:iC\— Concluded. 

Spa-ha-min 

Spal-lam-cheen 

Zoht 


151 
63 
12 




114 
60 
11 


37 
3 
1 




Total 


878 


53 


719 


106 




WILLIAM'S LAKE AGENCY. 

Alexandria. 

Alkali Lake 

Anahim 

Anderson Lake 

Bridge River. 


51 

154 

188 

105 

84 

139 

35 

9 

37 

10 

204 

39 

45 

93 

58 

40 

56 

98 

66 

100 

55 

137 




9' 

40' 


51 
154 
188 
105 

84 
139 

35 

37' 

10 
204 
39 
45 
93 
58 

56" 
98 
66 

100 
55 

137 






Canoe Creek 




Cayoosh 

Cheewack 

Clinton 




Dog Creek 

Fountain 




High Bar 

Kaninim Lake 

Lillooet 




Pavillion 

Pashilquia ..... 

Quesnelle 

Seton Lake 

Soda Creek 




Stone 

Toosey's Tribe : 




William's Lake 




Total 


1,803 

106^ 

159 1 

41 } 

312 1 

78 j 


49 


1,754 






KOOIENAY AGENCY 

Columbia Lake 

Flatbow 

Kinbaskets (Shuswap Tribe) 


... .. 


696 






St. Mary 

Tobacco Plains 




Total 


696 




696 






NORTH-WEST COAST AGENCY. 

Aiyansh 

Bella Bella 


66 

243 

215 

99 

93 

635 

216 

75 

28 

104 

200 

211 


66 

243 

30 

20 

93 

635 

216 






1 Protestant. 






1 do 


Bella Coola 

China Hat 

Clew 




185 
79 


1 do 


Fort Simpson 






2 do 


Kincolith 






1 do 


Kittak 

Kitangataa 




75 

28 

104 

185 

114 




Kitwint-shieth 








Kitlach-damak 

Kithkatla 


15 
97 




1 do 



PART 



251 



55 Victoria. 



Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 



A. 1892 



Tabular Statement No. 3. — Census Return of Resident and Il^omadic Indians ; 
Denominations to which they belong, &c. — Continued. 

PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA— Co7ic^wc/ec^. 



Indians. 


Census 
Return. 


Protes- 
tant. 


Roman 
Catholic 


Pagan. 


Denomination 
of Schools. 


NORTH-WEST COAST AGENCY— Continued. 
Kitha-ata . . . . ... 


.77 
52 
89 

284 
97 

111 
69 

153 

407 

159 
46 

193 
54 
25 

4,001 

163 
55 
49 
47 
36 

237 
36 
61 
93 

141 
85 
84 

235 

295 
14 

150 
23 
67 
91 
80 

151 
68 

136 

105 
53 
90 


77 
52 
34 
284 
97 

69' 

153 

407 

13 








Kitchem-kalem 




'.'.'''''''. 




Kitsalass 

Kitamatt . . . . 


1 Protestant. 


Kitt-lope 


1 do 


Kinisqnitt ....... 

Lack-al-sap (Greenville) . . . . 




Ill 


1 do 


Metlakahtla 






1 do 


Massett 






1 do 


0-^yee-kay-no 




146 
46 




Skidegette and Gold Harbour 




193 




1 do 


Tallium 

Wil-skish-tum, Wilwilgett. 




54 
25 




Total 


2,794 
18' 

si" 

43 

49 


163 
55 
49 
47 

36' 
61 
93 



;;;;;;;; 


1,207 




BABINE AND UPPER SKEENA RIVER AGENCY. 

Babine 


■ '36' 
219 



■ ■ ■ iio 

85 

41 

186 

295 

12 




Carriers 

Eraser's Lake 

Fatchee . . 

Gal Doe 

Git-an-max (Hazelton) 

Grand Rapids 

Ha-anees (Stuart's Lake) 

do (Bear's Lake) 

Kit-wan-ragh.. 

Kit-wan Cool 

Kitse-gukla 

Kits-pioux 

Kiss-ge-gaas 

Kit-khsuns 

Lach-al-sap 

Lake Connelly Carriers 

Laketown 

McGood'sLake 

Pond du Lac 

Port Babine 


1 do 

1 do 

1 do 
1 do 




2 

150 

23 

67 

91 

80 

151 

68 

136 

105 

53 

90 


■ 

i